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Community and Public Health (Week 4)

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Community and Public Health (Week 4)

  1. 1. RATIO is called a proportion is the quotient of two numbers. Example is number of deaths per populationRATE is a ratio involving a time period. The count or measurement is observed over a period and then divided by its base or population of observation.
  2. 2. Incidence Rate -Measure the frequency of occurrence of the phenomenon during a given period of time. Deals only with NEW cases. Prevalence rate -Measures the proportion of the population which exhibits a particular disease at a particular time. This can only be determined following a survey of the population concerned. Deals with total (old and new) number of cases
  3. 3. Concepts of Incidence and Prevalence• Also known as attack rate, case, sickness rate morbidity rate• It refers to newly discovered cases of a particular disease• It answers the question “how frequent do cases of a particular disease occur during a given period of time”• Used when dealing with a cute conditions and accidents
  4. 4.  • It refers to the newly discovered and old cases of a particular disease over a population• Used when dealing with chronic conditions and disabilities• It answers the question “what proportion of the group or population is actually ill with a particular disease at a point in time.• Usually determined by means of survey
  5. 5. CRUDE BIRTH RATE (CBR)• This is rough of the fertility of the population• The rate is called crude for the following reasons• Only live births are counted• The denominator is the total population which includes children, old people and males• The rate is expressed in population unit of 1000 to make the figures meaningful
  6. 6. Crude Birth rate= number of live births x 1000 Midyear population
  7. 7. CRUDES DEATH RATE (CDR) • This is a measure of the risk of dying from all causes in a populationCrude Death rate= number of deaths x 1000 Midyear population
  8. 8. The Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Crude Death Rate (CBR) are statistical values that can be utilized to measure the growth or decline of a population.The Crude Birth Rate and Crude Death Rate are both measured by the rate of births or deaths respectively among a population of 1000. The CBR and CDR are determined by taking the total number of births or deaths in a population and dividing both values by a number to obtain the rate per 10000.
  9. 9. For example, if a country has a population of one million and 15,000 babies were born last year in that country, we divide both the 15,000 and 1,000,000 by 1000 to obtain the rate per 1000. Thus the Crude Birth Rate is 15 per 1000.The Crude Birth Rate is called "crude" because it does not take into account age or sex differences among the population. In our hypothetical country, the rate is 15 births for every 1000 people but the likelihood is that around 500 of those 1000 people are men and of the 500 who are women, only a certain percentage are capable of giving birth in a given year.
  10. 10. Crude Birth Rates of more than 30 per 1000 are considered high and rates of less than 18 per 1000 are considered low. The global Crude Birth Rate in 2005 is 20.15 per 1000.In 2005, Crude Birth Rates ranged from 8.33 per 1000 in Germany to 51.33 in Niger. The CBR in the United States in 2005 was 14.14 per 1000. Many African countries have very high Crude Birth Rates and women in those countries have a high Total Fertility Rate, meaning they give births to many children in their
  11. 11. MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE (MMR) • Measure the risk of dying due to the process of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium.• It also measures the adequacy of maternal health servicesMaternal Mortality rate= number of deaths due to pregnancy x 1000 Number of live births
  12. 12. INFANT MORATALITY RATE (IMR)• Measures the risk of dying due to infancy (under 1 year of age)• deaths under 1 year of age/ number of live births x 1000Infant Mortality Rate= deaths under one year of age x1000 Number of live births
