Explaining the Digital Divide

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Explaining the Digital Divide

  1. 1. Explaining the Global Digital Divide: The Impact of Public Policy Initiatives on Digital Opportunity and ICT Development David Yates, Girish Gulati, Anas Tawileh
  2. 2. Do national policy initiatives topromote information andcommunication technologies(ICTs) increase a nation’sdigital opportunity
  3. 3. Do national policy initiatives topromote information andcommunication technologies(ICTs) increase a nation’scapacity fore-government
  4. 4. Do public policy initiatives toadvance information andcommunication technologiesincrease a nation’s ICT accessand use
  5. 5. 171Countries
  6. 6. National regulatory authority (NRA) Competition for providing Policy basic telecommunicationVariables services Competition for providing mobile telecommunication services Financial investment
  7. 7. “ Nations that have a national telecommunications regulatory authority are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”
  8. 8. “ Nations that have a national telecommunications regulatory authority are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”
  9. 9. 0.8Digital Opportunity Index 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Have no NRA Have an NRA
  10. 10. Have no NRA Have NRAAverage DOI = 0.36 Average DOI = 0.41Japan, Taiwan, Israel S. Korea, Denmark, Iceland
  11. 11. 8 7IDI ICT Access & Use 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Have no NRA Have an NRA
  12. 12. Have no NRA Have NRA Average DOI = 2.75Average ICT A&U = 1.98 Luxembourg, Sweden, Japan, Taiwan, Israel Netherlands
  13. 13. “ Nations that have competition to provide telecommunication services are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”
  14. 14. “ Nations that have competition to provide telecommunication services are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”
  15. 15. 0.8Digital Opportunity Index 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Monopoly Partial Competition Full Competition
  16. 16. Monopoly Full Competition Average DOI = 0.29 Average DOI = 0.48Israel, Antigua, Jamaica S. Korea, Japan, Denmark
  17. 17. 0.8 0.7Digital Opportunity Index 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Monopoly Partial Competition Full Competition
  18. 18. Monopoly Full Competition Average DOI = 0.33 Average DOI = 0.43Bahamas, Brunei, Dominica S. Korea, Japan, Iceland
  19. 19. “ Nations that competition to provide telecommunication services are the most likely to have more inclusive ICT access and use ”
  20. 20. “ Nations that competition to provide telecommunication services are the most likely to have more inclusive ICT access and use ”
  21. 21. 8 7IDI ICT Access & Use 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Monopoly Partial Competition Full Competition
  22. 22. Monopoly Full Competition Average DOI = 3.50Average ICT A&U = 1.44 Luxembourg, Sweden, Israel, Kuwait, Uruguay Netherlands
  23. 23. 8 7IDI ICT Access & Use 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Monopoly Partial Competition Full Competition
  24. 24. Monopoly Full Competition Average DOI = 2.94Average ICT A&U = 1.65 Luxembourg, Sweden,Brunei, Kuwait, Costa Rica Netherlands
  25. 25. “ Nations that have competition to provide basic telecommunication services and (are the most likely to have increased e- government capacity ”
  26. 26. “ Nations that have competition to provide basic telecommunication services and (are the most likely to have increased e-government capacity ”
  27. 27. 1 0.9Web Measure Index 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Monopoly Partial Competition Full Competition
  28. 28. Monopoly Full Competition Average WMI= 0.23 Average DOI = 0.42 Sweden, USA & Norway CostaRica, Kuwait, Lebanon
  29. 29. “ Nations that encourage financial investment in ICTs are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”
  30. 30. “ Nations that encourage financial investment in ICTs are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”
  31. 31. 0.8 0.7Digital Opportunity Index 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Financial Investment Index
  32. 32. Bottom 1/3 Top 1/3 Average DOI = 0.26 Average DOI = 0.53Taiwan, Bahamas, St. Kitts S. Korea, Japan, Denmark
  33. 33. “ Nations that have a national telecommunications regulatory authority are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”
  34. 34. “ Nations that have competition to provide telecommunication services are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”
  35. 35. “ Nations that competition to provide telecommunication services are the most likely to have more inclusive ICT access and use ”
  36. 36. “ Nations that have competition to provide basic telecommunication services and (are the most likely to have increased e- government capacity ”
  37. 37. “ Nations that encourage financial investment in ICTs are the most likely to have increased digital opportunity ”

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