To become an employer of choice, the employer needs to realize that the leadership and management of human resources are important. It is difficult to recruit ,hire , train, and retain great employees; the challenge has increased, in part because the changing demographics.
The importance of human capital, whether it is called people, labor, intellectual capital, human resources, talent, or by some other term meaning resource that lies within employees and how they are organized, is increasingly recognize as critical to strategic success and competitive advantage. Creating job descriptions, developing job specifications, managing payroll and benefits, handling grievances.
Director of Human Resource Employment Asst. HR Director Director of TrainingBenefits Manager Manager Daily Operations Person and development Coordinator 1-2 Coordinators HR Coordinator Coordinator
Task Analysis- examines the task comprise a job to determine if they are necessary and to gauge their impact on the guest experience. When approved and listed, the tasks are incorporated into the job description. Job Description- is a detailed description of the activities and outcomes expected of the person performing specific job. Job Specification is sometimes part of job description and sometimes a separate document. It specifies the qualities and knowledge of the person needed for the job.
Productivity Standards-are establish for each position within the organization. Productivity is measured in how long it takes an associate to do a particular task or job function. Another way to measure productivity is to divide the sales by labor costs and arrive at a factor. example: $46,325 total sales = 5 factor $ 9,265 labor costs It means for every dollar in labor costs, $5 is generated.
Another way of expressing employee productivity is to divide the sales by the number of employees to arrive at the sales generated per employee. One good way to set productivity standards is to have a group of the best and quickest employees do the tasks and see how long they take; then, average the time it takes.
Recruitment- is finding the most suitable employee for an available position. The process begins with announcing opportunity; sometimes done first within the organization, then outside. Selection- means to select the best qualified candidate for the position.
Internal Sources Employees who are currently hold other positions in the organization External Sources Direct applicants Referrals Help-wanted Advertisements Electronic Recruiting Employment Agencies Colleges and Universities
Structured Interview- an interview in which questions are prepared in advance and the interviewer only ask questions listed on the interview sheet. Unstructured Interview- in this interview, general questions are prepared before interview, and interviewers ask additional questions in response to the candidate’s answer to questions. Semi-structured Interview- this is a combination of the structured and unstructured interview. A prepared list of questions is asked of all candidates, followed by other questions that arise from the prepared questions.
Directive Interview- it asks specific information. The interviewer uses printed form to record the answers to specific questions about the background of the applicant Non-Directive Interview- consists of questions that are broad, open-ended and required narrative answer
Group Interview- conducted by a panel or committee of three to five interviewers. This maybe done for considering applicants for supervisory or higher positions Team Method- a team of three interviewers may interview applicants separately and then compare notes afterwards. The team may use different types of questions.
Mental alertness Tests- also known as intelligence tests, verbal reasoning tests and personnel tests. Clerical Aptitude Tests- these measure the individual’s speed and accuracy dealing with similarities and clerical relationships. Shop Arithmetic Tests- these measure how an individual can work out mathematical problems.
Mechanical Aptitude Tests- these measures mechanical abilities or skills. Space Relations Tests- these measure the the ability to visualize a constructed object from a picture pattern. Proficiency, Trade or Achievement Tests- These measure the individual’s proficiency on the job or trade in which he has prior experience.
Vocational Interest Tests- Designed to discover the patterns of employee interest and thus suggest what types of work may be satisfying to the individual. Dexterity and Manipulation Tests- these test are given to the applicants for jobs requiring manual skills, especially the use of fingers. Personality Tests- these measure personality characteristics which are considered to be the basis of success in the job.
Orientation- is a way to introduce new employees to the company and the specifics of the work place and associates. At the orientation, new employees learn details about corporation’s history, policies, procedures, and compensation and benefits.
Training – a carefully planned and handled effort of management through competent instructors, to impart “know-how” and to develop and improve certain phases of an individual’s skills, attitudes, discipline, behavior or knowledge, to make him either more effective on his present job or better qualified for another job.
Apprenticeship- a work-study training method that teaches job skills through combination of structured on the job training and classroom training. Simulations- a training method that represents real-life situation, with trainees making decisions resulting in in outcomes that mirror what would happen on the job.
Certification Training- enables individual to gain corporate or professional certification by attaining passing scores on practical or theoretical tests. These tests are generally job specific and are helpful in motivating employees. Corporate Requires Training- includes many workshops and seminars on topics such as safety, workplace values, ethics, harassment, supporting service excellence , etc.
On the Job Training- it helps to maintain standards by having managers, supervisors, trainers, or fellow employees coach individuals in the most effective way to do the required work. It allows the trainee to quickly learn the best way to do the work based on the experience of trial and error.
Performance Appraisal- compares an actual performance with pre-established standards.Methods of Performance Appraisal Making Comparisons- compare one individual performance with that of others. Simple Ranking Paired-comparison method
Methods of Performance Appraisal Rating Individuals- looking at each employee’s performance relative to a uniform set of standards, the measurement may evaluate employees in terms of attributes believed desirable. Graphic Rating Scale Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
Methods of Performance Appraisal Measuring Results- performance measurement that focus on managing objective, measurable results of a job or work group. Management by Objectives
Development- Natural progression from appraisal. The employee and his or her supervisor make a development plan. The plan will outline development activity and indicate when the development will take place.
Employee compensation and benefits are basically divided into four categories:1. Guaranteed pay – monetary (cash) reward paid by an employer to an employee based on employee/employer relations. The most common form of guaranteed pay is the basic salary.2. Variable pay – monetary (cash) reward paid by an employer to an employee that is contingent on discretion, performance or results achieved. The most common forms are bonuses and sales incentives.3. Benefits – programs an employer uses to supplement employees’ compensation, such as paid time-off, medical insurance, company car, and more.4. Equity-based compensation – a plan using the employer’s share as compensation. The most common examples are stock options.
There is a critical shortage problem.. There is an increased focus on employee retention. There is increased use of flextime. Food and Beverage management positions are difficult to fill. There are fewer people in the labor pool with basic reading, writing , and math skills.
Legal issues in hospitality employment are increasing concern to hospitality operators as more lawsuits are brought against them. Training has become more important as hospitality corporations strive to gain a competitive advantage by offering outstanding guests service