Image: Luc Viatour / www.Lucnix.be                          Unpacking	  Archival	  Silences                           A	  ...
What	  are	  Web	  Archives	  For?Monday, February 18, 13
 1.	  Preservation	  of	  	  (national)	  digital	  cultural	  heritageMonday, February 18, 13
 1.	  Preservation	  of	  	  (national)	  digital	  cultural	  heritage                -­‐       .."web	  resources	  whic...
 1.	  Preservation	  of	  	  (national)	  digital	  cultural	  heritage                -­‐       .."web	  resources	  whic...
 1.	  Preservation	  of	  	  (national)	  digital	  cultural	  heritage                -­‐       .."web	  resources	  whic...
 2.	  Responding	  to	  a	  preservation	  riskMonday, February 18, 13
 2.	  Responding	  to	  a	  preservation	  risk           -­‐     .."the	  present	  generation	  may	  be	  considered	  ...
 2.	  Responding	  to	  a	  preservation	  risk           -­‐     .."the	  present	  generation	  may	  be	  considered	  ...
 2.	  Responding	  to	  a	  preservation	  risk           -­‐     .."the	  present	  generation	  may	  be	  considered	  ...
 3.	  Viewing	  past	  versions	  of	  a	  WebsiteMonday, February 18, 13
 3.	  Viewing	  past	  versions	  of	  a	  Website                -­‐       .."You	  can	  see	  archived	  websites	  in	...
 3.	  Viewing	  past	  versions	  of	  a	  Website                -­‐       .."You	  can	  see	  archived	  websites	  in	...
 3.	  Viewing	  past	  versions	  of	  a	  Website                -­‐       .."You	  can	  see	  archived	  websites	  in	...
 4.	  and..	  also	  for	  researchMonday, February 18, 13
 4.	  and..	  also	  for	  research                -­‐       .."This	  makes	  the	  web	  an	  important	  source	  for	 ...
 4.	  and..	  also	  for	  research                -­‐       .."This	  makes	  the	  web	  an	  important	  source	  for	 ...
 4.	  and..	  also	  for	  research                -­‐       .."This	  makes	  the	  web	  an	  important	  source	  for	 ...
“Archival	  Silences”	  (?)Image source: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Books/Pix/pictures/2009/10/16/1255686935351/D...
“Archival	  Silences”	  (?)       -­‐        “Web	  archives	  will	  be	  the	  digital	  equivalent	  of	  the	  dusty	 ...
“Archival	  Silences”	  (?)       -­‐        “Web	  archives	  will	  be	  the	  digital	  equivalent	  of	  the	  dusty	 ...
“Archival	  Silences”	  (?)       -­‐        “Web	  archives	  will	  be	  the	  digital	  equivalent	  of	  the	  dusty	 ...
“Archival	  Silences”	  (?)       -­‐        “Web	  archives	  will	  be	  the	  digital	  equivalent	  of	  the	  dusty	 ...
A	  short	  history	  of	  Web	  archivesMonday, February 18, 13
A	  short	  history	  of	  Web	  archives                      -­‐   	  1996-­‐1998	  Web	  archive	  as	  a	  Web	  index...
A	  short	  history	  of	  Web	  archives                      -­‐   	  1996-­‐1998	  Web	  archive	  as	  a	  Web	  index...
A	  short	  history	  of	  Web	  archives                      -­‐   	  1996-­‐1998	  Web	  archive	  as	  a	  Web	  index...
A	  short	  history	  of	  Web	  archives                      -­‐   	  1996-­‐1998	  Web	  archive	  as	  a	  Web	  index...
 1.	  Web	  Archive	  as	  a	  Web	  Index                -­‐       1996-­‐	  the	  Internet	  Archive	  and	  the	  Wayba...
Alexa ToolbarInternet Archive Wayback MachineMonday, February 18, 13
Monday, February 18, 13
 2.	  Web	  Archives	  as	  Special	  Collections    • Foot	  and	  Schneider	  1999	  -­‐	  “Web	  Sphere	  Analysis”    ...
