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Low back pain (LBP) is a multifactorial issue that is prevalent across most human populations, westernised, rural and indigenous. Deconditioning of the lumbar extensor musculature is a commonly associated factor and has been shown prospectively to be a risk factor for development of LBP. Here an explanation concerning lumbar spine and pelvic anatomic evolution is offered in attempt to integrate these findings. It appears that anatomically modern humans may be predisposed to LBP as a consequence of their evolutionary heritage; the compromise of relatively strong hip/trunk extensors and relatively weak lumbar extensors in combination with a long flexible lumbar spine.