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Lecture 3 being creative and generating solutions


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Lecture 3 being creative and generating solutions

  1. 1. 4006ME Engineering Problem Solving Lecture 3 – Being Creative and Generating Solutions
  2. 2. Calendar You Are Here
  3. 3. 9 Dot Problem <ul><li>Draw four or fewer straight lines, without lifting the pen from the paper, that will cross through all nine dots. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 9 Dot Problem <ul><li>Draw four or fewer straight lines, without lifting the pen from the paper, that will cross through all nine dots. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Today’s Lecture <ul><li>Consider techniques to encourage creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Consider techniques for generating ideas </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sketch of a Reflecting Telescope by Isaac Newton
  7. 7. Drawing of a light bulb from Thomas Edison’s notebook 1880
  8. 8. A page from Charles Darwin’s note book showing the beginnings of one of the most revolutionary ideas in science and philosophy – the tree of evolution
  9. 9. BLOCKS <ul><li>Part 1: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rescuing a Table Tennis Ball <ul><li>Two pipes, which serve as pole mounts for a volleyball net, are imbedded in the floor of the gym. </li></ul><ul><li>During a game of Table tennis, the ball accidentally rolls into one of the pipes because the cover was not replaced. </li></ul><ul><li>The pipe diameter is 4mm bigger than the ball, which is resting at the bottom of the pipe. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rescuing a Table Tennis Ball <ul><li>You are one of six people in the gym, along with the following objects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 9m extension cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A carpenters hammer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A chisel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bag of crisps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A wire coat hanger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A flash light </li></ul></ul>10 MINUTES
  12. 12. Types of Block <ul><li>Perceptual – Stereotyping, Imposing limits, information overload </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional – Fear of risk taking, Hate chaos, Judging rather than generating ideas, Lack of challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural – Social taboo </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cultural an example... <ul><li>The subject of toilets is a taboo in much of Western society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research shows that all traditional toilet bowls are too high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideally people should assume a lower squatting position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An American company designed a new lower bowl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In spite of the obvious medical advantages it was rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cultural block was too great </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Block <ul><li>Environmental – Distractions, Facebook, Mobile, PS3, Xbox </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual – Lacking technical knowledge, Afraid to ask for help </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive – The inability to communicate your ideas </li></ul>
  15. 15. GENERATING IDEAS <ul><li>Part 2: </li></ul>
  16. 16. Morphological Charts
  17. 17. Mindmaps
  18. 18. Brainstorming <ul><li>Comments that reduce brainstorming to braindrizzling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That wont work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its not our job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t have enough time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s too much hassle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We cant solve this problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.......................... </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Osborn’s Checklist Adapted from: Felder, R.M., ‘Creativity in Engineering Education’. Chemical Engineering Education , 22(3), 1988. Adapt? ................... How can this (product, idea, plan, etc.) be used as is? What other uses could it be adapted to? Modify? .................. Change the meaning, material, colour, shape, odour, etc.? Magnify? ................ Split up? Take something out? Make lighter, lower, shorter, etc.? Substitute? ............. Who else, where else or what else? Other ingredient, material or approach? Rearrange? ............ Interchange parts? Other patterns, layouts? Change positives to negatives? Turn it backwards or upside down? Combine? ............... Combine parts, units, ideas? Blend? Compromise?
  20. 20. Bissociation <ul><li>Arthur Koestler invented this term to distinguish the type of analogical thinking that leads to the acts of great creativity from the more pedestrian associative (purely logical) thinking, with which we are so familiar in our everyday lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Victor Papenek helped to develop the following approach to aid creativity. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bissociation <ul><li>Object to be designed/ problem listed to the left of a vertical line </li></ul><ul><li>On right 6 - 7 response nouns, arbitrarily selected </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions discovered put on right and classified as follows: </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bissociation <ul><ul><li>Now – a product / system that can be made immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-5 Years – a concept not quite ready for production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5-10 Years – a longer term solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R & D – a reasonable solution that requires further work by RD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gimmicks / others – an idea results nothing to do with the product in question </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Bissociation - Example
  24. 24. Bissociation - Example
  25. 25. Bissociation - Example
  26. 26. Lateral Thinking <ul><li>View from someone/thing else’s perspective </li></ul><ul><li>If an adult, look as a child </li></ul><ul><li>If a designer, look as the end-user </li></ul><ul><li>If an engineer, look as the machine </li></ul>