This will just be on the screen before hand. I don’t think it has to be fancy, it’s what the students are used to. COLLECT YELLOW JOURNALISM HOMEWORK.
We looked at written journalism as a source of propaganda. These videos are just another example of what the American public yearned for as America readied for war.ABOUT CLIPS:http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sawhtml/sawsp2.html Soon after their invention, motion pictures became a popular attraction in vaudeville and variety stage venues. Events such as the Spanish-American War increased the movies' popularity, since films of the war sparked great interest and patriotism in theater-goers. Their interest was certainly strengthened by the press which exploited the events occurring in Cuba in order to attract a larger circulation. Sensationalist stories of Spanish atrocities abounded in the newspapers and encouraged motion picture producers to take advantage of a potentially lucrative situation.The films of the Spanish-American War in the Library of Congress' collections are from two companies, the Edison Manufacturing Company and the American Mutoscope & Biograph Company, both of which played a prominent role in filming subjects related to the war.After riots broke out in Havana, Cuba, in January 1898, the battleship U.S.S. Maine was sent there to safeguard American interests, although the Secretary of the Navy, John D. Long, insisted that it was only making a friendly call. A mysterious explosion destroyed the Maine on February 15, 1898, while in the Havana Harbor. Although the cause of the explosion was unknown, the American public soon became consumed with "war fever," blaming the Spanish in Cuba for the attack.Cameramen Billy Bitzer and Arthur Marvin were sent almost immediately by Biograph to Cuba to film events related to the increasing tensions. There they filmed the wreckage of the Maine and other motion pictures in Havana. Other Biograph film crews were sent to Washington, D.C., to film ships, cavalry, and Theodore Roosevelt. The resulting motion pictures proved very popular to vaudeville audiences who were eager to see views of the situation.QUESTIONS1. What is bias?2. How do you determine if a source is credible?
Get out your organizers from yesterday…we are going to go through it and look at the causes of the Spanish-American War…..WHAT WAS GOING ON IN CUBA? unrest violenceCuba was one of Spain’s oldest colonies. Cuba generated considerable profit for Spain with its sugar plantations. Cuba wanted independence and in 1868 rebels launched a guerrilla war against Spanish authorities. The Rebels lost, but there was a resurgence of rebellious ideas in the 1890sWhat is a Guerilla war?A “surprise” tactic – irregular warfare – small groups – ambushes – raids - mobilCuba was offered autonomy if they would have remained part of the commonwealth of Spain. WHAT IS AUTONOMY?Self-run governmentThey refused
The US and Cuba were linked economically by the 1890s.America invested approximately $50 million in sugar plantations, mines, and railroads.Why did America want to protect Cuba? Pan-Americanism America wanted to protect the “west” our “new frontier” Maybe America could get a new territory?DO YOU THINK AMERICA COULD HAVE HANDLED LOSING ITS INVESTMENT IN CUBA? WHY OR WHY NOT?
Sent by McKinleyBlew upWAS IT OK FOR MCKINLEY TO SEND IT IN THE FIRST PLACE?WHAT IS JINGOISM? Aggressive nationalism strong pride in ones own country
Before we talk about the MAINE…we should remember this man…..A MEDIA MOGUL.THERE WERE CERTAINLY PICTURES.
In January 1897 the US sent a warship, the USS Maine, to Cuba under captain Charles D. Sigsbee. The Maine's mission was purportedly friendly, its job to investigate the situation in Cuba and provide an escape for Americans if things get out of hand. The surprised Spanish, who had only been given a few hours notice that the Maine was coming, were quite upset. Although the Maine claimed to be on a friendly mission, it was a powerful warship. The Spanish authorities felt that the US was trying to intimidate them and was interfering with Spanish sovereignty. POWER AS A COUNTRY
On February 15, 1898, in an event that still remains a mystery, the Maine suddenly exploded as it sailed around Havana harbor. This was a tragedy for the United States, as 260 out of 350 American sailors and officers died in the explosion. Hearst's newspaper immediately published a story with the headline, "The Warship Maine Was Split In Two By An Enemy's Secret Infernal Machine!'' The destruction of the Maine created an uproar in America, which, influenced by Hearst, immediately held Spain responsible. THE PUBLIC BLAMED SPAIN.