  13. 13. NEONATAL MORTALITY RATE• Measures the risk of dying in the first four weeks of life of the infant (newborn)• The number of children dying under 28 days of age divided by the number of live births that year• ( Number of infant death / number of life birth ) X 1000
  14. 14. FETAL DEATH RATE• Measures the risk of dying before birth PERI-NATAL MORTALITY RATE• The word means around the period of birth ( a month or more before births and one month after birth)• Measures the loss of life in later
  15. 15. FORMULAS:Common Vital Statistical Indicators Fertility Rates Crude Birth rate= number of live births x 1000 Midyear population General Fertility Rate= Number of live births x1000 Midyear population of women 15-44 years of age
  16. 16. Mortality Rate Crude Death rate= number of deaths x 1000 Midyear population Specific Mortality rate= number of death in a specified group x 1000 Midyear population of the same specified group Cause-of-Death Rate= number of deaths from a specified cause x 1000 Midyear population
  17. 17. Infant Mortality Rate= deaths under one year of age x 1000 Number of live births Maternal Mortality rate= number of deaths due to pregnancy x 1000 Number of live births Proportionate Mortality rate= number of deaths from a particular cause x 100 Total DeathsSwaroop’s Index= Number of deaths among those 50 years and over X100 Total DeathsCase Fatality rate= number of Deaths from a specified cause x 100 Number of Cases of the same disease
  18. 18. Morbidity RatesIncidence Rate= number of new cases of disease developing from a period of time X 100 Population at risk of developing the disease Prevalence Rate= number of Old and new cases of a disease X 100 Population examined
  19. 19.  Sample problem 1:1. The crude birth rate is equal to the number of live births (B) in a year divided by the total midyear population (P). This number is then usually multiplied by 1000 to arrive at the actual crude birth rate. 2.Therefore the formula for crude birth rate is CBR= (B/P)* 1000 3. Example: in 2007, there were 3,250 births in the city with population of 223,000. Therefore: CBR=( 3,250/223,000)*1000 CBR= 14.57 So there were 14.57 births every 1000 people in the city.
  20. 20. Sample Problem 2:Town A has a total population of 50,000 as of July 1, 1998 (midyear) as per calendar year 1998 (Jan. to Dec.) 600 died. Which formula below should be used to compute crude death?Answer: 600 x 1000 50,000
  21. 21. Situation : Barangay A has the following data in year 20061. July 1 population: 254,3162. Live birth: 2,2893. Death from maternal cause: 154. Death from CVD: 3,0295. Death under 1 year of age: 236. Fetal death: 87. Death under 28 days: 88. Death due to rabies: 459. Registered cases of rabies 4510. People with pneumonia: 7911. People exposed with pneumonia: 2,59312. Total number of deaths from all causes: 10,898
  22. 22. The following questions refer to the data above1. What is the Crude birth rate of Barangay A?2.What is the cause specific death rate from cardiovascular disease?3.What is the Maternal Mortality rate of this barangay?4.What is the fetal death rate?5.What is the attack rate of pneumonia?6.Determine the case fatality rate of rabies in this barangay?
  23. 23. The following questions refer to the data above 1. What is the Crude birth rate of Barangay A? Ans. 9/10001. What is the cause specific death rate from cardiovascular disease? Ans. 1191/1000001. What is the Maternal Mortality rate of this barangay? Ans. 6.55/1000 or 7/10001. What is the fetal death rate? Ans. 3.49/1000 or 3/10001. What is the attack rate of pneumonia? Ans. 3.04/100 or 3/1001. Determine the case fatality ratio of rabies in this barangay? Ans. 100% or 1:1
  24. 24. Table 2. Cases and Deaths of Cholera in Lanao del Sur and Zamboanga del Norte, 2002 Lanao del Sur Zamboanga del Norte Age Group Cases Deaths CFR Cases Deaths CFR under 10 years 107 54 55 1210-24 years 156 30 39 325 years & over 667 304 97 11 Total 930 388 191 28
  25. 25. Table 2. Cases and Deaths of Cholera inLanao del Sur and Zamboanga del Norte, 2002 Zamboanga del Lanao del Sur Norte Case Death Case DeathAge Group s s CFR s s CFR under 10 years 107 54 50.5 55 12 21.810-24 years 156 30 19.2 39 3 7.625 years & over 667 304 45.6 97 11 11.3 Total 930 388 41.7 191 28 14.6

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