A manager alone cannot perform all the tasks assigned to him. In order to meet the targets, the manager should delegate authority.
All people who have the authority should know what is the scope of their authority is and they shouldn’t misutilize it. Authority is the right to give commands, orders and get the things done. The top level management has greatest authority. Authority always flows from top to bottom. It explains how a superior gets work done from his subordinate by clearly explaining what is expected of him and how he should go about it. Authority should be accompanied with an equal amount of responsibility. Delegating the authority to someone else doesn’t imply escaping from accountability. Accountability still rest with the person having the utmost authority.
If the tasks for which he was held responsible are not completed, then he should not give explanations or excuses. Responsibility without adequate authority leads to discontent and dissatisfaction among the person. Responsibility flows from bottom to top. The middle level and lower level management holds more responsibility. The person held responsible for a job is answerable for it. If he performs the tasks assigned as expected, he is bound for praises. While if he doesn’t accomplish tasks assigned as expected, then also he is answerable for that.
For example, if ’A’ is given a task with sufficient authority, and ’A’ delegates this task to B and asks him to ensure that task is done well, responsibility rest with ’B’, but accountability still rest with ’A’. The top level management is most accountable. Being accountable means being innovative as the person will think beyond his scope of job. Accountability, in short, means being answerable for the end result. Accountability can’t be escaped. It arises from responsibility.
HRMPS 15 Chapter 2
CHAPTER 2 HRM ITS FUNCTIONS ANDROLES IN THE ORGANIZATION
Human Resource ManagementDefined:• Process involve in managing people in the organization• It covers all activities dealing with the management of people in an organization.
Functions of HRM in the Organization1. Promoting and enhancing the development of work effectiveness2. Advancement of the human resource in the organization3. Includes managerial functions such as: organizing, directing, and controlling of the human resource of an organization.“Most valued asset of the organization is the people”
Organization• Organization is subsidiary to management.• It holds the different divisions and units of the firm as one and the people as a team, working work efficiently to attain their goals.
Organizational Structure• The framework, typically hierarchical, within which an organization arranges its lines of authority and communications, and allocates rights and duties. Organizational structure determines the manner and extent to which roles, power, and responsibilities are delegated, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between levels of management.• An organizational chart illustrates the organizational structure.•
Departmentalization or Division of WorkProcess of forming employees into groups toaccomplish specific organizational goals.Departments can be organized according tofunctions workers perform, as in accountingand human resource departments.
Principles of Delegation of Responsibility and Authority• Delegation of Authority means division of authority and powers downwards to the subordinate.• Delegation is about entrusting someone else to do parts of your job.• Delegation of authority can be defined as subdivision and sub-allocation of powers to the subordinates in order to achieve effective results.
Elements of DelegationAuthority - in context of a business organization, authority can be defined as the power and right of a person to use and allocate the resources efficiently, to take decisions and to give orders so as to achieve the organizational objectives
Responsibility - is the duty of the person to complete the task assigned to him. A person who is given the responsibility should ensure that he accomplishes the tasks assigned to him
Accountability - means giving explanations for any variance in the actual performance from the expectations set. Accountability can not be delegated. Being accountable means being innovative as the person will think beyond his scope of job. Accountability, in short, means being answerable for the end result. Accountability can’t be escaped. It arises from responsibility.
Three Levels of Management• Administrative or Top Level of Management.• Executive or Middle Level of Management.3. Supervisory or Lower Level of Management.
Top Level of ManagementConsist of:• Board of Directors (BOD) and the Chief Executive Officer (CEO). T• Chief Executive Officer is also called General Manager (GM) or Managing Director (MD) or President.
Main Role of Top Management• The top level management determines the objectives, policies and plans of the organisation.• They mobilises (assemble and bring together) available resources.• The top level management does mostly the work of thinking, planning and deciding. Therefore, they are also called as the Administrators and the Brain of the organisation
• They spend more time in planning and organising.• They prepare long-term plans of the organisation which are generally made for 5 to 20 years.• The top level management has maximum authority and responsibility. They are the top or final authority in the organisation.• They require more conceptual skills and less technical Skills.
Middle Level of ManagementThe Middle Level Management consists of theDepartmental Heads (HOD), Branch Managers, and the Junior Executives.The Branch Managers are the head of a branch or local unit.The Junior Executives are Assistant Finance Managers, Assistant Purchase ManagersThe Middle level Management is selected by the Top Level Management.
Tasks of the Middle Management• Middle level management gives recommendations (advice) to the top level management.• It executes (implements) the policies and plans which are made by the top level management.• It co-ordinate the activities of all the departments.
• They also have to communicate with the top level Management and the lower level management.• They spend more time in co-ordinating and communicating.• They prepare short-term plans of their departments which are generally made for 1 to 5 years.
• The middle Level Management has limited authority and responsibility. They are intermediary between top and lower management. They are directly responsible to the chief executive officer and board of directors.• Require more managerial and technical skills and less conceptual skills
Lower Level of Management The lower level management consists of the- Foremen and the Supervisors. They are selected by the middle level management.- It is also called Operative / Supervisory level or First Line of Management
Duties of the Lower Management• Lower level management directs the workers / employees.• They develops morale in the workers.• It maintains a link between workers and the middle level management.
• The lower level management informs the workers about the decisions which are taken by the management. They also inform the management about the performance, difficulties, feelings, demands, etc., of the workers.• They spend more time in directing and controlling.• The lower level managers make daily, weekly and monthly plans.
• They have limited authority but important responsibility of getting the work done from the workers. They regularly report and are directly responsible to the middle level management.• Along with the experience and basic management skills, they also require more technical and communication skills.