-Sensationalistic-Over-exaggerated-made-up-made to sell-like a tabloidHow is this like or not like todays media?
The yellow press exploited this story, the explosion of the MAINE, whipping the US into an anti-Spanish frenzy. Newspaper circulation soared as the public demanded war with Spain. War would come, and when it did, the cry of "Remember the Maine" would be heard frequently.What does sensationalist mean? “subject matter, language, or style producing or designed to produce startling or thrilling impressions or to excite and please vulgar taste.”William Randolph Hearst understood that a war with Cuba would not only sell his papers, but also move him into a position of national prominence. From Cuba, Hearst's star reporters wrote stories designed to tug at the heartstrings of Americans. Horrific tales described the situation in Cuba--female prisoners, executions, valiant rebels fighting, and starving women and children figured in many of the stories that filled the newspapers. Today, historians point to the Spanish-American War as the first press-driven war. At the dawn of the twentieth century, the United States emerged as a world power, and the U.S. press proved its influence.
Where was the Spanish-American War Fought? We will discuss this soon….but right now you guys are going to work together in small groups to decide together where you think the most logical place or places to fight would be.ARRAGE IN GROUPSThere should be six groups or four and one group of three if all students are presentStudents will be places in groups based on their seating arrangementREMIND STUDENTS:Don’t move until I saw goUse inside voicesListen to each otherEveryone should record the groups answers and thoughtsThese worksheets will be turned in…but don’t worry about “wrong answers” Each student will get a worksheet and should be instructed to fill it out completely. There name will be on the top and they should list their group members as well. Students should be told that wrong answers are OK…this is just to see their thought process and critical thinking skills.
Collect worksheets for grading and begin short discussion with whole class.Circle with SMARTboard Cuba and the Philippians to point them out as the places we will be talking about today!
HAND OUT NOTESHEETWhere’d we leave off last time? MAINE exploded….the American people blame Spain…..on the brink of WAR….YELLOW JOURNALISM HOMEWORK SHOULD BE TURNED IN ALREADY.In response, Congress authorized Republican President William McKinley to spend $50 million for war preparations. McKinley faced tremendous pressure to go to war. Within the Republican Party, jingoism – aggressive nationalism – was very strong. Many Democrats also demanded war. Finally, on April 11, 1898, McKinley asked Congress to authorize the use of force.On April 19, Congress proclaimed Cuba independent, demanded that Spain withdraw from the island, and authorized the president to use armed force if necessary. In response, on April 24, Spain declared war on the United States.The navy’s North Atlantic Squadron blockaded Cuba, and Commodore George Dewey, American naval squadron based in Hong Kong, was ordered to attack the Spanish fleet based in the Philippines. The Philippines was a Spanish colon, and American naval planners wanted to prevent the Spanish fleet based there from sailing eat to attack the United States.
Four American ships in the squadron opened fire and rapidly destroyed eight of the severely outgunned Spanish warships.Dewey's quick victory took McKinley and his advisers by surprise. The army was not yet ready to send troops to help Dewey. Hastily, the army assembled 20,000 troops to sail from San Francisco to the Philippines. On the way, the Americans also seized the island of Guam, another Spanish possession in the Pacific.While waiting for the American troops to arrive, Dewey contacted Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino revolutionary leader who had stared an unsuccessful uprising against the Spanish in 1896. Aguinaldo quickly launched a new rebellion against the Spanish. While the rebels took control of most of the islands, American troops seized the Philippine capital of Manila. Causing DRAMA with eventual colonization possibilities.
