Love and Ecstasy in Anwar's Taman and Stevenson's Romance
LOVE AND ECSTASY
IN ANWAR’S TAMAN AND STEVENSON’S ROMANCE
1. Andi Kurniawan
2. Apriati Amlian
3. Pintaria Anggreiny Br. Sitepu 2105111080
ENGLISH LITERATURE DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF CULTURAL SCIENCE
YOGYAKARTA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
LOVE AND ECSTASY
IN ANWAR’S TAMAN AND STEVENSON’S ROMANCE
Apriati Amlian, Andi Kurniawan, and Pintaria Anggreiny Br. Sitepu
Yogyakarta University of Technology
I. THEORETICAL BASES
Charles Dickens in his A Chrismast Carol stated, “I wear the chain I forged in life....I made it link
by link, and yard by yard; I girded it on of my own free will, and of my own free will I wore it.”
It shows his
belief on human being‟s freedom of life. Human is free to determine what he wants and also free to
express what he feels. Feeling expression can be love expression. According to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket
Dictionary, love is strong feeling of deep affection for somebody/something. Elaine Hatfield and Richard L.
Rapson gave a short definition that love is a basic emotion.
In Love and Intimacy, Hatfield and Rapson said that most scientists distinguish love into two
kinds: passionate love and compassionate love. The first kind of love, passionate love, is defined as a
state of intense longing for union with another. This love is sometimes also called as obsessive love,
puppy love, lovesicknes, infatuatuin, or being-in-love. Passionate love is characterized by intense
emotions, sexual attraction, anxiety, and affection. This love refers to transitory love or short-time love.
The second kind of love, compassionate love, is defined as the affection and tenderness men and women
feeling for those with whom their loves are deeply entwined. This love is sometimes called as true love or
conjugal love. It is a feelings combination of deep attachment, commitment, and intimacy.
Robert Sternberg (via Regan, 2002: 4) said that there are three basic components of love based
on his trianglular theory of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Intimacy is primarily emotional or
affective in nature and involves feelings of wamth, closeness, connection, and bondedness in the love
relationship. Passion is motivational and consists of the drives that are involved in romantic and physical
attraction, sexual comsummation, and related phenomena. Commitment is largely cognitive and
represents both the short-term decision that one individual loves another and the longer term commitment
to maintain that love. Sternberg classified the types of love relationship into eight types: nonlove, liking,
infatuation, empty love, romantic love, companionate love, fatuous love, and consummate love. Nonlove
has no love components. Liking, infatuation, and empty love have only one love component. Romantic
love, companionate love, and fatuous love are combinations of only two love components. Consummate
love is the complete love which has all love components. For clear explanation, below is Sternberg‟s
Triangular Model of Love.
Picture 1. Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love
Based on Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love, compassionate love refers to consummate love
relationship and passionate love refers to all types of love relationship which have no, only one, or only
two components of love. Nevertheless, passionate love as transitory love more refers to romantic love
relationship. Romantic love has passion and intimacy elements without commitment. As Hatfield said that,
ideally, passionate love leads to compassionate love. Hatfield and Rapson, in their further explanation
about love response, said that reciprocated love is associated with fulfillment and ecstacy and unrequited
love is associated with emptiness, anxiety, or despair.
Love, in his relation to literature, is one of the common theme besides friendship, war, mistery,
and revenge. Love becomes an universal theme in literature in almost all countries in the world. According
to Claudio Guillén (via Pramono, 2013), basically the concept of literature is world wide; local and
universal. A comparatist gets drowned into these locality and universality to gain complete comrehension
because specifying exclusively in one nation or one nationality is not adequate and cannot be sustained
as a practical matter. Francois Jost (via Eckhardt, 2006) said that whoever is concerned with the
international rather than nationalistic mode of the study of the letters is practicing comparative literature.
The universal value appears as the values that are accepted around the world. Both locality and
universality are still exist together in a universal value.
Two poems from different countries titled Taman by Chairil Anwar of Indonesia and Romance by
Robert Stevenson of United Kingdom also tell about love. Those poems can be the authors‟ love
expression and show ecstasy and fulfilment. Those poems refers to show that the authors have
compassionate love in their life. This paper tries to analyse and compare the love relationships that are
exist in those two poems by Hatfield and Rapson‟s theory of love and the Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of
Love; and also to find the universal value which is exist in both poems.
II. THE POEMS
By Chairil Anwar
Taman punya kita berdua
tak lebar luas, kecil saja
satu tak kehilangan lain dalamnya.
