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Personal Neuro Devices Inc.
Outline1) Regular EEG – basic primer2) Mechanisms behind EEG – how it works3) Current uses of EEG4) Future direction of EE...
1) Regular EEG – basicprimerfor Device  determining what  areas on the surface  of the brain are  displaying activity Us...
Action potential
2) Mechanisms behind EEG: how itworks            Neurons always produce                                    electrical act...
3) Current uses of EEG   Medical diagnostics in a    lab or clinic     Epilepsy     Brain death testing     Sleep diso...
Current uses of EEG                                               Continuous                                             ...
Current uses of EEG   Neurofeedback     Patients trained to      directly alter their      EEG output     Still experim...
Example of a neurofeedback game tailored to young children with ADHD
Current uses of EEG   Brain function research, when some or all of the following are    required:     High temporal reso...
4) Future direction of EEG MEG  is considerably better than EEG for most of EEG’s current uses  Cost and device size is ...
Future direction of EEG                                 However, MEG is not                                  the end for ...
5) Personal EEG   EEG has become    more accessible to the    general public in    recent years                          ...
Mindflex
Personal EEG   3 companies making    programmable EEG    platforms - primarily for    the purpose of brain-    computer i...
Personal EEG  OCZ Technology’s  Neural Impulse  Actuator  ○ Weakest of the    customizable    commercial BCI    headsets ...
Neural Impulse Actuator in use
Personal EEG                                               Emotiv Inc.’s EPOC                                            ...
6) Limitations of current personalEEG  Complete focus on   brain-controllers,   rather than gaining   information about t...
Personal Neuro Devices:      Introspect
7) Introspect   Will be commercially    available     Lower cost     Marketed to public   Truly portable     Active e...
Introspect                       Level of sensitivity                        equivalent to Emotiv                        ...
How active electrode system works – stepwise (very simplified):1) Removes noise caused by circuits themselves2) Ups voltag...
8) Potential uses - Epilepsy   Epilepsy     Advance seizure detection      ○ Prevention of secondary injuries      ○ Sto...
Importance of being in a safe location and position when a                      seizure begins
Potential uses - Epilepsy Assess severity of  seizure  ○ Automatically contact      emergency services if      over a cer...
Potential uses - stroke                                                       Tissue plasminogen                          ...
Potential uses – Mood-tracking   Algorithms to detect mood from    EEG signals already exist     Currently a bit weak, b...
Potential uses –Neurofeedback   As discussed earlier, potentially a useful treatment    for a variety of mental disorders...
Potential uses - sleep                                 Will allow daily tracking                                  of slee...
Potential uses - sleep Could aid in diagnosis of:  ○ Sleep disorders  ○ Mental disorders that    involve sleep disruption...
Potential uses - research   The list of mental    phenomena that could be    examined by a portable EEG    device is endl...
Potential uses - research   It could also determine the external validity of    laboratory and clinic-based EEG research ...
9) In conclusion...   EEG’s future value lies in its portability     As its price drops, MEG likely to slowly replace EE...
References   MacDonald, P. E., Rorsman, P. (2006). Oscillations, intercellular coupling, and insulin secretion in pancrea...
   Caat, M. T., Lorist, M. M., Bezdan, E., Roerdink, J. B., & Mauritis, N. M. (2008). High-Density EEG Coherence    Analy...
   Yuasa, T., Higuchi, S., Maeda, A., & Motohashi, Y. (1998). Usefulness    of computer-assisted portable EEG recorder fo...
Development of portable eeg for treatment & diagnosis of disorders
Development of portable eeg for treatment & diagnosis of disorders
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Development of portable eeg for treatment & diagnosis of disorders

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The development of inexpensive mobile EEG (a type of neuroimaging) devices for the treatment and diagnosis of mental and neurological disorders. Potential uses: 1) long-term brain-activity based tracking of mood, anxiety, and concentration levels, 2) prediction of seizures and strokes; 3) portable 'neurofeedback' therapies: exercises that provide methods to change internal states for the positive, based on EEG readings of neural activity; 4) improving sleep via monitoring; 5) research on "real-world" brain data; 6)etc...

