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Ethnic Estrangement and Social
Mobility in Macao:
Perspective of Youth on
Intergenerational Transfer of
Ritual and Traditi...
IS “THE WALL” STILL EXIST IN MACAO?
  Ethnic groups in Macao are socially separated from one another,
due to: socio-econo...
MACAO: BEFORE 1999

Courtesy from Macao Antigo 3
MACAO: BEFORE 1999

Courtesy from Macao Antigo 4
MACAO: HANDOVER 1999

5
MACAO NOW

Courtesy from Macao Antigo 6
SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN MACAO
Period
Size
(pre-colonial

2001
21.3 km2

2011
29.7 km2 ( 30%)

435,235

552,503 ( 25%)

2.78...
PROFILE OF MACAO CITIZEN
CHINESE

PORTUGUESE

MACANESE

  Macao/Hong Kong
born
  Traditional; Confucian
  Newly immigra...
INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSFER
 The fundamental mechanisms resulting to
either continuity or change in human

culture

(Caval...
WHAT ARE BEING TRANSFERRED?
3000: The number of
characters you will
have to learn to read
the basics Cantonese
in a newspa...
YOUTH IN MACAO: WHO AM I?
Chinese
•  Macao citizen
•  Ingenuous, trusting to
government’s effort in
developing Macao
•  Ch...
ETHNIC ESTRANGEMENT
•  Social discourse in Macao is split by ethnic group:
•  Dominant population interact among and speak...
SOCIAL MOBILIT Y
Chinese
Language

•  Cantonese language
function as cultural
identity
•  Almost no effort to learn
Portug...
SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
Chinese

Portuguese

Macanese

Commitment •  Retained traditional
Chinese
•  Sense of belonging
withi...
CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS
1. Rapid change in Macao cause ambiguous identity for the citizen.
2. In behavior towards split...
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Ethnic estrangement and social mobility in macao perspective of youth on intergenerational transfer of ritual and tradition

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Perception of youth in Macao over intergenerational transfer of family value and tradition post 1999

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Ethnic estrangement and social mobility in macao perspective of youth on intergenerational transfer of ritual and tradition