Bagi kau dan aku cukuplah
Taman kembangnya tak berpuluh warna
Padang rumputnya tak berbanding permadani
halus lembut dipijak kaki.
Bagi kita bukan halangan.
dalam taman punya berdua
Kau kembang, aku kumbang
aku kumbang, kau kembang.
Kecil, penuh surya taman kita
tempat merenggut dari dunia dan „nusia
By Robert Stevenson
I will make you brooches and toys for your delight
Of bird−song at morning and star−shine at night.
I will make a palace fit for you and me,
Of green days in forests and blue days at sea.
I will make my kitchen, and you shall keep your room,
Where white flows the river and bright blows the broom,
And you shall wash your linen and keep your body white
In rainfall at morning and dewfall at night.
And this shall be for music when no one else is near,
The fine song for singing, the rare song to hear!
That only I remember, that only you admire,
Of the broad road that stretches the roadside fire
Anwar‟s Taman consists of one stanza only and fourteen lines, while Stevenson‟s
Romance consists of three stanzas and twelve lines or four lines each stanza.
a. Type and Love Elements
Love is distingushed into two kinds: compassionate love and passionate love. To
determine what type of love that is exist in both poems, element analyses must be done. Three
elements of love based on Sternberg‟s Triangular Model of Love, are intimacy, passion, and
Intimacy is primarily emotional or affective in nature and involves feelings of
warmth, closeness, connection, and bondedness in the love relationship. Oxford Learner‟s
Pocket Dictionary said that imtimacy is state of having a close personal relationship with
somebody. The close meaning of intimacy is closeness relationship between someone to
other one. Anwar‟s Taman shows the intimacy between the author and his love with
pronoun “kita” or “we, our, us” that mentioned three times. First line stated “Taman punya
kita berdua” or “Garden, owned by us;” eighth line stated “Bagi kita bukan halangan” or
“For us, not a hidrance;” and thirteen line stated “Kecil, penuh surya taman kita” or “Small,
full of sun, our garden.” Kita replaces the words “kau dan aku” or “you and me” that also
appears once in forth line which stated “Bagi kau dan aku cukuplah” or “For you and me,
enough”. Those words, kita and kau dan aku shows their closeness. They have their own
garden which only for them. It is stated twice in first line and tenth line. First line stated
“Taman punya kita berdua” or “Garden, owned by us” and tenth line stated “dalam taman
punya berdua” or “in the garden that we have”. Those line show that they have something
together. Garden is a house for them both. It is for they spend their rest of life. It is stated in
last line. Fourteenth line stated “tempat merenggut dunia dan „nusia” or “place of yanking
out from the world and humans”. That line shows that they want to live there till they die.
Those proves show their intimacy. Having something together shows their warmth relations
and there is bondedness between them. Moreover, the thing that they own together is for
their future till they die. It shows their intimacy clearly.
Stevenson‟s Romance also shows the intimacy between the author and his love.
Desires of the author stated three times in two first-stanzas. First line of first stanza stated “I
will make you brooches and toys for your delight”, third line of first stanza stated “I will
make a palace fit for you and me,” and first line of second stanza stated “I will make my
kitchen, and your shall keep your room,”. Those lines show the intimacy between them both.
The author wants to do something to make his life happy (first stanza) and asked his love to
do other things when he is doing something (second stanza). Those desires will only stated
by someone who has close-relation to someone else. The author wants are for his love
based on third line of first stanza which shows that is only for them both. It is similar to
Anwar‟s Taman that used word “you and me.” Third line of first stanza stated “I will make a
palace fit for you and me,”. That line shows their intimacy of having a place together. While
Anwar used taman or garden, Stevenson used palace. Each place is owned by them both.
Stevenson‟s palace also refers to a house to spend their rest of life. It shows in forth line of
second stanza which stated “In rainfall at morning and dewfall at night.” The words
rainfall-dewfall and morning-night symbolize the eternity of their love relationship.
Passion is motivational and consists of the drives that are involved in romantic and
physical attraction, sexual comsummation, and related phenomena. According to Oxford
Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, passion is strong feeling of love, hate, anger, etc. Anwar‟s
Taman shows its author‟s passion clearly in eleventh and twelfth lines. Eleventh line stated
“Kau kembang, aku kumbang” or “You‟re flower, I‟m the bee”, twelfth line stated similar
phrases in different arrangement “aku kumbang, kau kembang” or “I‟m bee, you‟re the
flower”. Those resemble lines show passion between the author and his love. Bee and
flower need each other. Bee always interests to a flower.
