Pedagogy in Online and Hybrid Instruction


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An overview of tactics to use pedagogical theory to improve online instructional designs.

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  • Provide organizing framework to lead students to a coherent conceptual understanding-this organizing framework bundles chunks of the course.
  • Perhaps have them generate an objective related to Bloom’s taxonomy at each level of Bloom’s taxonomy.
  • How can this approach lead the student to a broader, conceptual understanding?
  • Need to plan your design before building content in Vista. Think about the organization of the course. ahead in order to decide on design, sequence of content, processes and assessments.
  • Engage prior learning
    Provide structures that support student’s ability to organize knowledge for retrieval
  • Pedagogy in Online and Hybrid Instruction

    1. 1. Online Pedagogy – Strategies and Models Anastasia M. Trekles, Ph.D.
    2. 2. Experiences • What are your usual approaches/strategies for teaching in the faceto-face classroom? • What strategies do you use online? • What is the most critical factor to instructional success in the F2F classroom? • What about the online classroom?
    3. 3. Objectives • Apply evidence about learning to the design of online and hybrid courses • Align learning objectives, activities and assessment for online learning • Adapt learning strategies from face-to-face contexts for the online environment
    4. 4. Some evidence - key findings about how people learn • Draw out and engage prior understanding • Promote depth of factual knowledge • Provide organizing framework to lead students to a coherent conceptual understanding • Provide structures that support students’ ability to organize knowledge for retrieval • Promote meta-cognitive skills • See Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (2000),
    5. 5. Developing expertise • It takes experience, which takes practice • It also takes meaningful learning opportunities placed in authentic contexts so that learners begin to “chunk” information • This leads to the ability to be flexible in approaching problems
    6. 6. Top 9 Classroom Instruction that Works          Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Questions, cues and advance organizers Dean, C.B., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. (2011). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement (2nd ed.). ASCD: Alexandria, VA
    7. 7. How can you use this evidence when you design for online learning?
    8. 8. Use Strategies to Support How People Learn • Alignment • Structure • Interaction • Assessment
    9. 9. Alignment (organizing framework) Learning Objectives Learner Interactions & Activities Resources, Materials & Technology Assessment and Measurement
    10. 10. Instructional Design as Process • Many varying models, but all come to the same conclusion: ID is a systematic process of developing instruction • One of the more popular “models” (which is not really a model but a simplification of several models) is ADDIE: • Analysis • Design • Development • Implementation • Evaluation
    11. 11. Analysis Phase • Consists of analyzing the learners and the learning environment • Questions to be answered at this phase: • Who are the learners? • What prerequisite knowledge and skills do they have? • What preexisting biases, conditions, or characteristics do the learners have that may impact learning? • What is the learning environment (classroom, online, mixed)? • How could the environment impact considerations like course delivery and time constraints?
    12. 12. Design Phase • This is where the blueprint of the course or lesson is developed • Goals and objectives are set at this stage – the focus of today’s workshop • But the basic outline of the course is also done at this stage, which might consist of writing the syllabus, planning the weekly topics and assignments, the “shell” or skeleton structure of an online course, etc.
    13. 13. Development Phase • Once the basic structure of the course is planned out, development of content and media elements can begin • This is where technologies are integrated, learning materials are selected, assessment strategies are set in place, and the real “meat” of the course comes together • In reality, the Design and Development phases are somewhat fluid, and in some models they are treated as the same phase
    14. 14. Implementation Phase • This happens when the course is ready to be used by real learners • This is where you get to make sure everything works as you anticipated, and where you finally get to find out whether the learners will be able to meet the course objectives successfully
    15. 15. Evaluation Phase • So… did they meet the objectives? Did everything work out as planned? • Likely not: there might be things that you just didn’t like about the way the course ran, or you found out something new about your learners you didn’t know previously • So, this phase invites you to spend time evaluating what worked and what did not, and revise accordingly • If you remember Jana’s circular model of course development, the ID process (regardless of the model you follow) assumes that you are never quite finished – that there is always something that will require another look
    16. 16. Tips for Online Implementation • Orient students to the course - tell them what the organizing framework • Use headings to aid organization • Name files (or label) so they have meaning to the learner • Be consistent in the organization of lessons • Bundle activities, assignments, interaction, assessment in the same place A
    17. 17. Orientation A
    18. 18. Setting Objectives A
    19. 19. Design for Alignment A
    20. 20. First, consider the learners… • Who are your students? What do they know? What makes them “tick”? • It’s hard to write “student-centered” objectives without knowing this! • An effective course that students enjoy taking is one that doesn’t go too far over or under the students’ abilities • Spend a moment writing down some of the characteristics of your learners – really consider who they are, and what they can (and maybe cannot) do in relation to your course and the online learning environment
    21. 21. Next, consider the goals • What do you want your students to get from your course? How do your students know what is expected from them? • Jot down your list of things that you want your students to know or be able to do before they leave you at the end of the semester, in no particular order or format • You might then be able to organize them by the type/level of learning that will be involved in meeting each goal
    22. 22. Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain • Evaluation make judgments based on criteria Higher Order Thinking Skills • Synthesis compile information in a new way • Analysis break down information into parts • Application use information in a new situation • Comprehension interpret information • Knowledge recall information Lower Order Thinking Skills