The Spanish in Cuba were not prepared for the war. Tropical diseases and months of fighting rebels had weakened their soldiers. Their warships were old and their crews poorly trained. Both sides knew that the war would ultimately be decided at sea. If the United States could defeat the Spanish fleet, Spain would not be able to supply its troops in Cuba. Eventually they would have to surrender.The US Army was not prepared for war either. Although there were many volunteers, the army lacked the resources to train and equip them. After the declaration of war in April, the Spanish fleet was quickly sent to Cuba. The ten boats in the Spanish’s command were in truly horrible condition. Of the 10 rotting ships, only 7 actually made it to Cuba. The other 3 had to be abandoned along the way. Despite the rather pathetic nature of the Spanish fleet, Americans on the Eastern seaboard became very frightened of a potential Spanish invasion of the US. Eventually, Cervera's decrepit fleet limped into Santiago harbor in Cuba, where they were blockaded by the US Navy. With the Spanish fleet contained, the US planned a landing of the US Army, which would then attack the Spanish from the rear. The US had absolutely no experience fighting in the tropics, and the unprepared US Army showed up in Cuba with vast supplies of wool clothing. Better equipped for the job in Cuba were the famous "Rough Riders", a ragtag group of volunteers fighting for the US. Most of them were cowboys, but all kinds of colorful characters, from the wealthy thrill-seekers to former criminals, found their way into the unit, which was commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood. The Rough Rider officer best remembered, however, was no doubt Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt, ever a fan of strenuous activity and competition, had resigned his post as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to fight in the war. Roosevelt had absolutely no military experience, and the military had even had to bend some rules to let him in with his terrible nearsightedness. Keeping enough glasses on hand for Roosevelt, so he could still see if the ones he was wearing broke, was a difficult task. US forces landed at Santiago without having to fight the Spanish, as the Spanish proved even more confused than the Americans. On July 1, 1898, the first major land battles of the war were fought at El Caney and at San Juan Hill. The Battle of San Juan Hill was famous because the "Rough Riders", walking since many of their horses did not arrive in Cuba, charged up the hill. The battle was soon immortalized in a Frederic Remington painting (mentioned earlier in the Commentary on Yellow Journalism. The US won both battles, though the "Rough Riders" suffered heavy losses. Roosevelt, for his part, enjoyed himself immensely, and even shot a Spanish soldier. These battles proved decisive.Among the American troops advancing toward Santiago was a volunteer cavalry unit from the American west. They were a flamboyant mix of cowboys and law officers know as “rough Riders.” Colonel Leonard Wood commanded them with Theodore Roosevelt as second in command.America took a giant leap toward success in the war.
Now that the war was almost over, the US quickly moved to occupy Spanish-owned Puerto Rico. On August 12, 1898, the Spanish signed an armistice ending the fighting.
On December 10, 1898, the US and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. Why do you think it was called the Treaty of Paris? negotiations took place in ParisAs American and Spanish leaders met to discuss the terms for a peace treaty, American debated what to do about their newly acquired lands. Cuba would receive its independence as promised, and Spain had agreed to the US annexation of Guam and Puerto Rico. The big question was what to do with the Philippines. The United States faced a difficult choice – to remain true to its republican ideas or become an imperial power that ruled a foreign country without the consent of its people. The issue sparked an intense political debate.
President McKinley refused to just give the islands back to Spain, an act he felt would be a cowardly betrayal of the Filipino people. The Spanish, however, had a legitimate complaint. Since it took so long for US ground troops to reinforce Dewey, the actual surrender of Manila, the capital of the Philippines, took place after the American-Spanish armistice was signed. Technically, the US should have stopped all fighting, so the Spanish claimed that the US conquest of the Philippines did not count. The American negotiators offered the Spanish a deal: $20 million dollars for the Philippines. The Spanish accepted this offer.The US decided to annex the Philippines, in order to "educate and Christianize" the Filipinos. The ultimate goal was to eventually make the Philippines independent, once it was "ready" for self-government. No specific timetable for independence was provided, however.IN 1946, THE UNITED STATES GRANTED INDEPENDENCE TO THE PHILIPPINES
The United States had promised to grant Cuba its independence….but McKinley took steps to ensure that Cuba would be tied to the United States….The Cubans added the amendments to their constitution….making it an American protectorate….until it was repealed in 1934The US still has land in Cuba – Guantanamo Bay
Day 4 power point
WELCOME!You will not need your textbook today!