While Anwar used “bee” and “flower” to show passion in his love relationship,
Stevenson shows that in different way. Stevenson who wants to make a palace for he and
his love, automatically places he as the king and his love as the queen. As a king of his love
kingdom, he has responsibility to keep the kitchen full of foods; as a queen of him, his love
should keep the palace clean and prepare what he needs at home. Those shows in second
stanza. The passion completely shows in third line that stated “And you shall wash your
linen and keep your body white”. The phrase keep your body white shows his passion to
his love. He wants his love is still beautiful as before. His wants that aksed his love to do or
prepare something at home also shows the passion itself. As a woman, they must do that
for her man (the author). That clearly shows the passion in their love relationship.
Commitment is largely cognitive and represents both the short-term decision that
one individual loves another and the longer term commitment to maintain that love.
According to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, commitment is something that you have
promise to do. Anwar‟s Taman shows the commitment in third line, eighth line, and fourteen
line. Third line stated “satu tak kehilangan lain dalamnya” or “one doesn‟t lost other one
there”. It shows the commitment that they will be there for his love and vise versa. Eighth
line stated “Bagi kita bukan halangan” or “For us, not a hidrance”. It shows the commitment
that they will pass everything for their life together. It is supported by previous line that
stated about the simplicity of their garden (house). Fourteen line stated “tempat merenggut
dunia dan „nusia” or “place of yanking out from the world and humans”. It shows
commitment that they will be together till they die there. The other supporting lines is
eleventh and twelfth
line which tell us about role sharing between them. It is also
commitment that is exist on their love relationship.
Stevenson‟s Romance shows the commitment in two last-stanzas. Second stanza
tells about role sharing, as like as in Anwar‟s Taman. The author will do what usually a man
do and his love will do what usually a woman do. That shows their commitment in their love
relationship. Third stanza clearly stated the commitment in their love relationship. The third
line stated “That only I remember, that only you admire,”. That line shows what they should
remember together. Previous lines tell about what it is. It is about the rules that they have to
keep. First and second line stated “And this shall be for music, when no one else is near,”
and “The fine song for singing, the rare song to hear!” It means that when they have no
friend anymore, they must be motivated each other. Music symbolizes motivation that can
be a belief, quotes, etc. Second line shows that they must get motivation carefully. Fine
song symbolizes something that is usual happened or done, so it can be followed (singing)
by them. Rare song symbolizes something that is unusual happened or done, so it cannot
be followed directly but be paid close attention first (hear). Singing symbolizes direct action
and hear symbolizes postponed action or neatness. They must hear to know the right
meaning and sing then. Those lines are closed by “Of the board road that stretches the
roadshire fire.” It means that they must always remember those rules because of the
benefits. It will bring them easy of life (broad road) and make them easier to pass the test of
life (fire). Those proves shows that both poems shows the commitment that is exist on the
love relationship of the authors.
The element analyses above shows that both poems, Taman by Chairil Anwar and
Romance by Robert Stevenson, have all elements of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment.
It means that type of love that exist in both poems is compassionate love or consummate love
As stated by Hatfield and Rapson that reciprocated love is associated with fulfillment
and ecstacy and unrequited love is associated with emptiness, anxiety, or despair. Both poems
show the reciprocated love that will lead the lovers to feel fulfilment and ecstasy. There is no
emptiness, anxiety, and despair in both poems. Fulfilment comes first and will make someone
feels very happy or ecstasy. Ecstasy, according to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, is
feeling of great happiness. In this case, esctasy is from the love feeling. That feeling is
preceded by fulfilment. Anwar‟s Taman shows the fulfilment in forth line that stated “Bagi kau
dan aku cukuplah” or “For you and me, enough”. That shows the fulfilment clearly. The
previous line is about the garden (house) that is not large (second line). Following lines also
show the fulfilment. Fifth stated that the garden has flower with no much colour. It means that
the accessories of their house is not much. Sixth line stated that the garden has no grass as
smooth as carpet. It means that the floor is not from an expensive material. Those conditions
does not make them sad because it is enough for them and it is not a hidrance. It is stated in
forth and eighth line. From the feeling of fulfilment, the feeling of ecstasy appears. It is stated in
last line that said that they decided to stay there till they die.
