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Loon project

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Loon project

  1. 1. A Project Report on ‘Mechanism And Working Of Project Loon ’ Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for qualifying Master of Management Studies Of University of Mumbai Submitted To Rajiv Gandhi College Of Management Studies Project Under The Guideance: Prof.Mrs Smita Temgire Submitted by Mr. Anas Idris Roll No.: 01 Specialization: Information Technology For Academic Year 2015-16
  2. 2. A Project Report on ‘Mechanism And Working Of Project Loon’ Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for qualifying Master of Management Studies Of University of Mumbai Submitted To Rajiv Gandhi College Of Management Studies Project Under The Guideance: Prof.Mrs Smita Temgire Submitted by Mr. Anas Idris Roll No.: 01 Specialization: Information Technology For Academic Year 2015-16
  3. 3. Project Report On Mechanism And Working Of Project Loon DEVELOPED BY Mr.Anas Idris Project Under The Guideance: Prof.Mrs Smita Temgire Rajiv Gandhi College Of Management Studies Master of Management Studies(Information Technology) University Of Mumbai
  4. 4. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr.Anas Idris has successfully completed the PROJECT REPORT work as part of academic fulfillment of Master Of Management Studies Sem IV MRS.SMITA TEMGIRE Signiture Of Director Project Guide (With Rubber Stamp) Date:
  5. 5. DECLARATION I the undersigned hereby declare that the project report entitled “Mechanism And Working Of Project Loon” is an original work developed and submitted by me under the guidance of Prof. Smita. The empirical findings in this project report are not copied from any report and are true and best of my knowledge. DATE: ROLL NO.: 01 Signature of student Anas Idris
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With immense please we are presenting “Information Technology” Project report as part of the curriculum of ‘Master of Management Studies’. We wish to thank all the people who gave us unending support. I express my profound thanks to Director and Prof.Smita Temgire, project guide and all those who have indirectly guided and helped us in preparation of this project. We also like to extend our gratitude to all staff and our colleagues of College of Management, who provided moral support, a conductive work environment and the much-needed inspiration to conclude the project in time and a special thanks to my parents who are integral part of the project. Thanking you. Anas Idris
  7. 7. INDEX Sr.No Description Pg.No 1 Introduction 8 2 History Of Internet 9 3 History Of Loon 10 4 Research Methodology 11 5 Objectives 11 6 Internet Around The World 15 7 The Technology 28 8 How Loon Flies 30 9 Design 32 10 Working 36 11 Practical Parameters 39 12 The Loon Hosting 43 13 Advantages And Disadvantages 47 14 Future Aspects 49
  8. 8. 15 Conclusion 51 16 Questionnaire 52 17 Biblography 57
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION We think that internet have been reached throughout the world and whole is world is connected to each other through it. As are assumption is wrong as most part of the world does not even know about the word “INTERNET”. As for the awareness and for the growth of internet throughout the world a research and development project has been developed by GOOGLE . The moto of the project to provide internet all over the world What is Project LOON? Many of us think of the Internet as a global community. But two-thirds of the world’s population does not yet have Internet access. Project Loon is a network of balloons traveling on the edge of space, designed to connect people in rural and remote areas, help fill coverage gaps, and bring people back online after disasters. Project Loon is a research and development project being developed by Google with the mission of providing Internet access to rural and remote areas. The project uses high-altitude balloons placed in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 32 km (20 mi) to create an aerial wireless network with up to 3G-like speeds.
  10. 10. HISTORY OF INTERNET: The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. Initial concepts of packet networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, Great Britain, and France. The US Department of Defence awarded contracts as early as the 1960s for packet network systems, including the development of the ARPANET (which would become the first network to use the Internet Protocol.) The first message was sent over the ARPANET from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Packet switching networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit Network, and Telnet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of communications protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). In 1982, the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was introduced as the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET. In the early 1980s the NSF funded the establishment for national supercomputing centres at several universities, and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which also created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. Private connections to the Internet by commercial entities became widespread quickly, and the NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and commerce, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF's very high speed Backbone Network Service(vBNS), Internet2, and National Lambda Rail. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fibre optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. The Internet's takeover of the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007.Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking.
  11. 11. HISTORY In 2008, Google had considered contracting with or acquiring Space Data Corp., a company that sends balloons carrying small base stations about 20 miles (32 km) up in the air for providing connectivity to truckers and oil companies in the southern United States, but didn't do so. Unofficial development on the project began in 2011 under incubation in Google X with a series of trial runs in California's Central Valley. The project was officially announced as a Google project on 14 June 2013. On 16 June 2013, Google began a pilot experiment in New Zealand where about 30 balloons were launched in coordination with the Civil Aviation Authority from the Tekapo area in the South Island. About 50 local users in and around Christchurch and the Canterbury Region tested connections to the aerial network using special antennas.[1] After this initial trial, Google plans on sending up 300 balloons around the world at the 40th parallel south that would provide coverage to New Zealand, Australia, Chile, and Argentina. Google hopes to eventually have thousands of balloons flying in the stratosphere. In May 2014 Astro Teller announced that rather than negotiate a section of bandwidth that was free for them worldwide they would instead become a temporary base station that could be leased by the mobile operators of the country it was crossing over. In May-June 2014 Google tested its balloon-powered internet access venture in PiauI,Brazil, marking its first LTE experiments and launch near the equator. In 2014 Google partnered with France's Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) on the project.
