You are going to interpret how the artist of today’s cartoon was inspired by history.WHO ARE ALL OF THE PEOPLE / WHAT DO THEY DO?Hand out sheet…have students answer in groups or 2 or three (think-pair-share esque)
REFRESHER FROM YESTERDAY….IdealizedMoralCaringBothPassive/aggressiveImperialisticCharismatic “Real”SlimyMore aggressive than passiveWants his way
Roosevelt served two terms as President, the first from 1901 to 1905 when he finished William McKinley’s term due to McKinley’s assassination six months after he took office. The second, 1905 to 1909, was his only elected term. He deliberately chose not to run for a third consecutive term in the 1908 election, supporting William Howard Taft over his own Vice President Charles Fairbanks.Taft won the election, but TR would soon fall out with the successor he had picked. Although Taft prosecuted more trusts than Roosevelt had, as a lawyer and judge he believed any such actions to be the role of the judiciary. Roosevelt was disappointed with what he saw as Taft’s do-nothing administration.
WHAT IS THIS CARTOON TRYING TO SAY?Who is pictured?What are some symbols?Why is Taft a Sheep?What is the artist trying to say?Taft was just a puppet of Roosevelt?Do you think it stayed that way?At first, Taft just looked like a puppet of Roosevelt's….but that changed soon enough with Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy.
WHAT DO YOU REMEMBER ABOUT TAFT?In 1908, the Republican Convention nominated him as their presidential candidate. He won the first election of his career by a comfortable margin. As Presidenthe initiated:80 anti-trust suitsamendments for a federal income tax;the direct election of senatorsa postal savings system. He also pursued "Dollar Diplomacy" in the less-developed nations of Latin America and Asia.Despite Taft’s hard work, he alienated many in his party. He defended an act which continued high tariffs; a trade agreement with Canada failed, and his team was accused of failing to carry out Roosevelt's conservation policies. He lost the next election and became Chief Justice of the USA. He was so happy with this post that just before he died in 1930, he wrote: "I don't remember that I ever was President.”
Dollar Diplomacy is the effort of the United States—particularly under President William Howard Taft—to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.From 1909 to 1913, President William Howard Taft and Secretary of State Philander C. Knox followed a foreign policy characterized as "dollar diplomacy." Taft shared the view held by Knox (a corporate lawyer who had founded the giant conglomerate U.S. Steel) that the goal of diplomacy should be to create stability abroad, and through this stability promote American commercial interests.The United States felt obligated, through the Dollar Diplomacy, to uphold economic and political stability. Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy not only allowed the United States to gain financially from countries, but also resisted other foreign countries from reaping any sort of financial gain. Consequently, when the United States benefited from other countries, other world powers could not reap those same benefits. Overall the "Dollar Diplomacy" was to encourage and protect trade within Latin America and Asia.
If you shove money into it, it will get better.TAFT CALLED IT: SUBSTITUTING DOLLARS FOR BULLETS.Not only was the goal of diplomacy to improve financial opportunities, but also to use private capital to further U.S. interests overseas. "Dollar diplomacy" was evident in extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean and Central America, especially in measures undertaken to safeguard American financial interests in the region.In China, the Taft Administration secured the entry of an American banking conglomerate, headed by J.P. Morgan, into a European-financed consortium financing the construction of a major railway. In spite of successes, "dollar diplomacy" failed to counteract economic instability and the tide of revolution in places like Mexico, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua
SMARTBoardPUT THIS IN YOUR NOTESROOSEVELTBelieved that Americans were superior people destined for supremacy in economic and political affairs. In order for this to happen, Americans had to strive for greatness, cultivate mental fitness, build military force, and prepare to fight - MILITARYInternational relation expert: understood that U.S. can not rule every portion of the globe through military or economic reforms. Believed in a balance of power among the industrial nations through negotiation rather than war. Such a balance would enable each imperial power to safe guard its key interest and contribute to world peace and progress. – ALSO NEGOTIATIONHad little patience with claims to sovereignty of small countries or the human rights of weak people. In his eyes, the peoples of Latin America, Asia (with the exception of Japan) and Africa as racially inferior and incapable of self-government or industrial progress. – AMERICA IS BEST – WE NEED TO WORRY ABOUT USWanted to dominant Western Hemisphere. Warned European powers from interfering in U.S. interest (Monroe Doctrine). PAN-AMERICAN TAFTHad experience in dealing with imperialist rivals such as Japan as Roosevelt’s secretary of war, but lacked Roosevelt’s grasp of balance of power politics and capacity for leadership in foreign affairs. – LESS CARISMA His conduct of foreign policy focused on expanding opportunities for corporate investment overseas (Dollar Diplomacy). – LESS MILITARY MORE MONEYTaft believed that U.S. investments would effectively substitute “dollars for bullets,” and thus offer a more peaceful and less coercive way of maintaining stability and order. No need to flex military muscle to show off U.S. power like Roosevelt. – PEACEFULL(er)Try to expand American economic activities in China which encroached on the Japanese sphere of influence which angered them so they signed a friendship treaty with Russia to exclude U.S. goods from Manchurian markets. -$$$
TAFTHe was a lawyer by trade and was Roosevelts Sectary of War.His administration initiated:• 80 anti-trust suits• amendments for a federal income tax• the direct election of senators• a postal savings system "I dont remember that I ever was President.”
DOLLAR DIPLOMACY“policy aimed at furthering the interestsof the United States abroad byencouraging the investment of U.S.capital in foreign countries.”• Supported by the Taft Administration.• “A policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interests abroad” (Appleby 2008, 509)• Less emphasis was placed on military involvement and more on helping foreign industry.• Centered upon the idea that if American business leaders supported Latin American development, everyone would benefit.
SUBSTITUTINGDOLLARS FOR BULLETSTaft believed that with DollarDiplomacy, Latin America would rise outof poverty and social disorder.• CHINA • The Taft Administration secured the entry of an American banking conglomerate, headed by J.P. Morgan, into a European-financed consortium financing the construction of a major railway.• NICARAGUA • Taft used dollars and bullets. • Civil unrest forced the Nicaraguan president to appeal for greater assistance than just American loans. • The Marines arrived in 1911, and American troops stayed to support the government until 1925.
ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES:• Imperialism Setting the scene – Annexing Hawaii• The Navy and American Influence Abroad Imperialism Continues at Sea• Beginning of The Spanish-American war The Birth of a World Power• The Spanish-American War Battling Overseas, Results, and Implications for Imperialism• Theodore Roosevelt Big Sticks and the Panama Canal• From Roosevelt to Taft Progressive Presidencies - Diplomacy