Monday, February 18, 13
3.	  The	  national	  turn	  in	  Web	  archiving           Web	  archiving	  at	  a	  national	  scale	  proposes	  new	 ...
http://timeline.webarchivists.org/Monday, February 18, 13
4.	  Emerging	  Web	  Archiving	  TheoryMonday, February 18, 13
4.	  Emerging	  Web	  Archiving	  Theory     Some	  distinctions:	  Monday, February 18, 13
4.	  Emerging	  Web	  Archiving	  Theory     Some	  distinctions:	     -­‐    Web	  archives	  as	  tools	  for	  research...
4.	  Emerging	  Web	  Archiving	  Theory     Some	  distinctions:	     -­‐    Web	  archives	  as	  tools	  for	  research...
4.	  Emerging	  Web	  Archiving	  Theory     Some	  distinctions:	     -­‐    Web	  archives	  as	  tools	  for	  research...
4.	  Emerging	  Web	  Archiving	  Theory     Some	  distinctions:	     -­‐    Web	  archives	  as	  tools	  for	  research...
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  enabledMonday, February 18, 13
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  enabled               Rogers (2013):Monday, February 18, 13
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  enabled               Rogers (2013):               -          Single site historiograp...
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  enabled               Rogers (2013):               -          Single site historiograp...
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  enabled               Rogers (2013):               -          Single site historiograp...
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  enabled               Rogers (2013):               -          Single site historiograp...
Single website history - Capture history of website,andplayback as screencast documentary (time-lapsedphotography)Monday, ...
"Google and the politics of tabs" by Govcom.org,                                        Amsterdam, 2008.Monday, February 1...
Collection making. Build collections from the archive(e.g., Dutch extremist sites by NRC Handelsblad)Monday, February 18, 13
Historical link analysis over time   Ben-David (2011)Monday, February 18, 13
Weltevrede & Helmond 2012Monday, February 18, 13
Ghostery detecting trackers on an archived frontpage of the New York Times from 16 October 2006 in the Internet Archive. H...
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  precludedMonday, February 18, 13
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  precluded   -­‐     (Most)	  Web	  archives	  are	  not	  searchableMonday, February 1...
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  precluded   -­‐     (Most)	  Web	  archives	  are	  not	  searchable   -­‐     (Most)	...
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  precluded   -­‐     (Most)	  Web	  archives	  are	  not	  searchable   -­‐     (Most)	...
Types	  of	  Web	  Historiography	  precluded   -­‐     (Most)	  Web	  archives	  are	  not	  searchable   -­‐     (Most)	...
WebART project                          Web Archive Retrieval Tools                               Jaap Kamps, Richard Roge...
Monday, February 18, 13
THE INTERFACE                          http://178.228.147.61:8080/Monday, February 18, 13
“DICTATORS” FREQUENCY OVER TIME      800      700      600      500                                                       ...
Monday, February 18, 13
Monday, February 18, 13
WIRE “FORENSICS”                https://www.google.com/fusiontables/DataSource?docid=1uK740ETdt-Vva9lLd63h3_2hAKguAyjCS6n1...
IMAGE SEARCH RESULTSMonday, February 18, 13
IMAGE TIMELINE                          http://labs.timelessfuture.com/timeline/Monday, February 18, 13
Image: Luc Viatour / www.Lucnix.be                           Questions?                              Thank	  you          ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Bendavid unpacking archival_silences_guest_lecture_18022013

1,744 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,744
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
874
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Bendavid unpacking archival_silences_guest_lecture_18022013

  1. 1. Image: Luc Viatour / www.Lucnix.be Unpacking  Archival  Silences A  short  history  of  Web  archives  research Anat  Ben-­‐david,  University  of  Amsterdam,  February  2013Monday, February 18, 13
  2. 2. What  are  Web  Archives  For?Monday, February 18, 13
  3. 3.  1.  Preservation  of    (national)  digital  cultural  heritageMonday, February 18, 13
  4. 4.  1.  Preservation  of    (national)  digital  cultural  heritage -­‐ .."web  resources  which  are  collected  with  the  aim   of  their  long-­‐term  preservation".  (Czech  Web   archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  5. 5.  1.  Preservation  of    (national)  digital  cultural  heritage -­‐ .."web  resources  which  are  collected  with  the  aim   of  their  long-­‐term  preservation".  (Czech  Web   archive) -­‐ "The  Archives  mission  is  gathering  and  long-­‐term   preservation  of  Internet  publications  as  part  of   the  Croatian  national  heritage”  (Croatian  Web   archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  6. 6.  1.  Preservation  of    (national)  digital  cultural  heritage -­‐ .."web  resources  which  are  collected  with  the  aim   of  their  long-­‐term  preservation".  (Czech  Web   archive) -­‐ "The  Archives  mission  is  gathering  and  long-­‐term   preservation  of  Internet  publications  as  part  of   the  Croatian  national  heritage”  (Croatian  Web   archive) -­‐ "..these  websites  were  carefully  selected  to  be   part  of  the  nations  documentary  heritage".   (Singapore  Web  Archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  7. 7.  2.  Responding  to  a  preservation  riskMonday, February 18, 13
  8. 8.  2.  Responding  to  a  preservation  risk -­‐ .."the  present  generation  may  be  considered  as  a   forgotten  dark  age  by  future  generations  if  we   neglect  to  select  and  preserve  digital  resources  at   country  level"(South  Korea  Web  archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  9. 9.  2.  Responding  to  a  preservation  risk -­‐ .."the  present  generation  may  be  considered  as  a   forgotten  dark  age  by  future  generations  if  we   neglect  to  select  and  preserve  digital  resources  at   country  level"(South  Korea  Web  archive) -­‐ .."These  days,  documents  are  increasingly  being   published  only  digitally.  If  we  do  not  preserve  the   information,  part  of  our  heritage  will  be  lost   forever"  (Swedish  Web  archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  10. 10.  2.  Responding  to  a  preservation  risk -­‐ .."the  present  generation  may  be  considered  as  a   forgotten  dark  age  by  future  generations  if  we   neglect  to  select  and  preserve  digital  resources  at   country  level"(South  Korea  Web  archive) -­‐ .."These  days,  documents  are  increasingly  being   published  only  digitally.  If  we  do  not  preserve  the   information,  part  of  our  heritage  will  be  lost   forever"  (Swedish  Web  archive) -­‐ .."Responding  to  the  challenge  of  a  potential   ‘digital  black  hole’  the  UK  Web  Archive  is  there  to   safeguard  as  many  of  these  websites  as  practical. (UK  Web  Archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  11. 11.  3.  Viewing  past  versions  of  a  WebsiteMonday, February 18, 13
  12. 12.  3.  Viewing  past  versions  of  a  Website -­‐ .."You  can  see  archived  websites  in  their  original   version.  Our  service  will  help  you  search   efWiciently  and  quickly  for  an  important   publication  in  the  Wlood  of  information  on  the   Internet"  (Japan  Web  archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  13. 13.  3.  Viewing  past  versions  of  a  Website -­‐ .."You  can  see  archived  websites  in  their  original   version.  Our  service  will  help  you  search   efWiciently  and  quickly  for  an  important   publication  in  the  Wlood  of  information  on  the   Internet"  (Japan  Web  archive) -­‐ .."The  collection  also  provides  a  visual  history  of   how  websites  change  over  time"  (New  Zealand   Web  archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  14. 14.  3.  Viewing  past  versions  of  a  Website -­‐ .."You  can  see  archived  websites  in  their  original   version.  Our  service  will  help  you  search   efWiciently  and  quickly  for  an  important   publication  in  the  Wlood  of  information  on  the   Internet"  (Japan  Web  archive) -­‐ .."The  collection  also  provides  a  visual  history  of   how  websites  change  over  time"  (New  Zealand   Web  archive) -­‐ .."Warning  -­‐  The  current  version  of  the  site  may   no  longer  be  available"  (Latvian  Web  Archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  15. 15.  4.  and..  also  for  researchMonday, February 18, 13
  16. 16.  4.  and..  also  for  research -­‐ .."This  makes  the  web  an  important  source  for   future  researchers,  not  only  for  studies  of  the   development  of  the  web  but  certainly  for  research   on  society  today"  (Dutch  Web  archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  17. 17.  4.  and..  also  for  research -­‐ .."This  makes  the  web  an  important  source  for   future  researchers,  not  only  for  studies  of  the   development  of  the  web  but  certainly  for  research   on  society  today"  (Dutch  Web  archive) -­‐ .."All  materials  are  archived  and  available  for  use   by  researchers  and  others  who  need  them  in  their   studies  -­‐  now  and  in  the  future".  (Finland  Web   archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  18. 18.  4.  and..  also  for  research -­‐ .."This  makes  the  web  an  important  source  for   future  researchers,  not  only  for  studies  of  the   development  of  the  web  but  certainly  for  research   on  society  today"  (Dutch  Web  archive) -­‐ .."All  materials  are  archived  and  available  for  use   by  researchers  and  others  who  need  them  in  their   studies  -­‐  now  and  in  the  future".  (Finland  Web   archive) -­‐ .."Web  history  can  provide  a  tremendous  base  for   time-­‐based  analysis  of  the  content,  the  topology   including  emerging  communities  and  topics,   trends  analysis  etc.  as  well  as  an  invaluable   source  of  information  for  the  future"  (European   Archive)Monday, February 18, 13
  19. 19. “Archival  Silences”  (?)Image source: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Books/Pix/pictures/2009/10/16/1255686935351/Dusty-bookshelf-001.jpgMonday, February 18, 13
  20. 20. “Archival  Silences”  (?) -­‐ “Web  archives  will  be  the  digital  equivalent  of  the  dusty  archive,  often  well-­‐ curated  and  maintained,  but  hardly  used”                -­‐-­‐  (Meyer  et  al.,  2011,  p.  7)Image source: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Books/Pix/pictures/2009/10/16/1255686935351/Dusty-bookshelf-001.jpgMonday, February 18, 13
  21. 21. “Archival  Silences”  (?) -­‐ “Web  archives  will  be  the  digital  equivalent  of  the  dusty  archive,  often  well-­‐ curated  and  maintained,  but  hardly  used”                -­‐-­‐  (Meyer  et  al.,  2011,  p.  7) -­‐ “One  must  ask,  in  the  world  of  Internet  research,  why  do  Web  archives  appear  to  be   second  class  citizens?  “          -­‐-­‐      (Meyer  et  al.,  2011,  p.  9  )  Image source: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Books/Pix/pictures/2009/10/16/1255686935351/Dusty-bookshelf-001.jpgMonday, February 18, 13
  22. 22. “Archival  Silences”  (?) -­‐ “Web  archives  will  be  the  digital  equivalent  of  the  dusty  archive,  often  well-­‐ curated  and  maintained,  but  hardly  used”                -­‐-­‐  (Meyer  et  al.,  2011,  p.  7) -­‐ “One  must  ask,  in  the  world  of  Internet  research,  why  do  Web  archives  appear  to  be   second  class  citizens?  “          -­‐-­‐      (Meyer  et  al.,  2011,  p.  9  )   -­‐ “Web  archiving  infrastructure  receives  scholarly  and  non-­‐scholarly  attention;  the   archived  materials  –  the  primary  source  material  –  gain  less  notice”    -­‐-­‐    (Rogers   2013,  p.  85)Image source: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Books/Pix/pictures/2009/10/16/1255686935351/Dusty-bookshelf-001.jpgMonday, February 18, 13
  23. 23. “Archival  Silences”  (?) -­‐ “Web  archives  will  be  the  digital  equivalent  of  the  dusty  archive,  often  well-­‐ curated  and  maintained,  but  hardly  used”                -­‐-­‐  (Meyer  et  al.,  2011,  p.  7) -­‐ “One  must  ask,  in  the  world  of  Internet  research,  why  do  Web  archives  appear  to  be   second  class  citizens?  “          -­‐-­‐      (Meyer  et  al.,  2011,  p.  9  )   -­‐ “Web  archiving  infrastructure  receives  scholarly  and  non-­‐scholarly  attention;  the   archived  materials  –  the  primary  source  material  –  gain  less  notice”    -­‐-­‐    (Rogers   2013,  p.  85) -­‐ “There  is  a  growing  gulf  in  web  archiving  between  the  researchers  who  want  to   use  web  artifacts  to  study  in  their  Wield  and  the  information  professional  who  serve   information  needs”      -­‐-­‐  (Dougherty  &  Heuvel  2010,  p.  6)Image source: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Books/Pix/pictures/2009/10/16/1255686935351/Dusty-bookshelf-001.jpgMonday, February 18, 13
  24. 24. A  short  history  of  Web  archivesMonday, February 18, 13
  25. 25. A  short  history  of  Web  archives -­‐  1996-­‐1998  Web  archive  as  a  Web  indexMonday, February 18, 13
  26. 26. A  short  history  of  Web  archives -­‐  1996-­‐1998  Web  archive  as  a  Web  index -­‐ 1999-­‐  Web  archives  as  special  collectionsMonday, February 18, 13
  27. 27. A  short  history  of  Web  archives -­‐  1996-­‐1998  Web  archive  as  a  Web  index -­‐ 1999-­‐  Web  archives  as  special  collections -­‐ 2000-­‐The  national  turn  in  Web  archivingMonday, February 18, 13
  28. 28. A  short  history  of  Web  archives -­‐  1996-­‐1998  Web  archive  as  a  Web  index -­‐ 1999-­‐  Web  archives  as  special  collections -­‐ 2000-­‐The  national  turn  in  Web  archiving -­‐ 2005  -­‐  Emerging  Web  archiving  theoryMonday, February 18, 13
  29. 29.  1.  Web  Archive  as  a  Web  Index -­‐ 1996-­‐  the  Internet  Archive  and  the  Wayback  Machine -­‐ Crawlers  as  the  ultimate  collection-­‐makers  of  the  Web -­‐ Navigational  tool  -­‐  together  with  the  Alexa  Toolbar,   providing  solution  to  accessing  broken  links   -­‐ Organizational  tool  -­‐  borrowing  from  Library  Science   and  Scientometrics -­‐ Web  archive  as  a  digital  library Image: http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/threatlevel/images/2008/05/07/brewster_kahle_630x.jpgMonday, February 18, 13
  30. 30. Alexa ToolbarInternet Archive Wayback MachineMonday, February 18, 13
  31. 31. Monday, February 18, 13
  32. 32.  2.  Web  Archives  as  Special  Collections • Foot  and  Schneider  1999  -­‐  “Web  Sphere  Analysis” • Collections  of  elections,  natural  disasters  and  “transitions”   continue  to  dominate  the  Wield • Content  and  hyperlink  analysis  Monday, February 18, 13
  33. 33. Monday, February 18, 13
  34. 34. 3.  The  national  turn  in  Web  archiving Web  archiving  at  a  national  scale  proposes  new  questions  and   challenges: -­‐ What  is  a  national  Web?  How  to  deWine  national  cultural   heritage  on  the  Web? -­‐ Scale:  full  domain  harvest  (e-­‐depot)  or  curation?   -­‐ Selection  criteria  and  policy -­‐ Infrastructure,  Formats,  Accessibility -­‐ How  is  a  web  archive  different  from  other  digital  collections   maintained  by  national  libraries?  Web  archives  as   institutionsMonday, February 18, 13
  35. 35. http://timeline.webarchivists.org/Monday, February 18, 13
  36. 36. 4.  Emerging  Web  Archiving  TheoryMonday, February 18, 13
  37. 37. 4.  Emerging  Web  Archiving  Theory Some  distinctions:  Monday, February 18, 13
  38. 38. 4.  Emerging  Web  Archiving  Theory Some  distinctions:   -­‐ Web  archives  as  tools  for  research  /as  an  object  of  studyMonday, February 18, 13
  39. 39. 4.  Emerging  Web  Archiving  Theory Some  distinctions:   -­‐ Web  archives  as  tools  for  research  /as  an  object  of  study -­‐ Web  History  /  Digital  HistoryMonday, February 18, 13
  40. 40. 4.  Emerging  Web  Archiving  Theory Some  distinctions:   -­‐ Web  archives  as  tools  for  research  /as  an  object  of  study -­‐ Web  History  /  Digital  History -­‐ Website  /  Website  in  its  archived  environmentMonday, February 18, 13
