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1:1 in the Elementary Setting: One Year Later


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Going 1:1 can be a rocky road in the elementary setting, with many possible obstacles along the way. In this session, participants will hear the perspectives of elementary teachers through the first to second year of iPad implementation. Successes and challenges will be shared to benefit other schools.

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1:1 in the Elementary Setting: One Year Later

  1. 1. 1:1 IN THE ELEMENTARY SETTING: ONE YEAR LATER Denise Frazier, Ph.D. Staci Trekles, Ph.D. Purdue University Northwest School of Education and Counseling
  2. 2. The Purpose • Share an overview of the research results • Describe K-5 teacher perceptions and use of iPads during Year One and Two • Discuss key issues related to Year One iPad implementation in an elementary setting • Provide 1:1 lessons and strategies
  3. 3. Our Method • Mixed-methods case study as a follow-up to Year One, which included focus groups (K-2, and 3-5) and survey data looking at the first year of adoption of 1:1 in an elementary school • Year Two Survey – Likert items and one short response item • Compared survey responses from Year One to Year Two
  4. 4. The Setting • Small suburban-rural elementary school • Approximately 600 students, balanced calendar • 26 teachers K-5 • Relatively affluent community, limited diversity • Why this school? • Access to teachers and school • Recently started program (good timing) • 1:1 implemented in all grades, including kindergarten
  5. 5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • How are elementary teachers using iPads in their classrooms during the second year of implementation as compared to year one? • What issues are occurring during year two of 1:1 iPad adoption? • What benefits and challenges of 1:1 iPads are perceived by elementary teachers who have more than one year of experience with them? • How do elementary teachers’ perceptions change between the first year and the second year of 1:1 iPad adoption?
  6. 6. A little background: First year info • Decision to go 1:1 came at the end of the previous school year under a new superintendent (Apple iPad chosen as device, no LMS) • Teachers had minimal time to prepare for the change, little PD provided • Many teachers felt “rushed” into the new 1:1 environment, but anticipated using the iPads a great deal during the year
  7. 7. Teachers and Students using the iPads: Year One Advantages • Differentiation • Groups and centers • Access to more information more easily • Multimedia and apps that help with learning • Improved teacher confidence in using iPads in the classroom* Disadvantages • Lack of professional development • Classroom management problems* • No district-wide digital citizenship program • Technology not always working as promised • High administrative expectations put pressure on teachers
  8. 8. Going Beyond Year One • A follow-up survey of similar questions from Year One was sent out in the end of Year Two to find out how teachers were doing with their iPads, and the data were compared from last year to the new year • Some interesting comparisons were found, including: • Professional development is still lacking and in fact, opinions of the benefits of Late Start Wednesday PD have decreased from 74% to 94% disagreement • More teachers are feeling confident with their iPads in the classroom, from 66% to 88% agreement • Perceptions of having administrative support improved (52% to 65% agreement) as well as technical support (a dramatic increase from 39% to 92% agreement) • Interestingly, despite more support, anticipated increased use of iPads in the classroom has gone down in Year Two as opposed to Year One (from 83% to 59%)
  9. 9. Keyword: Balance • Adopting 1:1 devices does not inherently change the classroom – teachers must make the conscious effort to change how they teach • Teachers don’t just “pick up” tech integration skills on their own • Time and training are needed, and teachers must also learn through experience • After two years, many teachers have struck a balance, and iPad usage went down in many categories
  10. 10. Comparisons: Using iPads to Teach Subjects • Usage in subjects overall went down dramatically from the first to the second year • Highest level of significant difference: Language, Math, Social Studies, and Comprehension • Lowest level of difference: Word Study, Fine Arts, Writing, and “Other” • No statistical relationship amongst 11 categories between year 1 and 2 – drop was overall relatively uniform
  11. 11. Other statistically significant Year Two trends in the data • Positive trends: • I feel confident using the iPad in my classroom (88%) • Using iPads for assessment (77%) • The district has provided adequate applications (apps.) for student use (82%) • Negative trends: • Late Start Wednesdays providing beneficial PD (94%) for classroom iPad use • technical issues with iPads in my classroom (88%) • Stable (unchanging): • use of iPads to differentiate instruction (to support and to challenge students) (71%) • plans to increase iPad use during the succeeding school year (59%)
  12. 12. Why the change? • We might assume iPad usage would increase as teachers became more comfortable • Instead, usage went down significantly – why? • Gartner’s Hype Cycle – trough of disillusionment or plateau of productivity? • Fullan’s change knowledge – technology and pedagogy must work together to create lasting change • Early learning – excessive screen time concerns for grades K-3
  13. 13. Discussion • Think-Pair-Share: What is your experience with 1:1? • Whole Group: What are your major takeaways from 1:1 implementations during the first year and beyond? • What similar/dissimilar experiences have you had compared to our case study?
  14. 14. Selected References • Clark, R.E. (2001). Media are “mere vehicles”: The opening argument. In R.E. Clark (Ed.), Learning from media: Arguments, analyses, and evidence (pp. 1-12). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. • Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R.C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council. • Donovan, L., Hartley, K., & Strudler, N. (2007). Teacher concerns during initial implementation of a one-to-one laptop initiative at the middle school level. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(3), 263-286. • Freeman, A., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Davis, A., and Hall Giesinger, C. (2017). NMC/CoSN Horizon Report: 2017 K–12 edition. Austin, TX: The New Media Consortium. • Fullan, M. (2013). Stratosphere: Integrating technology, pedagogy, and change knowledge. Toronto, Canada: Pearson. • Lei (2010). Conditions for ubiquitous computing: What can be learned from a longitudinal study. Computers in the Schools, 27(1), 35-53. DOI:10.1080/07380560903536264 • Swallow, M. (2015). The year-two decline: Exploring the incremental experiences of a 1:1 technology initiative. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 47(2), 122-137. doi: 10.1080/15391523.2015.999641
  15. 15. Questions • Contact us! • Denise: • Staci:, @instruct_tech, @iceindiana • Slides available: