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sex from skeleton


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sex from skeleton

  2. 2. <ul><li>It is a form of violent asphyxia caused by constricting the neck by some means, the force of constriction being other than weight of victims body . </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Ligature </li></ul><ul><li>Manual (Throttling) </li></ul><ul><li>Mugging </li></ul><ul><li>Bansdola </li></ul><ul><li>Garroting </li></ul><ul><li>Palmar </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ligature material used top strangulate the victim. asphyxia caused by constriction of neck other than its own body weight. </li></ul><ul><li>PM FINDINGS </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL- </li></ul><ul><li>Ligature mark </li></ul><ul><li>-Around the neck . </li></ul><ul><li>-Running horizontally. </li></ul><ul><li>-situated at lower part of </li></ul><ul><li>thyroid. </li></ul><ul><li>-Few abrasion seen. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li># of thyroid cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyoid usually not broken. </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of soft tissues of neck seen. </li></ul>Signs of struggle - found on other parts of the body.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Conjunctival hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>Petechial hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion & cyanosis of face. </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding from ear & nose. </li></ul><ul><li>Neck nail - scratches. </li></ul><ul><li>- bruises. </li></ul><ul><li>- ligature mark. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative pallor below neck. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>When bare hands is used to compress the neck & strangulate. </li></ul><ul><li>Death occurs d/t occlusion of blood vessel supplying blood to brain. Ex carotid arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid sinus pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation of vagus nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac arrest . </li></ul><ul><li>Vagal inhibition &death. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Carotid sinus pressure stimulates vagus cardiac arrest. </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid artery blockage unconsciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Jugular vein blockage congestion /hm. </li></ul><ul><li>Airway blockage O2 lack. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>EXTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>Bruising of the neck. </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasion on neck – finger nail marks. </li></ul><ul><li>-if one hand used –Thumb nail impression. </li></ul><ul><li>-if both hand used- Thumb nail impression of both hands seen. </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li># of thyroid. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater cornu of hyoid bone . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Neck is compressed or squeezed by holding it b/w the crook of the elbow or knee. </li></ul><ul><li>The attack is usually made from behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Neck will not show any evidence of violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Death - asphyxia. </li></ul><ul><li>- vagal inhibition. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Neck is compressed b/w 2 bamboo sticks, one held in front & another behind it. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be done by one bamboo stick /metal rod compressing over the neck against the ground . </li></ul><ul><li>GARROTING </li></ul><ul><li>A thin string is thrown around the neck of an unaware victim, from the back. The ligature material is then tightened rapidly with the help of two sticks tied at the free ends of the string, so as to constrict the neck strongly. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Is a combined form of violent asphyxia where the smothering & strangulation are performed together. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on the neck is applied by both hands. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Motive –all strangulation are homicidal. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common motive for manual strangulation was rape followed by domestic violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus if victim is female carefully look for evidence of sexual assault. </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal- </li></ul><ul><li>-manual str –never reported. </li></ul><ul><li>- ligature str- not uncommon . </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>DEFINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Asphyxia caused by lack of O2 in the atmosphere or by mechanical obstruction to the air passages by mechanical means other than constriction of neck & drowning . </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Entrapment . Choking </li></ul><ul><li>Gagging . Burking </li></ul><ul><li>Suffocating cases . Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Smothering . Overlying </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic asphyxia </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>ENTRAPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>d/t inadequate 02 in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental in nature </li></ul><ul><li>People find themselves trapped in a airtight enclosures .ex- child get trapped in discarded refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide, homicide are rare but do occur. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Person enters in an area where there is gross deficiency 02. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountaineering </li></ul><ul><li>Petrol or diesel tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual deep wells </li></ul><ul><li>Underground sewage drain system. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>DEFINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Is a form of asphyxia caused by mechanical occlusion of external air passages ex- the nose & mouth by hand, cloth, plastic bag, duct tape or such other material. </li></ul><ul><li>AUTOPSY FINDING </li></ul><ul><li>A circular pale area around the mouth & nose in often seen bluish discoloration, congested & petechial hm seen. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Abrasion, bruises &laceration may be found around the mouth & nose In homicidal /accidental/ suicidal. </li></ul><ul><li>Nail scratch mark. </li></ul><ul><li># of of nasal cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression & bleeding from nose. </li></ul><ul><li>Lips, gums & tongue may show bruising & laceration . </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth may be loose or dislocated. </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle marks may be present in different part of body. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Homicidal </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental very rare. </li></ul><ul><li>alcoholics </li></ul><ul><li>intoxicated </li></ul><ul><li>unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>epileptic </li></ul><ul><li>children-while playing. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>This occur when parent or some other adult shares the same bed with an infant. During sleep he/she may inadvertently roll over the infant asphyxiating it. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with petechial hm ,there may be evidence of flattening of nose & face or some time blood stain froth from mouth & nostrils . </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Refers to blockage of trachea or larynx by a foreign body ex- </li></ul><ul><li>- dentures </li></ul><ul><li>- fish bone </li></ul><ul><li>- food particle </li></ul><ul><li>- seeds </li></ul><ul><li>- aspiration of blood or </li></ul><ul><li>vomitus </li></ul><ul><li>death usually occurs from neurogenic cardiac arrest or hypoxia. </li></ul><ul><li>In epileptics death occurs d/t fall of tongue backwards . </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Even an object smaller than lumen of respiratory tract can bring about reflex spasm of air passages with fatal consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSE OF DEATH IN CHOKING </li></ul><ul><li>ASPHYXIA </li></ul><ul><li>VAGAL INHIBITION </li></ul><ul><li>LARYNGIAL SPASM </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from routine asphyxial finding there is presence of foreign body in respiratory tract. </li></ul><ul><li>MLI - accidental more commonly in children during playing, laughing, talking while eating </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>This is a condition of acc choking where a bolus of food produces complete obstruction of the larynx. It is called so b/c it mimics heart attack. It may be d/t- </li></ul><ul><li>Suppressed gag reflex –alcoholics ,drug intoxicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflex cardiac arrest –stimulation of laryngeal nerve endings. </li></ul><ul><li>The victim who was healthy apparently collapses & suddenly turns blue while eating . </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>This is strictly speaking a form of choking, the usual situation arises from a soft cloth being thrust into the mouth of a person to render him incapable of shouting. </li></ul><ul><li>d/t constant foreign body irritation there is pooling of saliva & death subsequently occurs d/t obstruction of air passages. </li></ul><ul><li>CAUL BIRTH –when child is born with his head covered by the amniotic sac it is unlikely to die of suffocation unless the membrane is incised at birth . </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Also c/a crush or compression asphyxia . </li></ul><ul><li>In this death occurs from pressure & fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Of the chest & or abdomen, thus if a person is crushed under a vehicle or a house collapse, or an earthquake, stampede. </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic asphyxia. </li></ul><ul><li>The steering wheel violently impinging on the drivers chest . </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to breath & dies d/t asphyxia. </li></ul><ul><li>It is mostly accidental. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>gross congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanosis </li></ul><ul><li>Petechae on face, neck & shoulders. </li></ul><ul><li>Dark discoloration of body above level of constriction, copious bleeding from mouth & nostrils. </li></ul><ul><li>Internally - sub pleural hm & Tardieu spots. </li></ul><ul><li>Injuries to chest- # of ribs ,laceration of lungs/ heart ,# of sternum. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Combination of smothering/ palmer strangulation & traumatic asphyxia resulting in death. </li></ul><ul><li>This method is invented by 2 criminals </li></ul><ul><li>William Burke </li></ul><ul><li>William Hare </li></ul><ul><li>who had planned the method-killed selected victim & sold their dead bodies to anatomy department. </li></ul><ul><li>Victim first intoxicated with alcohol. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>When inebriated, pinned to the ground first by burke who used to sit on the chest of the victim & cover his mouth & then compress the neck with one hand while the other partner Hare pulled the body of the victim round the room with feet . </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>