Traditional cardiovascular risk factors including cholesterol may not provide the best tools for predicting individuals at risk for future cardiovascular disease and current insulin resistance. Novel and emerging evaluations of lipoproteins may provide a more accurate assessment of future cardiovascular risk. In an observational study of a small group of law enforcement officers, we studied the changes in both traditional and nontraditional risk factors when instructed in a “paleo” diet over 6 months. Overall, we found an encouraging impact on both traditional and nontraditional risk factors over the course of the study. It is proposed that a “paleo” diet supplemented with exercise has a positive effect on cardiovascular risk factors and may be a treatment recommendation for individuals at risk.