  12. 12. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY As this project has research and develop for the worldwide net. The area have been covered worldwide where the net connection is present based upon the regions , countries and people or we can say the number of user of the internet. And collecting the data on basis of that the objectives have been decided. The data have been collected from the hundred countries across the world on basis of population and number of user in particular country OBJECTIVES: As the research have been started the main objectives of this project are:  An Internet World  Speed  To make sure internet reach every place so that in times of need people can get connected An Internet World: User An individual who has access to the Internet at home. This indicator does not record use, or frequency of use, but only access. In order to have access, the hardware equipment must be in working conditions, the Internet subscription service must be active, and the individual household member must have access to it at any time (there must be no barriers preventing the individual from using the Internet). The hardware equipment may or may not be owned by the household. There are no age limits (minimum or maximum), so an Internet user can be of any age. There can be multiple devices and services within the household. The data is collected through annual household surveys administered by individual countries based on ITU guidelines. The United Nations Statistics Division has recommended collection of data on households accessing the Internet also outside of home, but this is not a Core ICT Indicator. An
  13. 13. "Internet User" is therefore defined as an individual who can access the Internet, via computer or mobile device, within the home where the individual lives. Internet A world-wide computer network that can be accessed via a computer, mobile telephone, PDA, games machine, digital TV, etc. The Internet access service can be provided through a fixed (wired) or mobile network: analogue dial-up modem via standard telephone line, ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) or ADSL, Cable modem, High speed leased lines, Fiber, Powerline, Satellite broadband network, WiMAX, Fixed CDMA, Mobile broadband network (3G, e.g. UMTS) via a handset or card, Integrated SIM card in a computer, or USB modem. Around 40% of the world population has an internet connection today In 1995, it was less than 1%.The number of internet users has increased tenfold from 1999 to 2013.The first billion was reached in 2005. The second billion in 2010. The third billion in 2014. Hence the project loon aims or the main objective of project loon is growth of internet. Speed: As the project is been research and developed by google to provide internet service to the user where the internet has not even been reached its also assure that the connection do also have a speed. Hence the decision is made of how to place and where to place the balloon is been decided by the developers The project uses high-altitude balloons placed in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 32 km (20 mi) to create an aerial wireless network with up to 3G-like speeds. Connect the world with people: As we know internet helps to connect the people as mostly people are unaware of that they lack behind.
  14. 14. It can help in the following way: SO CLOSE…YET SO FAR AWAY! One of the most important benefits offered from the wide applications of the internet is communication. The internet managed to eliminate distances and provide people with a unique opportunity to talk, watch and have fun with their loved ones, friends or acquaintances. Chat rooms, messenger services, emails and conferencing programs are the most common uses for communicating over the internet. People can enjoy the benefits of the cheap communication and maintain close contact with loved ones from all over the world. THE UNEMPLOYMENT AGENT Another benefit that the internet has brought into our lives is that ever since the internet has been introduced, new areas of jobs and careers have opened up to the public. Web designing, computer technician and programmer, are among the many that are found at their peak demand for employers. Almost every company nowadays, needs to have a website that promotes its products and patents that web designers are among the most highly requested professionals needed. Furthermore, consultants, sellers, dealers and all sorts of professionals are needed to promote and help people over the internet. The training needed is of high education and career opportunities through the web are exquisite. Housewives, mothers and disabled people, can now have a chance to work from their house and earn money that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. THE TREASURE BANK The biggest benefit of the internet can be found in the educational sector. Educators can obtain learning material from it, prepare courses online and deliver audio/visual information to students. For instructors it is a valuable source for referencing material and enhancing the knowledge of their students. The Internet provides a great place for conferencing and collaborating with students from all over the world. Students can search for information regarding their school courses via electronic libraries who offer a great variety of journals and scientific articles. The resources available over the net cover almost every aspect of the school curriculum and students have a valuable machine for enhancing their knowledge and expanding their assigned work.
  15. 15. INTERNET AROUND THE WORLD Around 40% of the world population has an internet connection today. In 1995, it was less than 1%.The number of internet users has increased tenfold from 1999 to 2013. The first billion was reached in 2005. The second billion in 2010. The third billion in 2014. The chart and table below show the number of global internet users per year since 1993:
  16. 16. Year (July 1) Internet Users Users Growth World Population Population Growth Penetration (% of Pop. with Internet) 2014* 2,925,249,355 7.9% 7,243,784,121 1.14% 40.4% 2013 2,712,239,573 8.0% 7,162,119,430 1.16% 37.9% 2012 2,511,615,523 10.5% 7,080,072,420 1.17% 35.5% 2011 2,272,463,038 11.7% 6,997,998,760 1.18% 32.5% 2010 2,034,259,368 16.1% 6,916,183,480 1.19% 29.4% 2009 1,752,333,178 12.2% 6,834,721,930 1.20% 25.6% 2008 1,562,067,594 13.8% 6,753,649,230 1.21% 23.1% 2007 1,373,040,542 18.6% 6,673,105,940 1.21% 20.6% 2006 1,157,500,065 12.4% 6,593,227,980 1.21% 17.6% 2005 1,029,717,906 13.1% 6,514,094,610 1.22% 15.8% 2004 910,060,180 16.9% 6,435,705,600 1.22% 14.1% 2003 778,555,680 17.5% 6,357,991,750 1.23% 12.2% 2002 662,663,600 32.4% 6,280,853,820 1.24% 10.6% 2001 500,609,240 21.1% 6,204,147,030 1.25% 8.1% 2000 413,425,190 47.2% 6,127,700,430 1.26% 6.7% 1999 280,866,670 49.4% 6,051,478,010 1.27% 4.6% 1998 188,023,930 55.7% 5,975,303,660 1.30% 3.1% 1997 120,758,310 56.0% 5,898,688,340 1.33% 2.0% 1996 77,433,860 72.7% 5,821,016,750 1.38% 1.3% 1995 44,838,900 76.2% 5,741,822,410 1.43% 0.8% 1994 25,454,590 79.7% 5,661,086,350 1.47% 0.4% 1993 14,161,570 5,578,865,110 0.3% * estimate for July 1, 2014 Source: Internet Live Stats (elaboration of data by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and United Nations Population Division)
  17. 17. Internet Users by Region: The Specification of the internet user is done regionally in terms of Continents As per the result it can be seen that many users are from Asia region followed by America and Eurpoe.
  18. 18. Being such a vast continent we can see that the percentage of internet user are less according to population and most of the countries are non internet user countries. Internet Users by Country In 2014, nearly 75% (2.1 billion) of all internet users in the world (2.8 billion) live in the top 20 countries. The remaining 25% (0.7 billion) is distributed among the other 178 countries, each representing less than 1% of total users. China, the country with most users (642 million in 2014), represents nearly 22% of total, and has more users than the next three countries combined (United States, India, and Japan). Among the top 20 countries, India is the one with the lowest penetration: 19% and the highest yearly growth rate. At the opposite end of the range, United States, Germany, France, U.K., and Canada have the highest penetration: over 80% of population in these countries has an internet connection. An Internet User is defined as an individual who has access to the Internet at home, via computer or mobile device. List of Countries by Internet Usage (2014) Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 1 China 641,601,0 70 4% 24,021,0 70 1,393,783, 836 0.59% 46.03% 19.24% 21.97% 2 United States 279,834,2 32 7% 17,754,8 69 322,583,00 6 0.79% 86.75% 4.45% 9.58% 3 India 243,198,9 14% 29,859,5 1,267,401, 1.22% 19.19% 17.50% 8.33%
  19. 19. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 22 98 849 4 Japan 109,252,9 12 8% 7,668,53 5 126,999,80 8 -0.11% 86.03% 1.75% 3.74% 5 Brazil 107,822,8 31 7% 6,884,33 3 202,033,67 0 0.83% 53.37% 2.79% 3.69% 6 Russia 84,437,79 3 10% 7,494,53 6 142,467,65 1 -0.26% 59.27% 1.97% 2.89% 7 Germany 71,727,55 1 2% 1,525,82 9 82,652,256 -0.09% 86.78% 1.14% 2.46% 8 Nigeria 67,101,45 2 16% 9,365,59 0 178,516,90 4 2.82% 37.59% 2.46% 2.30% 9 United Kingdom 57,075,82 6 3% 1,574,65 3 63,489,234 0.56% 89.90% 0.88% 1.95% 10 France 55,429,38 2 3% 1,521,36 9 64,641,279 0.54% 85.75% 0.89% 1.90% 11 Mexico 50,923,06 0 7% 3,423,15 3 123,799,21 5 1.20% 41.13% 1.71% 1.74% 12 South Korea 45,314,24 8 8% 3,440,21 3 49,512,026 0.51% 91.52% 0.68% 1.55% 13 Indonesia 42,258,82 4 9% 3,468,05 7 252,812,24 5 1.18% 16.72% 3.49% 1.45%
  20. 20. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 14 Egypt 40,311,56 2 10% 3,748,27 1 83,386,739 1.62% 48.34% 1.15% 1.38% 15 Viet Nam 39,772,42 4 9% 3,180,00 7 92,547,959 0.95% 42.97% 1.28% 1.36% 16 Philippin es 39,470,84 5 10% 3,435,65 4 100,096,49 6 1.73% 39.43% 1.38% 1.35% 17 Italy 36,593,96 9 2% 857,489 61,070,224 0.13% 59.92% 0.84% 1.25% 18 Turkey 35,358,88 8 3% 1,195,61 0 75,837,020 1.21% 46.62% 1.05% 1.21% 19 Spain 35,010,27 3 3% 876,986 47,066,402 0.30% 74.38% 0.65% 1.20% 20 Canada 33,000,38 1 7% 2,150,06 1 35,524,732 0.98% 92.89% 0.49% 1.13% 21 Poland 25,666,23 8 2% 571,136 38,220,543 0.01% 67.15% 0.53% 0.88% 22 Colombia 25,660,72 5 7% 1,739,10 8 48,929,706 1.26% 52.44% 0.68% 0.88% 23 Argentina 24,973,66 0 7% 1,600,72 2 41,803,125 0.86% 59.74% 0.58% 0.86% 24 South 24,909,85 14% 3,022,36 53,139,528 0.69% 46.88% 0.73% 0.85%
  21. 21. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users Africa 4 2 25 Iran 22,200,70 8 9% 1,850,44 5 78,470,222 1.32% 28.29% 1.08% 0.76% 26 Australia 21,176,59 5 9% 1,748,05 4 23,630,169 1.23% 89.62% 0.33% 0.73% 27 Morocco 20,207,15 4 10% 1,851,33 5 33,492,909 1.47% 60.33% 0.46% 0.69% 28 Pakistan 20,073,92 9 9% 1,731,25 0 185,132,92 6 1.64% 10.84% 2.56% 0.69% 29 Thailand 19,386,15 4 8% 1,438,01 8 67,222,972 0.32% 28.84% 0.93% 0.66% 30 Saudi Arabia 17,397,17 9 11% 1,656,94 2 29,369,428 1.88% 59.24% 0.41% 0.60% 31 Madagas car 17,321,75 6 16% 2,417,59 0 23,571,962 2.82% 73.48% 0.33% 0.59% 32 Ukraine 16,849,00 8 9% 1,433,45 5 44,941,303 -0.66% 37.49% 0.62% 0.58% 33 Kenya 16,713,31 9 16% 2,313,82 0 45,545,980 2.69% 36.70% 0.63% 0.57% 34 Netherla nds 16,143,87 9 3% 398,245 16,802,463 0.26% 96.08% 0.23% 0.55%
  22. 22. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 35 Venezuel a 14,548,42 1 7% 1,013,85 2 30,851,343 1.47% 47.16% 0.43% 0.50% 36 Peru 12,583,95 3 7% 857,081 30,769,077 1.30% 40.90% 0.42% 0.43% 37 Malawi 12,150,36 2 16% 1,698,74 2 16,829,144 2.85% 72.20% 0.23% 0.42% 38 Uzbekista n 11,914,66 5 12% 1,229,67 0 29,324,920 1.35% 40.63% 0.40% 0.41% 39 Mali 11,862,55 9 16% 1,678,08 1 15,768,227 3.05% 75.23% 0.22% 0.41% 40 Chile 11,686,74 6 7% 749,968 17,772,871 0.87% 65.76% 0.25% 0.40% 41 Romania 11,178,47 7 2% 218,123 21,640,168 -0.27% 51.66% 0.30% 0.38% 42 Banglade sh 10,867,56 7 9% 896,332 158,512,57 0 1.22% 6.86% 2.19% 0.37% 43 Kazakhst an 9,850,123 11% 986,929 16,606,878 1.01% 59.31% 0.23% 0.34% 44 Belgium 9,441,116 3% 242,233 11,144,420 0.36% 84.72% 0.15% 0.32% 45 Sudan 9,307,189 15% 1,242,83 9 38,764,090 2.11% 24.01% 0.54% 0.32%
  23. 23. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 46 United Arab Emirates 8,807,226 10% 774,914 9,445,624 1.06% 93.24% 0.13% 0.30% 47 Sweden 8,581,261 1% 110,156 9,631,261 0.63% 89.10% 0.13% 0.29% 48 Czech Republic 8,322,168 3% 213,353 10,740,468 0.36% 77.48% 0.15% 0.28% 49 Tanzania 7,590,794 16% 1,074,11 8 50,757,459 3.05% 14.96% 0.70% 0.26% 50 Hungary 7,388,776 2% 147,846 9,933,173 -0.22% 74.38% 0.14% 0.25% 51 Switzerla nd 7,180,749 3% 227,983 8,157,896 0.99% 88.02% 0.11% 0.25% 52 Austria 7,135,168 3% 183,661 8,526,429 0.37% 83.68% 0.12% 0.24% 53 Portugal 7,015,519 2% 156,800 10,610,304 0.02% 66.12% 0.15% 0.24% 54 Algeria 6,669,927 10% 633,077 39,928,947 1.84% 16.70% 0.55% 0.23% 55 Uganda 6,523,949 17% 940,168 38,844,624 3.37% 16.79% 0.54% 0.22% 56 Greece 6,438,325 2% 142,859 11,128,404 0.00% 57.85% 0.15% 0.22% 57 Ecuador 6,012,003 8% 423,777 15,982,551 1.55% 37.62% 0.22% 0.21% 58 Israel 5,928,772 3% 197,273 7,822,107 1.15% 75.80% 0.11% 0.20%