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Development of portable eeg for treatment & diagnosis of disorders

  1. 1. Personal Neuro Devices Inc.
  2. 2. Outline1) Regular EEG – basic primer2) Mechanisms behind EEG – how it works3) Current uses of EEG4) Future direction of EEG5) Current state of personal EEG, and its limitations6) Demo of personal EEG device7) Introspect (portable personal EEG)8) Potential uses of Introspect9) Conclusion (and summary)
  3. 3. 1) Regular EEG – basicprimerfor Device determining what areas on the surface of the brain are displaying activity Uses electrodes placed around the scalp to pick up electrical activity produced by neurons in the brain  Action potentials
  4. 4. Action potential
  5. 5. 2) Mechanisms behind EEG: how itworks  Neurons always produce electrical activity  When excited, neural membrane transport proteins pump ions through cell membrane  Biggest effect in action potential  Released ions then push nearby ions in extracellular fluid  Continues indefinitely, in waves  These waves eventually reach the scalp, where they can be detected through their magnetic A membrane transport protein “push” on the metal of the electrodes  Called volume conduction
  6. 6. 3) Current uses of EEG Medical diagnostics in a lab or clinic  Epilepsy  Brain death testing  Sleep disorders  Photosensitivity  ADHD  Narcolepsy  Various brain cancers Coma patient being tested for brain  Encephalitis death
  7. 7. Current uses of EEG  Continuous monitoring for seizures in ICU  Depth of anaesthesia monitoring  Evaluation of head injuries  Finds white matter damageEEG bispectral index monitor for monitoring  Finds brain regions brain activity during surgery that have become isolated
  8. 8. Current uses of EEG Neurofeedback  Patients trained to directly alter their EEG output  Still experimental  Used to a small degree for epilepsy, depression, addictive disorders, and anxiety  Primarily used for treating ADHD ○ Easiest use, as beta waves are strongly associated with attention EEG wave patterns, from top to bottom: beta, alpha, theta, stage 2 sleep, and delta (stage 4 sleep)
  9. 9. Example of a neurofeedback game tailored to young children with ADHD
  10. 10. Current uses of EEG Brain function research, when some or all of the following are required:  High temporal resolution – allows for study of the stages of brain processing, rather than just the activity that results at the end of a task  Study of subjects unable to give direct responses  Monitoring of sleep  Longer-term monitoring than is feasible with fMRI  Study in an environment other than a clinic or lab EEG in use at a sleep lab
  11. 11. 4) Future direction of EEG MEG is considerably better than EEG for most of EEG’s current uses  Cost and device size is all that prevents MEG from entirely supplanting A magnetoencephalography EEG for these particular (MEG) device purposes, but this is dropping
  12. 12. Future direction of EEG  However, MEG is not the end for EEG  Not every use of EEG can be replaced by MEG  Also, two new major directions EEG is currently taking that no other existing neuroimaging MEG could never be used in technique could go: research like this ○ Personal neuroimaging ○ Portable neuroimaging
  13. 13. 5) Personal EEG EEG has become more accessible to the general public in recent years Mindflex  Much lower quality than professional equipment ○ However, other advantages I can lift a ball! $100 well spent.  Most simply use EEG as a component in certain toys and games ○ Jedi Force Trainer ○ Mindflex
  14. 14. Mindflex
  15. 15. Personal EEG 3 companies making programmable EEG platforms - primarily for the purpose of brain- computer interfacing, each with one major device on the market  Neurosky’s Think-Gear ○ Simple device for lay Neurosky’s Think-gear public and software developers ○ 6 electrodes
  16. 16. Personal EEG  OCZ Technology’s Neural Impulse Actuator ○ Weakest of the customizable commercial BCI headsets ○ Only 3 electrodes ○ Not really EEG, though marketed as such Neural Impulse Actuator
  17. 17. Neural Impulse Actuator in use
  18. 18. Personal EEG  Emotiv Inc.’s EPOC Neuroheadset ○ More advanced  16 electrodes ○ Still a BCI ○ Still primarily for games and software ○ However, more conducive to therapeutic Paraplegic using Emotiv to move wheelchair applications
  19. 19. 6) Limitations of current personalEEG  Complete focus on brain-controllers, rather than gaining information about the user  Lose connection easily  Not really portable  Small number of For the look that screams “don’t electrodes bother talking, I’m reading your  Clunky thoughts directly”, why not pick up a Neurosky Mindset?