Stevenson‟s Romance shows the fulfilment clearly in third line of first stanza. It is
stated “I will make a palace fit for you and me” That line clearly said that the palace will be
fited for them both. It means that the palace has everything that they need to stay alive. It is
supported by the previous and following line. The previous line stated that the brooches and
toys will be made from bird-song at morning and star-shine at night. It means that the
accessories of the palace (their house) will be never used up. Bird-song and star-shine is from
nature. Morning-night is symbol of eternity or continueity. The following line shows that the
palace is also made from nature. It stated “of green days in forest and blue days at sea”. Green
and blue is the colours that symbolize the life, while forest and sea simbolyze the resource. It
means that their needs will be fulfiled there. The ecstasy comes up after fulfilment is complete.
This poem also shows that the love brings the ecstasy.
The ecstasy is also showed in the titles. Both poems are titled Taman and Romance.
Taman in English means garden. Chairil Anwar choose this word to create the nuance of
happiness. According to Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI), taman adalah kebun yang
ditanami dengan bunga-bunga dan sebagainya (tempat bersenang-senang). It means that
taman is a place of getting happiness. This shows that Chairil Anwar gives the title to tell about
his happiness that comes from love. In the body of the poem, Chairil Anwar expresses his love
by describing the place that he called taman or garden and his feeling of ejoying the love. While
Chairil Anwar chooses the word taman, Robert Stevenson chooses the word romance.
According to Oxford Learner‟s Pocket Dictionary, romance is  feeling of excitement and
adventure, and  love or the feeling of being in love. This shows that Robert Stevenson
choose this word to create the excitement. The excitement itselft shows in the body of the poem
which tells us about his love expression. Both poets choose the titles to create the nuance of
happiness or exitement which comes from their love story. The great feeling of happiness is
c. Universal Value
The places which are described dominantly are taman in Chairil Anwar‟s Taman and
palace in Robert Stevenson‟s Romance. Taman in Chairil Anwar‟s poem is described as a
place to spend his rest of life. Chairil Anwar describes that the taman is not large but enough
for them. It shows in 2 , 3 , and 4 line. It also describes that they can enjoy live there. Taman
in that poem is theirs which shows togetherness. The taman refers closely to the house as their
place to spend their life. Chairil Anwar does not use the word house but something that comes
from nature. Taman is described as a house where grass is the floor, flowers as the
accessories, and sky as the roofs. That‟s all showed in 5 , 6 , and 7 line. The word Taman
that is described in his poem is symbol of freedom. The poem was created in 1943. It is two
year before Indonesia got its indepence or freedom.
While Chairil Anwar chooses taman, Robert Stevenson chooses palace as his place
to spend his life together with his love. The palace is describe as a place that is built from
nature. It shows in 4 line. The palace is built from the green forest and blue sea. Similar to
Chairil Anwar who expresses that the place is fit enough for them, so does Robert Stevenson. It
is stated in 3
line. Eventhough both poets choose the place which come from nature, they
choose different word. Chairil Anwar chooses taman or garden and Robert Stevenson chooses
palace. When we look at their society background, Robert Stevenson who is from Britain where
the kingdom is still exist and Chairil Anwar is from Indonesia where kindom is not exist fully
anymore. It shows their own locality based on their country or cultural backgound.
Both poets also show their ways of love expression are simple but precious. Chairil
Anwar mainly tells about taman which shows that their love is expressed by what is exist
around them. Taman who has grass as the floor, flower as the accessories, and sky as the roof
describes that he expresses his love by something simple which are nature but it is precious
because it is used for their life. Similar to Chairil Anwar, Robert Stevenson also describes that
he uses the nature to express his love. He built a place for he and his love from forest and sea
which he calls as palace. He also makes several things from nature for his love. It shows in 1
line where are stated that the brooches is made of bird−song at morning and toys is
made of star−shine at night.
Those two poems shows similar type of love, that is compassionate love based on
Hatfield and Rapson‟s theory of love or consummate love relationship based on Sternberg‟s
Triangular Model of Love. Those poems shows all elements of love: intimacy, passion, and
commitment. Those two poems also show the fulfilment which brings ecstasy, so it is categorized
as reciprocated love. It can conclude that love will bring great happiness or called ecstasy for the
lovers if they can reach the true love. There must be understanding, trust, and role sharing
between one to other one.
Those two poems show that the authors expresses their love, as the universal value, use
what they have in the world. In other words, nature is the sources of their way of love expression.
The other things that we can learn from those poems is that we can express our love by something
simple but precious and it can be from everything that we have or exist around us.
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