  24. 24. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 59 Syria 5,860,788 9% 480,524 21,986,615 0.40% 26.66% 0.30% 0.20% 60 Hong Kong SAR 5,751,357 9% 450,747 7,259,569 0.77% 79.22% 0.10% 0.20% 61 Azerbaija n 5,737,223 11% 578,231 9,514,887 1.08% 60.30% 0.13% 0.20% 62 Denmark 5,419,113 3% 139,859 5,640,184 0.38% 96.08% 0.08% 0.19% 63 Ghana 5,171,993 15% 689,264 26,442,178 2.08% 19.56% 0.37% 0.18% 64 Finland 5,117,660 3% 129,157 5,443,497 0.32% 94.01% 0.08% 0.18% 65 Dominica n Republic 5,072,674 7% 341,197 10,528,954 1.20% 48.18% 0.15% 0.17% 66 Tunisia 5,053,704 10% 446,032 11,116,899 1.09% 45.46% 0.15% 0.17% 67 Norway 4,895,885 2% 105,347 5,091,924 0.98% 96.15% 0.07% 0.17% 68 Belarus 4,856,969 9% 419,164 9,307,609 -0.52% 52.18% 0.13% 0.17% 69 Yemen 4,778,488 11% 473,030 24,968,508 2.30% 19.14% 0.34% 0.16% 70 Serbia 4,705,141 2% 83,759 9,468,378 -0.44% 49.69% 0.13% 0.16% 71 Slovakia 4,507,849 2% 103,037 5,454,154 0.07% 82.65% 0.08% 0.15%
  25. 25. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 72 Singapor e 4,453,859 10% 396,302 5,517,102 1.95% 80.73% 0.08% 0.15% 73 Angola 4,286,821 17% 608,233 22,137,261 3.10% 19.36% 0.31% 0.15% 74 Sri Lanka 4,267,507 9% 335,915 21,445,775 0.81% 19.90% 0.30% 0.15% 75 New Zealand 4,162,209 9% 85,828 4,551,349 1.01% 91.45% 0.06% 0.14% 76 Bulgaria 4,083,950 1% 59,858 7,167,998 -0.76% 56.97% 0.10% 0.14% 77 Bolivia 3,970,587 8% 283,474 10,847,664 1.65% 36.60% 0.15% 0.14% 78 Ireland 3,817,491 3% 124,604 4,677,340 1.08% 81.62% 0.06% 0.13% 79 Nepal 3,411,948 9% 279,504 28,120,740 1.16% 12.13% 0.39% 0.12% 80 Jordan 3,375,307 12% 359,976 7,504,812 3.18% 44.98% 0.10% 0.12% 81 Lebanon 3,336,517 12% 350,316 4,965,914 2.99% 67.19% 0.07% 0.11% 82 Senegal 3,194,190 16% 448,824 14,548,171 2.94% 21.96% 0.20% 0.11% 83 Cuba 3,090,796 6% 171,379 11,258,597 -0.06% 27.45% 0.16% 0.11% 84 Kuwait 3,022,010 12% 325,256 3,479,371 3.29% 86.86% 0.05% 0.10% 85 Zimbabw e 2,852,757 17% 406,610 14,599,325 3.18% 19.54% 0.20% 0.10%
  26. 26. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 86 Croatia 2,780,534 2% 50,350 4,272,044 -0.41% 65.09% 0.06% 0.10% 87 Guatemal a 2,716,781 9% 215,550 15,859,714 2.53% 17.13% 0.22% 0.09% 88 Iraq 2,707,928 12% 284,010 34,768,761 2.97% 7.79% 0.48% 0.09% 89 Oman 2,584,316 17% 380,679 3,926,492 8.10% 65.82% 0.05% 0.09% 90 Bosnia Herzegov ina 2,582,502 2% 54,197 3,824,746 -0.12% 67.52% 0.05% 0.09% 91 Costa Rica 2,511,139 7% 172,205 4,937,755 1.35% 50.86% 0.07% 0.09% 92 Zambia 2,313,013 17% 332,362 15,021,002 3.32% 15.40% 0.21% 0.08% 93 Qatar 2,191,866 13% 259,980 2,267,916 4.58% 96.65% 0.03% 0.08% 94 Georgia 2,188,311 10% 191,034 4,322,842 -0.42% 50.62% 0.06% 0.07% 95 Lithuania 2,113,393 2% 40,877 3,008,287 -0.29% 70.25% 0.04% 0.07% 96 Puerto Rico 2,027,549 6% 111,168 3,683,601 -0.13% 55.04% 0.05% 0.07% 97 Uruguay 2,017,280 6% 119,523 3,418,694 0.34% 59.01% 0.05% 0.07% 98 Paraguay 2,005,278 8% 143,917 6,917,579 1.69% 28.99% 0.10% 0.07%
  27. 27. Ran k Country Internet Users 1 Year Grow th % 1 Year User Growth Total Country Populatio n 1 Yr Populati on Change (%) Penetrati on (% of Pop. with Internet) Country' s share of World Populati on Countr y's share of World Interne t Users 99 Panama 1,899,892 8% 134,718 3,926,017 1.60% 48.39% 0.05% 0.07% 100 Afghanist an 1,856,781 10% 172,462 31,280,518 2.39% 5.94% 0.43% 0.06% Showing 1 to 100 of 198 entries
  28. 28. THE TECHNOLOGY  ON? Project Loon balloons float in the stratosphere, twice as high as airplanes and the weather. In the stratosphere, there are many layers of wind, and each layer of wind varies in direction and speed. Loon balloons go where they’re needed by rising or descending into a layer of wind blowing in the desired direction of travel. By partnering with Telecommunications companies to share cellular spectrum we’ve enabled people to connect to the balloon network directly from their phones and other LTE-enabled devices. The signal is then passed across the balloon network and back down to the global Internet on Earth. The technology designed in the project could allow countries to avoid using expensive fiber cable that would have to be installed underground to allow users to connect to the Internet. Google feels this will greatly increase Internet usage in developing countries in regions such as Africa and Southeast Asia that can't afford to lay underground fiber cable. The high-altitude polyethylene balloons fly around the world on the prevailing winds (mostly in a direction parallel with lines of latitude, i.e. east or west). Solar panels supplied by PowerFilm, Inc about the size of a card table that are just below the free-flying balloons generate enough electricity in four hours to power the transmitter for a day and beam down the Internet signal to ground stations. These ground stations are spaced about 100 km (62 mi)