  20. 20. Personal Neuro Devices: Introspect
  21. 21. 7) Introspect Will be commercially available  Lower cost  Marketed to public Truly portable  Active electrodes ○ Improves resolution, sensitivity, resistance to movement noise  Exterior mesh that clips to a series of hats ○ Hiring fashion design company to make For all you know, Indiana Jones catalogue of hats to fit over could be wearing a portable Introspect EEG device
  22. 22. Introspect  Level of sensitivity equivalent to Emotiv  Modified 10-20 electrode placement system  Open-source API  Applications open to creation by outside developers  Easier to hydrate electrodes  Will run tubes through arms attaching to electrodes; pressing pump will transport 10-20 system fluid to back of electrode pads – will soak through
  23. 23. How active electrode system works – stepwise (very simplified):1) Removes noise caused by circuits themselves2) Ups voltage of incoming signals in relation to one another (multiplies differencesbetween nearby electrode inputs) – makes signal larger without distorting waveform3) Rejects all wavelengths known not to be associated with EEG information (whichrepresent some sort of noise)4) Microcontroller in electrode transmits binary data corresponding to wave inputs5) Base unit receives signal, and sends it through USB to the portable device
  24. 24. 8) Potential uses - Epilepsy Epilepsy  Advance seizure detection ○ Prevention of secondary injuries ○ Stop seizure before it hits  Early drug administration, IE midazolam  Electrical stimulation ○ Effective algorithms already exist  Autoregressive models and support vector machines Midazolam – the most - Can get 100% sensitivity, low false alarm popular emergency rate antiepileptic Schematic representation of combined SVM and AR model seizure prediction system
  25. 25. Importance of being in a safe location and position when a seizure begins
  26. 26. Potential uses - Epilepsy Assess severity of seizure ○ Automatically contact emergency services if over a certain severity level [check-in sys] Track quantity of seizures, pre-seizure states, and potential triggering factors ○ Would allow elimination of Emotional stress is implicated in 30- 66% of seizures reported by epileptics triggering factors ○ [life-tracking software; diet, etc info; find trigs]
  27. 27. Potential uses - stroke Tissue plasminogen activator – protein stucture [clot-breaker; admin alot kills stroke clot] Advance detection of strokes  Early detection massively mitigates damage caused by strokes ○ Administering tissue plasminogen activators within the first 3 hours will dissolve the stroke-inducing clot, immediately stopping the stroke  Minimizes brain damage  Monitoring could be done on high-risk populations [geriat pops]
  28. 28. Potential uses – Mood-tracking Algorithms to detect mood from EEG signals already exist  Currently a bit weak, but ever- improving [*SVN, algorithms] Use in bipolar disorder, depression  Self-report method already used ○ NIMH Life Chart ○ Adjective Mood Scale ○ Etc.  Used in: ○ Diagnosis [always low=depr; high pers=BP] ○ Symptom management  Insight, prep, meds Automating mood tracking would increase adherence, and remove the potential confounding factors inherent in a self-rating system Mood-tracking graph from Introspect software demo [*Impr]
  29. 29. Potential uses –Neurofeedback As discussed earlier, potentially a useful treatment for a variety of mental disorders  Especially ADHD Increase opportunity for neurofeedback  Huge hurdles to using the therapy: number of required sessions and cost  Portable device could allow patients to do neurofeedback daily on their own, incr rate of progress [& cost] Could allow incorporation of neurofeedback into daily life  Small alarms to inform user of problematic thought patterns, excessive anxiety states, wandering attention, etc. [Caveat: effective?]  Neurofeedback when walking or waiting ○ Possibly more persistent benefits if done as a daily exercise?