  1. 1. Ethnic Estrangement and Social Mobility in Macao: Perspective of Youth on Intergenerational Transfer of Ritual and Tradition Anastasia A. Lijadi Doctoral Candidate, Department of Psychology Faculty of Social Science - University of Macau Focus Group Thematic analysis N=28 Age 18-25 Macao citizen
  2. 2. IS “THE WALL” STILL EXIST IN MACAO?   Ethnic groups in Macao are socially separated from one another, due to: socio-economic history, culture and education level (Hao, 2005; Neto, Furham & Paz, 2007) 2
  3. 3. MACAO: BEFORE 1999 Courtesy from Macao Antigo 3
  4. 4. MACAO: BEFORE 1999 Courtesy from Macao Antigo 4
  5. 5. MACAO: HANDOVER 1999 5
  6. 6. MACAO NOW Courtesy from Macao Antigo 6
  7. 7. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN MACAO Period Size (pre-colonial 2001 21.3 km2 2011 29.7 km2 ( 30%) 435,235 552,503 ( 25%) 2.78 km2) Population 94.9% Chinese 2% Portuguese 3.1% Others GDP Education Gender Ratio US$ 6,514 billion 92% Chinese 0.9% Portuguese 6.8% Others ( 100%) US$ 36.43 billion ( 500%) Literacy: 91.3% Illiteracy: 8.7% Literacy: 95.6% Illiteracy: 4.4% 91.2 107.5 7
  8. 8. PROFILE OF MACAO CITIZEN CHINESE PORTUGUESE MACANESE   Macao/Hong Kong born   Traditional; Confucian   Newly immigrated Chinese   One country two systems approach: lift-up the social status of Chinese   Strong sense of belonging to Macao   Macau is my home;   Take part in preserve / promote Macao culture.   Newly immigrated Por tuguese   I am not sure how long I will stay in Macau;   Enjoy the rapid development of Macau   Developing Macau as Place identity   Who is Macanese (De Pina-Cabral, 2002)   1987-1999: immigrated overseas, less role in government   Increasing number of intermarriage with Chinese   More Chinese culture was adopted   Patua become extinct   Where do I belong? 8
  9. 9. INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSFER  The fundamental mechanisms resulting to either continuity or change in human culture (Cavalli-Sforza & Feldman, 1981).  A process allowing for the recognition of the modalities that situate a human being in relation to the generations that preceded that individual's birth (vertical transfer), based on life-span theory from Erikson, and intra-generation (horizontal transfer) between generations ( Vanderven 2011 ) 9
  10. 10. WHAT ARE BEING TRANSFERRED? 3000: The number of characters you will have to learn to read the basics Cantonese in a newspaper and the streets signs in Macao   Ambiguous identity   Ethnic estrangement   Social mobility (language, education, career)   Social relationships (commitment)   Religion 10
  11. 11. YOUTH IN MACAO: WHO AM I? Chinese •  Macao citizen •  Ingenuous, trusting to government’s effort in developing Macao •  Challenge the policy on increasing immigrant workers from mainland China •  Seek to maintain harmony in Macao •  Posses Portuguese travel document enabling wider opportunity for education and career Portuguese Macanese •  Portuguese Macao •  Actively take part and conscious on happenings and new laws in Macao •  Orientalized Portuguese Integration to Macao, while maintain own culture •  Experience culture shock when go to study in Portugal •  Less than 1% •  Macanese Identity •  What will happen to Macao? •  Aware of the needs to preserving Macao heritage, i.e., Patua creole language, art and traditions •  Less than 1% 11
  12. 12. ETHNIC ESTRANGEMENT •  Social discourse in Macao is split by ethnic group: •  Dominant population interact among and speak Cantonese •  Less population speak Portuguese and Macanese (~1%) •  English has become intermediaries language (ironically used in either: high level executive, foreign affairs, tertiary education; or: non skilled labor i.e., domestic helpers) •  Tourism and gambling industry are geared towards Putonghua friendly environment •  Digital communication change the speed and nature of social discourse, into snapshot, less impromptu or holistic experience. 12
  13. 13. SOCIAL MOBILIT Y Chinese Language •  Cantonese language function as cultural identity •  Almost no effort to learn Portuguese Portuguese •  Portuguese language function genetic inheritance •  Cantonese or Putonghua? Macanese •  Portuguese and Cantonese language function as genetic inheritance •  English language function as bridge in the society & future opportunity Education •  Chinese curriculum, memory driven •  Obedient •  individual oriented achievement •  Western curriculum, stimulate group discussion, problem solving and team work •  Balanced academic achievement, as well as physical education (sport), arts and individual interest. •  Multicultural classroom approach Career •  Short-term goal •  Macao offers better career opportunity than •  Parent advise on Portugal governmental job •  Government •  Tourism & casino-related •  Indirectly or non-casino related career 13 career
  14. 14. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS Chinese Portuguese Macanese Commitment •  Retained traditional Chinese •  Sense of belonging within Chinese, other ethnic groups are considered foreigner. •  Grandparents help raising children •  To continue family name •  Raise concern of quality of marriage •  Harmony •  Open minded •  Social circle among Portuguese •  Children raised by domestic helpers •  Raise concern of quality of marriage Religion •  Catholicism or •  Catholic by marriage or Christianity, following name only parents. •  No Religion •  More Individualistic •  Hedonistic goals •  Fatigue: Continuous effort to adapt due to intermarriage •  Very small social circle within Macanese community •  Children raised by domestic helpers •  Mix use of Portuguese, English and /or Cantonese at home 14
  15. 15. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS 1. Rapid change in Macao cause ambiguous identity for the citizen. 2. In behavior towards split society in Macao, tension caused by immigrant workers, shift in language proficiency; Macao need to be cautious to avoid socio-economic tension and in-equality. 3. In motivation for social mobility transfer: revisit the current Chinese education system in local schools, as well as opening non-gambling related career opportunity should be the agenda of the next decade in Macao. 4. In addressing social relationships transfer; the youth are vulnerable and showing “excessively” sense of acceptance with all changes, entranced by digital communication, and less believe in marriage. 5. Decrease in a number of religious followers; hedonism seeking behavior. 15

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