  29. 29. apart, or two balloon hops, and bounce the signal to other relay balloons that send the signal back down. This makes Internet access available to anyone in the world who has a receiver and is within range of a balloon. Currently, the balloons communicate using unlicensed 2.4 and 5.8 GHz ISM bands, and Google claims that the setup allows it to deliver "speeds comparable to 3G" to users. It is unclear how technologies that rely on short communications times (low latency pings), such as VoIP, might need to be modified to work in an environment similar to mobile phones where the signal may have to relay through multiple balloons before reaching the wider Internet. The first person to connect to the "Google Balloon Internet" after the initial test balloons were launched into the stratosphere was a farmer in the town of Lees ton, New Zealand, who was one of 50 people in the area around Christchurch who agreed to be a pilot tester for Project Loon. The New Zealand farmer lived in a rural location that couldn't get broadband access to the Internet, and had used a satellite Internet service in 2009, but found that he sometimes had to pay over $1000 per month for the service. The locals knew nothing about the secret project other than its ability to deliver Internet connectivity; but allowed project workers to attach a basketball-sized receiver resembling a giant bright-red party balloon to an outside wall of their property in order to connect to the network. The high-altitude balloons fly twice as high as airplanes, but below the range of satellites. Each balloon provides Internet service in a 20 km (12 mi) radius covering an area of about 125.6 km2 (48.5 sq mi).
  30. 30. HOW LOON FLIES: The method is defined in two ways: 1)Navigating With The Wind 2) Stratosphere 1) Navigating With The Wind Project Loon balloons travel approximately 20 km above the Earth’s surface in the stratosphere. Winds in the stratosphere are stratified, and each layer of wind varies in speed and direction. Project Loon uses software algorithms to determine where its balloons need to go, then moves each one into a layer of wind blowing in the right direction. By moving with the wind, the balloons can be arranged to form one large communications network.
  31. 31. 2) Stratosphere: Situated on the edge of space, between 10 km and 60 km in altitude, the stratosphere presents unique engineering challenges: air pressure is 1% that at sea level, and this thin atmosphere offers less protection from UV radiation and dramatic temperature swings, which can reach as low as -80°C. By carefully designing the balloon envelope to withstand these conditions, Project Loon is able to take advantage of the stratosphere’s steady winds and remain well above weather events, wildlife and airplanes.
  32. 32. DESIGN The design of loon is of three layers 1) Envelop 2) Solar Panels 3) Electronics 1) Envelop The balloon envelopes used in the project are made by Raven Aerostar, and are composed of polyethylene plastic about 3 mil or 0.076 mm (0.0030 in) thick. The balloons are super pressure balloons filled with helium, stand 15 m (49 ft) across and 12 m (39 ft) tall when fully inflated, and carry a custom air pump system dubbed the "Croce" that pumps in or releases air to ballast the balloon and control its elevation.
  33. 33. The inflatable part of the balloon is called a balloon envelope. A well-made balloon envelope is critical for allowing a balloon to last around 100 days in the stratosphere. Loon’s balloon envelopes are made from sheets of polyethylene plastic, and they measure fifteen meters wide by twelve meters tall when fully inflated. When a balloon is ready to be taken out of service, gas is released from the envelope to bring the balloon down to Earth in a controlled descent. In the unlikely event that a balloon drops too quickly, a parachute attached to the top of the envelope is deployed. 2) Solar Panels Each balloon’s electronics are powered by an array of solar panels that sit between the envelope and the hardware. In full sun, the panels produce 100 watts of power, which is sufficient to keep the unit running while also charging a battery for use at night. A parachute attached to the top of the envelope allows for a controlled descent and landing when a balloon is ready to be taken out of service. In the case of an unexpected failure, the parachute deploys automatically.
  34. 34. Each balloon’s electronics are powered by an array of solar panels. The solar array is a flexible plastic laminate supported by a light-weight aluminum frame. It uses high efficiency monocrystalline solar cells. The solar array is mounted at a steep angle to effectively capture sunlight on short winter days at higher latitudes. The array is divided into two sections facing in opposite directions, allowing us to capture energy in any orientation as the balloons spin slowly in the wind. The panels produce approximately 100 Watts of power in full sun, which is enough to keep Loon’s electronics running while also charging a battery for use at night. By moving with the wind and charging in the sun, Project Loon is able to power itself using entirely renewable energy sources. 3) Electronics A small box weighing 10 kg (22 lb) containing each balloon's electronic equipment hangs underneath the inflated envelope. This box contains circuit boards that control the system, radio antennas and a Ubiquiti Networks Rocket M2 to communicate with other balloons and with Internet antennas on the ground, and batteries to store solar power so the balloons can operate during the night. Each balloon’s electronics are powered by an array of solar panels that sit between the envelope and the hardware.
