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What does the Web remember of its deleted past?
An archival reconstruction of the Yugoslav Internet Domain
Anat Ben-David,...
Web historiography taken to the extreme
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: W...
Argument
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Source...
The formal history of the .yu ccTLD
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web A...
The formal history of the .yu ccTLD
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web A...
The formal history of the .yu ccTLD
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web A...
The formal history of the .yu ccTLD
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web A...
The formal history of the .yu ccTLD
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web A...
The formal history of the .yu ccTLD
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web A...
The formal history of the .yu ccTLD
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web A...
The formal history of the .yu ccTLD
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web A...
The archival reconstruction of the .yu domain
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW confere...
The archival reconstruction of the .yu domain
What’s in a list? (appraisal of sources)
Anat Ben-David, The Open University...
The archival reconstruction of the .yu domain
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW confere...
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues...
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues...
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues...
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues...
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues...
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues...
Conclusions
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sou...
Thank you
Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel
Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sourc...
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What does the Web remember of its deleted past? An archival reconstruction of the Yugoslav Internet domain

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Slides of a paper presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015

The paper reconstructs the history of the deleted top-level domain of Former Yugoslavia (.yu), as an extreme case of Web historiography where the primary source for analysis can no longer be found on the live Web.

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What does the Web remember of its deleted past? An archival reconstruction of the Yugoslav Internet domain

  1. 1. What does the Web remember of its deleted past? An archival reconstruction of the Yugoslav Internet Domain Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU
  2. 2. Web historiography taken to the extreme Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU Facts: • The domain was completely removed from the live Web • The Internet Archive is accessed using URLs Problem: • The archived snapshots of the .yu domain cannot be retrieved from the Internet Archive if the Web does not contain any URL of the domain Question: • Could the Web be used as a primary source for telling its own history?
  3. 3. Argument Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU The live Web inscribes sovereignty and stability into Web archives, thereby constituting and limiting national Web histories: a) The DNS re-enforces the UN list of recognised countries and territories. New countries are added, while dissolved countries are removed. b) The Wayback Machine assumes temporal proximity with the live Web.
  4. 4. The formal history of the .yu ccTLD Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 .yu domain delegated, maintained in Ljubljana Breakup of Yugoslavia Slovenia and Croatia declare independence Croatian War Sarajevo Siege Bosnian War
  5. 5. The formal history of the .yu ccTLD Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 UN sanctions - .yu domain excluded from the academic network ICANN delegates new domains to Slovenia, Macedonia, Croatia ICANN re-assigns the .yu domain to Belgrade Breakup of Yugoslavia Nato Sanctions International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia established Serbia and Montenegro form FRY Croatian War Sarajevo Siege Bosnian War
  6. 6. The formal history of the .yu ccTLD Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Dayton Agreement Signed .yu domain maintained by Belgrade University on a voluntary basis. Registration is free, one Website per institution ICANN delegates a new domain to Bosnia (Internet Archive Established) Croatian War Sarajevo Siege Srebrenica Massacre Bosnian War
  7. 7. The formal history of the .yu ccTLD Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia Kosovo War .yu domain maintained by Belgrade University on a voluntary basis. Registration is free, one Website per institution. “First Internet War” f EU freezes funds for FRY Overthrow of Milosevic
  8. 8. The formal history of the .yu ccTLD Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Milosevic arrested EC economic sanctions on FRY Serbia and Montenegro form a Union State With lack of governmental support - domain stagnated ISO decides to keep the YU suffix for Serbia and Montenegro until a new suffix is found
  9. 9. The formal history of the .yu ccTLD Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Domain reform discussions begin. ICANN delegates .yu to RNIDS, until separate ccTLD are delegated to Serbia and Montenegro Milosevic found dead in his cell Serbia and Montenegro split
  10. 10. The formal history of the .yu ccTLD Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 .rs and .me delegated. Transitional period begins Kosovo unilaterally declares independence from Serbia
  11. 11. The formal history of the .yu ccTLD Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 .Yu deleted from the Internet’s Root Zone
  12. 12. The archival reconstruction of the .yu domain Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU
  13. 13. The archival reconstruction of the .yu domain What’s in a list? (appraisal of sources) Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU Google An index of .yu URLs on the last day of the domain (scraping search results) - 4761 unique URLs, 2010 Wikimedia project A list of all .yu URLs referenced from pages of the Wikimedia project - 3441 unique URLs, 2009 EUNET A list of .yu URLs registered by the Serbian ISP - 3441 unique URLs, 2010 PC Press (Magazine) An annual list of the most popular .yu websites, curated and ranked by the computer magazine, reconstructed from the Internet Archive - 3441 unique URLs, 1997-2008 Total .yu URLs in all lists: 10333. Unique hosts after deduplication: 4867
  14. 14. The archival reconstruction of the .yu domain Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU
  15. 15. Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU PC Press - Top 5 suffixes Com - 68 Co.yu - 55 Rs - 25 Org - 13 Net - 13 ! ! EUNET - Top 5 suffixes Co.yu - 281 Org.yu - 23 Ac.yu - 21 Cg.yu - 7 Edu.yu - 2 ! ! Wikipedia - Top 5 suffixes Co.yu - 1037 Org.yu - 789 Cg.yu - 185 Ac.yu - 155 Edu.yu - 125 ! ! Google - Top 5 suffixes Co.yu - 605 Org.yu - 165 Edu.yu - 56 Ac.yu - 49 Gov.yu - 28 ! !
  16. 16. Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU
  17. 17. Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU
  18. 18. Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU
  19. 19. Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU
  20. 20. Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU
  21. 21. Conclusions Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU The evolution of the network cannot be explained without secondary sources Reconstruction of a considerable, yet partial, portion of the deleted domain (53%) Source lists generate different Web spaces and histories, Wikipedia stands out as a robust primary source for archival reconstruction Archival coverage greatly depends on the freshness of sources The contours of the domain are shaped by national borders, consolidated after sovereignty. The Web privileges histories of sovereign states, overwrites their unstable pasts
  22. 22. Thank you Anat Ben-David, The Open University of Israel Presented at the RESAW conference: Web Archives as Scholarly Sources: Issues, Practices and Perspectives. Aarhus, Denmark, June 8-10 2015 YU ! @anatbd Special thanks to RA Adam Amram, and to Nikola Smolenski, Ivan Manojlovic and Martin Klein

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