  41. 41. 4.  Emerging  Web  Archiving  Theory Some  distinctions:   -­‐ Web  archives  as  tools  for  research  /as  an  object  of  study -­‐ Web  History  /  Digital  History -­‐ Website  /  Website  in  its  archived  environment -­‐ Digitized  objects  /  Digital  Objects  /  “Re-­‐born  digital   objects”  (Brügger  2012)Monday, February 18, 13
  42. 42. Types  of  Web  Historiography  enabledMonday, February 18, 13
  43. 43. Types  of  Web  Historiography  enabled Rogers (2013):Monday, February 18, 13
  44. 44. Types  of  Web  Historiography  enabled Rogers (2013): - Single site historiographyMonday, February 18, 13
  45. 45. Types  of  Web  Historiography  enabled Rogers (2013): - Single site historiography - Collection makingMonday, February 18, 13
  46. 46. Types  of  Web  Historiography  enabled Rogers (2013): - Single site historiography - Collection making - Link analysis, while attempting to figure out what is missingMonday, February 18, 13
  47. 47. Types  of  Web  Historiography  enabled Rogers (2013): - Single site historiography - Collection making - Link analysis, while attempting to figure out what is missing - Evolution of digital objects (such as source code, cookies or tracking devices)Monday, February 18, 13
  48. 48. Single website history - Capture history of website,andplayback as screencast documentary (time-lapsedphotography)Monday, February 18, 13
  49. 49. "Google and the politics of tabs" by Govcom.org, Amsterdam, 2008.Monday, February 18, 13
  50. 50. Collection making. Build collections from the archive(e.g., Dutch extremist sites by NRC Handelsblad)Monday, February 18, 13
  51. 51. Historical link analysis over time Ben-David (2011)Monday, February 18, 13
  52. 52. Weltevrede & Helmond 2012Monday, February 18, 13
  53. 53. Ghostery detecting trackers on an archived frontpage of the New York Times from 16 October 2006 in the Internet Archive. Helmond (2013) Number of trackers per year on the New York Times frontpage. Green: ad, orange: tracker, blue: analytics, pink: widget. Categorization provided by Ghostery.Monday, February 18, 13
  54. 54. Types  of  Web  Historiography  precludedMonday, February 18, 13
  55. 55. Types  of  Web  Historiography  precluded -­‐ (Most)  Web  archives  are  not  searchableMonday, February 18, 13
  56. 56. Types  of  Web  Historiography  precluded -­‐ (Most)  Web  archives  are  not  searchable -­‐ (Most)  Web  archives  are  not  accessible  onlineMonday, February 18, 13
  57. 57. Types  of  Web  Historiography  precluded -­‐ (Most)  Web  archives  are  not  searchable -­‐ (Most)  Web  archives  are  not  accessible  online -­‐ Cross-­‐collection  comparison  is  difWicultMonday, February 18, 13
  58. 58. Types  of  Web  Historiography  precluded -­‐ (Most)  Web  archives  are  not  searchable -­‐ (Most)  Web  archives  are  not  accessible  online -­‐ Cross-­‐collection  comparison  is  difWicult -­‐ Wayback  machine  “jump  cuts  through  time”  (Rogers,  2013)Monday, February 18, 13
  59. 59. WebART project Web Archive Retrieval Tools Jaap Kamps, Richard Rogers, Arjen de Vries, Paul Doorenbosch, René Voorburg, Victor-Jan Vos Anat Ben-David, Hugo Huurdeman, Thaer Sammar http://webarchiving.nlMonday, February 18, 13
  60. 60. Monday, February 18, 13
  61. 61. THE INTERFACE http://178.228.147.61:8080/Monday, February 18, 13
  62. 62. “DICTATORS” FREQUENCY OVER TIME 800 700 600 500 Mubarek Assad 400 Putin Kim Jung Il Fidel Castro Raul Castro 300 200 100 0 17/05/2011 25/08/2011 03/12/2011 12/03/2012 20/06/2012 28/09/2012 06/01/2013 16/04/2013 New articles about “dictators” over timeMonday, February 18, 13
  63. 63. Monday, February 18, 13
  64. 64. Monday, February 18, 13
  65. 65. WIRE “FORENSICS” https://www.google.com/fusiontables/DataSource?docid=1uK740ETdt-Vva9lLd63h3_2hAKguAyjCS6n1-wE#map:id=3Monday, February 18, 13
  66. 66. IMAGE SEARCH RESULTSMonday, February 18, 13
  67. 67. IMAGE TIMELINE http://labs.timelessfuture.com/timeline/Monday, February 18, 13
  68. 68. Image: Luc Viatour / www.Lucnix.be Questions? Thank  you a.ben-­‐david@uva.nlMonday, February 18, 13

×