  35. 35. A small box containing the balloon’s electronics hangs underneath the inflated envelope, like the basket carried by a hot air balloon. This box contains circuit boards that control the system, radio antennas to communicate with other balloons and with Internet antennas on the ground, and lithium ion batteries to store solar power so the balloons can operate throughout the night. When taken out of service, the balloon is guided to a well reachable location, and the helium is vented into the atmosphere. The balloons typically have a maximum life of about 55 days, although Google claims that its tweaked design can enable them to stay aloft for more than 100 days. The prototype ground stations use a Ubiquiti Networks Rocket M5 radio and a custom patch antenna to connect to the balloons beaming down the Internet when the balloons are in a 20 km (12 mi) radius. Some reports have called Google's project the Google Balloon Internet.
  36. 36. WORKING How loon Connects?  Each balloon can provide connectivity to aground area about 40 km in diameter at speeds comparable to 3G  Each balloon is equipped with a GPS for tracking its location  Three radio transceivers.  balloon-to-balloon communications.  balloon-to-ground communication.  third for backup.  The balloons use antennas equipped with specialized radio frequency technology.  Project Loon currently uses ISM bands that are available for anyone to use.
  37. 37. Each balloon can provide connectivity to a ground area about 40 km in diameter using a wireless communications technology called LTE. To use LTE, Project Loon partners with telecommunications companies to share cellular spectrum so that people will be able to access the Internet everywhere directly from their phones and other LTE-enabled devices. Balloons relay wireless traffic from cell phones and other devices back to the global Internet using high-speed links.
  38. 38. The ISM bands defined by the ITU-R are: Frequency range Bandwidth Centre frequency Availability 6.765 MHz 6.795 MHz 30 kHz 6.780 MHz Subject to local acceptance 13.553 MHz 13.567 MHz 14 kHz 13.560 MHz Worldwide 26.957 MHz 27.283 MHz 326 kHz 27.120 MHz Worldwide 40.660 MHz 40.700 MHz 40 kHz 40.680 MHz Worldwide 433.050 MHz 434.790 MHz 1.74 MHz 433.920 MHz Region 1 only and subject to local acceptance 902.000 MHz 928.000 MHz 26 MHz 915.000 MHz Region 2 only (with some exceptions) 2.400 GHz 2.500 GHz 100 MHz 2.450 GHz Worldwide 5.725 GHz 5.875 GHz 150 MHz 5.800 GHz Worldwide 24.000 GHz 24.250 GHz 250 MHz 24.125 GHz Worldwide 61.000 GHz 61.500 GHz 500 MHz 61.250 GHz Subject to local acceptance 122.000 GHz 123.000 GHz 1 GHz 122.500 GHz Subject to local acceptance 244.000 GHz 246.000 GHz 2 GHz 245.000 GHz Subject to local acceptance
  39. 39. PRACTICAL PARAMETERS BALLOON: Polyethylene plastic envelops manufactured by Raven Aerostat: $4,000 Helium gas per loon per flight: $2,000 100W solar panels (5ft × 5ft): $500 Navigation control system: $1000 Equipment box (circuit boards, radio antennae, GPS, weather instruments and batteries): $12,000 Re-launch fee for a used balloon: $3,000
  40. 40. GROUND STATION CONNECTED TO BACKBONE INTERNET: Station construction and equipment installation: $1.2 million Maintenance: equipment cost is $30,000/year and land cost depends on local market. Need dedicated personnel to conduct regular maintenance and troubleshooting. Labour cost varies at different location.
  41. 41. BALLOON LAUNCHING AND COLLECTING POINTS: All the installation, maintenance costs depend on local land cost and human resource cost. Due to properties of wind in the stratosphere, balloon moves along latitude line with a ± 5o latitude range, so please be aware of coverage limitation of balloons from one balloon station.
  42. 42. ANTENNA FOR USERS: Antenna: $500 Assume it could be installed easily so no extra labour fee.
  43. 43. THE LOON HOSTING In 2008, Google had considered contracting with or acquiring Space Data Corp., a company that sends balloons carrying small base stations about 20 miles (32 km) up in the air for providing connectivity to truckers and oil companies in the southern United States, but didn't do so. Unofficial development on the project began in 2011 under incubation in Google X with a series of trial runs in California's Central Valley. The project was officially announced as a Google project on 14 June 2013.
  44. 44. On 16 June 2013, Google began a pilot experiment in New Zealand where about 30 balloons were launched in coordination with the Civil Aviation Authority from the Tekapo area in the South Island. About 50 local users in and around Christchurch and the Canterbury Region tested connections to the aerial network using special antennas. After this initial trial, Google plans on sending up 300 balloons around the world at the 40th parallel south that would provide coverage to New Zealand, Australia, Chile, and Argentina. Google hopes to eventually have thousands of balloons flying in the stratosphere. EXPANSION OF LOON Project Loon began with a pilot test in June 2013, when thirty balloons were launched from New Zealand’s South Island and beamed Internet to a small group of pilot testers. The pilot test has since expanded to include a greater number of people over a wider area. Looking ahead, Project Loon will continue to expand the pilot, with the goal of establishing a ring of uninterrupted connectivity at latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, so that pilot testers in these latitudes can receive continuous service via balloon-powered Interne
  45. 45. CURRENT PROGRESS The Project Loon pilot test began in June 2013 on the 40th parallel south*. Thirty balloons, launched from New Zealand’s South Island, beamed Internet to a small group of pilot testers. The experience of these pilot testers is now being used to refine the technology and shape the next phase of Project Loon. Pilot test project in New Zealand.
  46. 46. Long distance tracking experiment of loon on 40th parallel south There are many rules regarding airspace and who controls it, and also disagreements as to how far (up) such control extends. Floating in the stratosphere means that almost certainly, Google will always be required to seek permission from any government whose airspace the balloons float into. In addition, while this project uses unlicensed spectrum, there's no guarantee that will always be the case. Luckily for Google, approximately 70,000 weather balloons are launched every year, which may mitigate some, though not all, of the legal and regulatory issues.