    23. 23. Writing Objectives • An objective is simply a way to state a measurable outcome or goal of your lesson/course • Without the ability to measure a goal, it’s not useful to us in the Evaluation phases of instructional design, nor is it easy to develop assessment strategies for • How do you measure a student’s ability to appreciate poetry or artwork? How do you measure a student’s understanding of the difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics?
    24. 24. Let’s Take a Closer Look… For example, take an objective such as: “Write at least five measurable, student-centered learning objectives using appropriate action verbs” • What level is this objective on Bloom’s? • Could it be rewritten to achieve a different level?
    25. 25. Thinking skill Action verbs Student products
    26. 26. Structure Organizing framework Aids retrieval Supports coherent conceptual understanding
    27. 27. Navigation S
    28. 28. First-what not to do: S
    29. 29. Better - Organized S
    30. 30. Best - Functional + Conceptual S
    31. 31. Learning Modules / Folders • Center learning on broad, related topics • Or, separate the course into weeks • Allows you to sequence access to content and tools • Limit access to the relevant tools/content only • Integrate processes with concepts • Ideally, limit extra clicks S
    32. 32. Folders vs. Learning Modules Folders • Sort related files/tools into folder structure • Functional organization • Intent of instruction may not be clear • Can release content based on criteria, but sequence of content/activities is not necessarily hierarchical Learning Modules • Sort into content areas • Organize around set of learning objectives • Structure/sequence is obvious – hierarchical, linear approach • Flat presentation-less clicking S
    33. 33. For example…. S
    34. 34. Do both: • Use folders to create groups of content • Use learning modules to develop scaffolded content • May create functional organizers for quick clicks and redundancies S
    35. 35. Strategies for Design • Take a broad look at your course • What are the main “things”? • Concepts/Processes • Prerequisite knowledge S
    36. 36. Interaction Student Content Student Student Student Faculty
    37. 37. Strategies for Student-Content Interaction • Advance organizers • Non-linguistic representations • Similarities and differences • Homework • Summarizing and note-taking Dean, C.B., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. (2011). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement (2nd ed.). ASCD: Alexandria, VA I
    38. 38. Advance Organizers • Ausubel: Designed to bridge gap between what the learner already knows and what he/she needs to know to successfully learn the task at hand • Offered in advance of learning, higher level of abstraction than what comes after (thus not a summary). • Designed to provide the scaffold for incorporation and retention Dean, C.B., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. (2011). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement (2nd ed.). ASCD: Alexandria, VA I
    39. 39. Analogy as Advance Organizer I
    40. 40. Tips • Focus on what’s important, not unusual • Higher level organizers will produce deeper learning • Most useful with information that is not well organized • Different types produce different results: • Expository- at ”high level” describe new content • Narrative-tells a story • Skimming • Graphic I
    41. 41. Similarities and Differences • Explicit teacher-directed activities • Student-directed activities • Graphic or symbolic representations Dean, C.B., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. (2011). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement (2nd ed.). ASCD: Alexandria, VA I
    42. 42. Similarity/Difference Strategies Teacher-directed Student-directed Graphic Compare (same/diff) Classify (similarities) Create Metaphor (nonliteral connection) Create Analogy (a:b::c:d) Structured, focused answer Choose characterisics Venn Matrix Provide elements & categories Develop categories Tables Bubbles Provide first element and abstract pattern Identify second element and the abstract pattern Grids Supply all or one missing element Supply more elements Box word diagrams
    43. 43. Student-Student Interaction • Asynchronous • Threaded discussions-text-based and multimedia • Blogs - online diaries, reflection • Wikis - collaborative writing • File sharing • Synchronous • Instant messaging and video chat (Skype, Adobe Connect, etc) • Telephone • F2F meetings I
    44. 44. Cues, Questions • Activating prior knowledge - old to new • Cues (hints) and questions may account for as much as 80% of f2f classroom activity – online is not too different • Recommendations: • Focus on what’s important (the more students know about something, the more interested they are) • Higher level questions lead to deeper thinking • Wait-leads to more student discourse • Ask questions before and during the learning experience Dean, C.B., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. (2011). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement (2nd ed.). ASCD: Alexandria, VA I
    45. 45. Typical F2F Collaborative Activities • Critical thinking questions • Direct • Convergent • Divergent • Activities • Case study analysis, application of new knowledge • Reflection I
    46. 46. Student-Faculty Interaction • Online office hours • Synchronous (Adobe Connect, Skype, Google Hangout) • Asynchronous (email turn-around; discussion boards and other asynchronous online activity) I
    47. 47. Assessment • Accomplishment of learning objectives • Quality of interaction or project work (rubrics) • Knowledge (tests and exams) • Knowledge application (essay or advanced-level tests) • Experience with technology • Course • Instructor
    48. 48. Standards and Assessment • Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as learning progress -- including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment -- are integral parts of the learning process. • Instructional strategies include formative, summative, peer and self-assessment A
    49. 49. Assessment recommendations based on assumptions of constructivism • • • • Students should be assessed formatively, serving to inform future learning experiences. Summative assessment comes after opportunities for practice and feedback Students should be encouraged to become self-regulatory, self-mediated, and self-aware. Teachers server primarily as guides and facilitators of learning, not instructors. Doolittle, P. (1999). Constructivism and online education. A
    50. 50. Tools • Timed/untimed examinations • Surveys - developmental/summary • Application of rubrics • Projects that build up toward a final goal over time, with checkpoints throughout Clear expectations, criteria and alignment A
    51. 51. Examples • Take home exams • Laboratory case study analysis • Discussion assessment • Activity assessment
    52. 52. Questions?