NEWS MEDIA WAS EVERWHERE! Similar to now? Soon after theirinvention, motionpictures became apopular attraction in vaudeville and variety stage venues.
A TURNING POINT TOWARD WARPROTECTINGAMERICANINVESTMENTS
A TURNING POINT TOWARD WAREXPLOSION OFTHE MAINE
WILLIAM RANDOLPHHEARSTNewspaper publisher and leadingexample of a yellow journalistNew York Journal started a publichysteria for war with Spain bypublishing dramatic articles andillustrationsHearst once said "You provide thepictures and Ill provide the war.”
MISSION OF THEUSS MAINE• “Friendly”• President McKinley sent the USS MAINE to investigate the situation in Cuba and provide an escape for Americans.• Spanish authorities in Cuba felt that the US was trying to intimidate them and was interfering with Spanish sovereignty.
EXPLOSION• February 15, 1898• Still a mystery!• The media and the public tended to blame the Spanish
YELLOW JOURNALISM“Sensationalist reporting, inwhich writers oftenexaggerated and even madeup stories to attract readers”(Appleby, page 497).
THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WARBATTLING OVERSEAS, RESULTS, ANDIMPLICATIONS FOR IMPERIALISM
WHERE IN THE WORLD WASTHE WAR FOUGHT?• You will be placed in groups• Please don’t move into your groups until I say: “Go!”• Listen to each other.• Use inside voices and be malleable in thought.• Each member will fill out his/her own worksheet to be turned in• Don’t be afraid of making wrong answers – we’re looking for your critical thinking and ideas! Facts are for later.
THE DECLARATIONOF WAR• Congress authorized Republican President William McKinley to spend $50 million for war preparations• On April 19, Congress proclaimed Cuba independent, demande d that Spain withdraw from the island, and authorized the president to use armed force if necessary. President McKinley
WAR MOVES FORWARDThe navy’s North AtlanticSquadron blockaded Cuba, andthe American naval squadronbased in Hong Kong, wasordered to attack the Spanishfleet based in the Philippines.• Four American ships in the squadron opened fire and rapidly destroyed eight of the ten severely outgunned Spanish warships.• Captain Dewey was left waiting for American support troops.
IN CUBAThe Spanish in Cuba were notprepared for the war. Tropicaldiseases and months offighting rebels had weakenedtheir soldiers.The US Army was not preparedfor war either. Although therewere many volunteers, thearmy lacked the resources totrain and equip them.Better equipped for the job inCuba were the famous "RoughRiders", a ragtag group ofvolunteers fighting for the US.
ARMISTICE• US quickly moved troops to Puerto Rico.• August 12, 1898, the Spanish signed an armistice ending the fighting.• Dewey was still waiting for assistance in the Philippians. Admiral Dewey
TREATY OF PARIS - 1898 • Conclusion of the Spanish- American War. • On December 10, 1898, the US and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris. • The Treaty of Paris still had to be approved by the Senate. • What to do about the Philippines?
EFFECTS OF THE TREATYAND ANNEXATION OF THE PHILIPPIANS• The Senate approved the Treaty of Paris• The US bought control of the Philippines for $20 Million• US kept control of the Philippines • Educate and Christianize• PROBLEMS • Rebellion in the Philippines • Emilio Aguinaldo
CUBA AFTER THE WARPlatt Amendment• Cuba could not make any treaty with another nation that would weaken its independence.• Cuba had to allow the United States to buy or lease naval stations in Cuba.• Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to prevent foreign countries from landing troops to enforce payment.• The United States would have the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and the keep order.