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES  The price of Internet data in many parts of the world continues to be unaffordable for the majority of global citizens.  “Project Loon” will offer worldwide access to information to everyone, including those who today are beyond the geographic reach of the internet or can’t afford it.”  Project Loon will guarantee this right by taking a practical approach to information delivery.  Project Loon‘s near-term goal is to provide the entire world with broadcast data, Internet access for everyone.  Wireless connection to the Web available for free to every person in the world.  Project Loon will also offer a humanitarian communications system, relaying public service transmissions during emergencies in places where there is no access to conventional communications networks due to natural disasters or man-made restrictions on the free-flow of information.  Project Loon will use a network of balloons to transmit selected internet data – audio, video, text and applications – to any Wi-Fi-enabled device, including mobile phones, anywhere in the world.
  48. 48. LIMITATIONS  “Cost” was high as we have to take permission, buy antenna and fix it in home.  “Maintenance” cost will be very high as the total equipment is very costly and complicated.  “Balloons” must be replaced for every two to three weeks. As they must be refilled the gas and should correct the balloon’s equipment if any damages occurs when they are moving at stratosphere.  Every technology has both advantages and disadvantages. So loon also has above disadvantages. Experiments are advancing so that they can avoid above disadvantages.
  49. 49. FUTURE ASPECTS MDIF plans to formally request NASA to use the International Space Station to test their technology in September 2014. Manufacturing and launching of satellites would begin in early 2015, and Outer net is planned to begin broadcasting in June 2015. Indian company Specify Inc. is the first private non-profit company which is working with outernet to provide global free Wi-Fi access. Forget the Internet - soon there will be the OUTERNET: Company plans to beam free Wi-Fi to every person on Earth from space. The New York Company plans to ask NASA to test their Outernet technology on the International Space. An ambitious project known as Outernet is aiming to launch hundreds of miniature satellites into low Earth orbit by June 2015. Each satellite will broadcast the Internet to phones and computers giving billions of people across the globe free online access. Citizens of countries like China and North Korea that have censored online activity could be given free and unrestricted cyberspace. You might think you have to pay through the nose at the moment to access the Internet. But one ambitious organisation called the Media Development Investment Fund (MDIF) is planning to turn the age of online computing on its head by giving free web access to every person on Earth. Known as Outernet, MDIF plans to launch hundreds of satellites into orbit by 2015. And they say the project could provide unrestricted Internet access to countries where their web access is censored, including China and North Korea. The ISS could be a test bed for Outer net technology+3 Could our Internet one day be delivered from space?+3 Using something known as data casting technology, which involves sending data over wide radio waves, the New York-based company says they'll be able to broadcast the Internet around the world. The group is hoping to raise tens of millions of dollars in donations to get the project on the road. The Outernet team claim that only 60% of the world's population currently have access to the wealth of knowledge that can be found on the Internet. This is because, despite a wide spread of Wi-Fi devices across the globe, many countries are unable or unwilling to provide people with the infrastructure needed to access the web. The company's plan is to launch hundreds of low-cost miniature satellites, known as cubesats, into low Earth orbit. Here, each satellite will receive data from a network of ground stations across the globe. Using a technique known as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) multitasking, which is the sharing of data between users on a network, Outernet will beam information to users. Much like how you receive a signal on your television and flick through channels, Outernet will broadcast the Internet to you and allow you to flick through certain websites. THE OUTERNET PROJECT TIMELINE By June of this year the Outernet project aims to begin deploying
  50. 50. prototype satellites to test their technology. In September 2014 they will make a request to NASA to test their technology on the International Space Station. By early 2015 they intend to begin manufacturing and launching their satellites. And in June 2015 the company says they will begin broadcasting the Outernet from space. 'We have a very solid understand of the costs involved, as well as experience working on numerous spacecraft,' said Project Lead of Outernet Syed Karim, who fielded some questions on Reddit. 'There isn't a lot of raw research that is being done here; much of what is being described has already been proven by other small satellite programs and experiments. "There's really nothing that is technically impossible to this" But at the prospect of telecoms operators trying to shut the project down before it gets off the ground, Karim said: 'We will fight... and win.' If everything goes to plan, the Outernet project aims to ask NASA for permission to test the technology on the International Space Station. And their ultimate goal will be to beginning deploying the Outernet satellites into Earth orbit, which they say can begin in June 2015.
  51. 51. CONCLUSION The balloon envelopes used in the project are made by Raven Aerostar, and are composed of polyethylene plastic about 3 mil or 0.076 mm (0.0030 in) thick. The balloons are super pressure balloons filled with helium, stand 15 m (49 ft) across and 12 m (39 ft) tall when fully inflated, and carry a custom air pump system dubbed the "Croce" that pumps in or releases air to ballast the balloon and control its elevation. A small box weighing 10 kg (22 lb) containing each balloon's electronic equipment hangs underneath the inflated envelope. This box contains circuit boards that control the system, radio antennae and a Ubiquity Networks Rocket M2 to communicate with other balloons and with Internet antennae on the ground, and batteries to store solar power so the balloons can operate during the night. Each balloon’s electronics are powered by an array of solar panels that sit between the envelope and the hardware. In full sun, the panels produce 100 watts of power, which is sufficient to keep the unit running while also charging a battery for use at night. A parachute attached to the top of the envelope allows for a controlled descent and landing when a balloon is ready to be taken out of service. In the case of an unexpected failure, the parachute deploys automatically. The balloons typically have a maximum life of about 55 days, although Google claims that its tweaked design can enable them to stay aloft for more than 100 days.