  30. 30. Potential uses - sleep  Will allow daily tracking of sleep quantity and quality  Sleep quality detection algorithms are at a relatively high level  Already similar commercial products ○ Sleeptracker, Zeo Personal Sleep Coach, etc.  Advantage of Introspect: it Zeo Personal Sleep Coach will integrate it with other functions ○ Search for relationships between sleep quality and levels of attention, mood, anxiety, etc.;
  31. 31. Potential uses - sleep Could aid in diagnosis of: ○ Sleep disorders ○ Mental disorders that involve sleep disruptions Will also include neurofeedback application to help chronic insomnia sufferers train their thinking to help induce sleep ○ However, more evidence required Chronic insomnia
  32. 32. Potential uses - research The list of mental phenomena that could be examined by a portable EEG device is endless:  Formation of autobiographical memories – this is impossible in the lab  Minute-to-minute fluctuations in mood in those with mental and neurological disorders, and in the general population  Naturalistic social interaction, outside the artificial constraints inherent in social research in the lab Autobiographical memory formation could easily be studied in this circumstance with a  Average level of activation of portable EEG device particular areas of the brain on a day-to-day basis  etc.
  33. 33. Potential uses - research It could also determine the external validity of laboratory and clinic-based EEG research  Combined with studies correlating EEG with fMRI, MEG and PET activity, it could determine the external validity of the entire field of neuroimaging A combined fMRI-EEG device
  34. 34. 9) In conclusion... EEG’s future value lies in its portability  As its price drops, MEG likely to slowly replace EEG for all uses requiring no portability Many potential uses for portable EEG  Advance seizure and stroke detection  Tracking of mood disorders  Neurofeedback that can be done on a daily basis and incorporated into day-to-day life  Tracking of sleep quality and quantity that can be used in conjunction with other measures for diagnostic purposes, and for the treatment of sleep disorders  Diagnosis of multiple mental disorders  Research EEG technology in the process of being commercialized  Multiple consumer EEG devices already released – IE Emotiv, Neurosky Thus, the time is right for the release of a portable consumer EEG device  Currently in development by Personal Neuro Devices, under the working title Introspect
  35. 35. References MacDonald, P. E., Rorsman, P. (2006). Oscillations, intercellular coupling, and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. PLoS Biol, 4(2): p9 Tatum, W. O., Husain, A. M., & Benbadis, S. R. (2008). Handbook of EEG Interpretation. Demos Medical Publishing. Niedermeyer E. and da Silva F.L. (2004). Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields. Lippincot Williams & Wilkins. Rubboli, G., Parra, J., Seri, S., Takahashi, T., & Thomas, P. (2004). EEG diagnostic procedures and special investigations in the assessment of photosensitivity. Epilepsia, 45(s1), 35-39. Appleton, R., Macleod ,S., Martland ,T. (2008). Drug management for acute tonic-clonic convulsions including convulsive status epilepticus in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4: CD001905 Randell T. (2004). "Medical and legal considerations of brain death". Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 48 (2): 139–144 Wijdicks EF. Determining brain death in adults. Neurology. 1995 May; 45(5): pp.1003-11 Kupfer, D. J., Foster, F. G., Coble, P., McPartland, R. J., and Ulrich, R. F. (1978). The application of EEG sleep for the differential diagnosis of affective disorders Am J Psychiatry 1978; 135:69-74 Otto, K. A. (2008). EEG power spectrum analysis for monitoring depth of anaesthesia during experimental surgery; Lab Anim , 42: pp. 45-61. Sterman, M.B., & Friar, L. (1972). Suppression of seizures in an epileptic following sensorimotor EEG feedback training. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 33 (1): 89–95 Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning". Clin Electroencephalogr, 31 (1): 45–55. Hammond, C. D. (2005) Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression and Anxiety." Journal of Adult Development, 12 (2-3): 131-137. Gastaut, H. (1952). Etude electrocorticographique de al reactivite des rhytmes rolandiques. Rev Neurol , 87(2): 176–182 Sny-der et al. (2008). Blinded, multi-center validation of EEG and rating scales in identifying ADHD within a clinical sample. Psychiatry Research, 159: 346–358
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