  52. 52. QUESTIONNAIRE WHAT ARE PROJECT LOON BALLOONS? Project Loon is a global network of high altitude balloons. The balloons ascend like weather balloons until they reach the stratosphere, where they drift higher than 18 km (60,000 ft), safely above the altitudes used for aviation. While weather balloons burst after only a few hours in the air, Loon balloons are superpressure, allowing them to last much longer. Loon balloons are also unique in that they can ride the wind to travel where they need to go, they can coordinate with other balloons to provide stable coverage on the ground, and their electronics are entirely solar powered. HOW DO I RECEIVE INTERNET SERVICE FROM THE BALLOONS? Signals are transmitted from the balloons to a specialized Internet antenna mounted to the side of a home or workplace, or directly to LTE-enabled devices. Web traffic that travels through the balloon network is ultimately relayed to our local telecommunications partners’ ground stations, where it connects to pre-existing Internet infrastructure. HOW HIGH DO THE BALLOONS FLY? We are flying in the stratosphere well above commercial air traffic and weather events, at around 18 - 27 km or 60,000 - 90,000 feet. HOW LONG WILL A BALLOON STAY UP IN THE AIR? We’re working on creating a balloon design that can reliably last for 100+ days at a time in the stratosphere. During our initial tests, flight durations will be shorter. HOW WILL THE BALLOONS COME DOWN? We control the balloons by raising and lowering them to an altitude with winds blowing in the desired direction of travel. We plan to take our balloons down over preselected, safe recovery zones so we can easily collect them to reuse and recycle their parts. In the event of an unexpected landing, every Loon balloon is equipped with a parachute to slow its descent. HOW DO YOU COLLECT THE BALLOONS AFTER THEY HAVE LANDED? The Project Loon team includes several recovery specialists who track down and collect landed balloons. We track our balloons continuously in the air using GPS and we take note of their location when they land. Once the landing location is known, the recovery team will be on their way. Ultimately, we plan to land the balloons in various collection points around the world.
  53. 53. IS THERE RISK OF AIRPLANES HITTING THE BALLOONS? At their floating altitude, Loon balloons fly almost twice as high as commercial jetliners, so they are well out of the way. We coordinate with local air-traffic control when balloons are launched and when they descend. IS IT POSSIBLE TO SEE THE BALLOONS FROM THE GROUND? In certain weather conditions it may be possible to see a Loon balloon from the ground. Most of the time they will be very difficult to see with the naked eye. WHERE HAS PROJECT LOON CONDUCTED PILOT TESTS? Project Loon began with a pilot test in June 2013, when thirty balloons were launched from New Zealand’s South Island and beamed Internet to a small group of pilot testers. The pilot test has since expanded to include a greater number of people over a wider area including California’s Central Valley, and a connectivity test in Northeast Brazil. Looking ahead, Project Loon will continue to expand testing around the world throughout 2014. DO YOU NEED PERMISSION TO FLY THESE BALLOONS? The laws applicable to high altitude balloon flight and telecommunications services differ from country to country, and we will comply with all applicable laws as required. There’s a precedent for this: approximately 70,000 weather balloons are launched per year. WHAT HAPPENS IF A BALLOON LANDS IN WATER? We intend to avoid water landings, but when we make a controlled landing in the water there will be some extra gas in the balloon that will act as a flotation device and make the balloon easier to find and retrieve. WHAT STEPS IS PROJECT LOON TAKING TO BE ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE? They are taking several steps to ensure Project Loon is environmentally responsible: They are working to guide all balloons to collection points upon descent, so we can reuse, recycle, or responsibly dispose of their parts. When balloons do not make it to one of these collection points, we send our recovery team out to collect them. The balloons’ electronics are entirely solar powered. They are working to make our stratospheric wind data available to the environmental science community so it can be used to improve weather and climate models.
  54. 54. HOW DO YOU DEAL WITH THE EXTREME CONDITIONS IN THE STRATOSPHERE? Situated on the edge of space, between 10 km and 60 km in altitude, the stratosphere presents unique engineering challenges: air pressure is 1% that at sea level, and this thin atmosphere offers less protection from UV radiation and dramatic temperature swings. By carefully designing the balloon envelope to withstand these conditions, Project Loon is able to take advantage of the stratosphere’s steady winds and remain well above weather events, wildlife and airplanes. WHAT ELECTRONICS ARE ON THE BALLOON? In addition to the specialized radios that provide Internet service to users on the ground, Loon balloons carry instruments to monitor the weather and ambient environmental conditions, as well as GPS units to keep track of their flight patterns. The electronics are powered by solar panels, and excess power is stored in a rechargeable battery so service can continue through the night. WHAT COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT IS ON A BALLOON? There are two main radio transceivers on each balloon: a broad-coverage LTE base station (or “eNodeB”), and a high-speed directional link used to connect back to the Internet. There is also a third backup radio that can be used to communicate with the balloons from the ground if the others fail or go out of range. WILL THE BALLOONS HAVE CAMERAS OR CAPTURE ANY IMAGERY OF THE GROUND? We use cameras on some of our test flights to observe how various components of the balloon are functioning, but our production balloons will not be equipped with downward-facing cameras. HOW FAST IS BALLOON-POWERED INTERNET? We expect Internet speeds to be comparable to 3G. HOW DOES THE LOON NETWORK INTERACT WITH LTE NETWORKS? Project Loon plans to partner with telecommunications companies in each country we operate in to share and coordinate use of LTE spectrum. Frequency bands that are difficult to use for broad coverage from terrestrial towers are great for balloon coverage. HOW MANY PEOPLE CAN ONE BALLOON SERVE? Each balloon can provide coverage to a ground area about 40 km in diameter, and hundreds of people can connect to each balloon at once.
  55. 55. HOW ARE THE BALLOONS POWERED? The equipment on the balloons is charged using solar panels during the day and a rechargeable battery during the night. WHAT KIND OF SPECTRUM WILL BE USED? Loon partners with telcos to utilize spectrum acquired in the local region. HOW DO YOU PRESERVE THE SECURITY AND INTEGRITY OF DATA TRANSMITTED OVER THE LOON NETWORK? Data is automatically encrypted while transiting the balloon network. In addition, only devices with specially provisioned Loon SIM cards can access the network. In the future we will integrate with the core networks of partners so data transmitted will have the same levels of encryption and authentication as those networks. HOW IS THE MOVEMENT OF THESE BALLOONS CONTROLLED? The positioning of the Loon fleet is adjusted and controlled from Loon Mission Control, using a combination of automatic planning and human oversight. In addition, the individual balloon vehicles perform some automatic flight control functions, such as venting gas to prevent a burst or parachute deployment in case the balloon descends too quickly.
  56. 56. BIBLOGRAPHY http://www.google.co.in/loon/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Loon http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/

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