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Linked Data and
Archival Description
Confluences, Contingencies, and Conflicts

           Mark A. Matienzo
       The New York Public Library
SAA Encoded Archival Description Roundtable
            August 12, 2009
Disclaimer


The following presentation expresses
 opinions of my own and not of my
   employer, my coworkers, etc.
Archives & The Web
The Web isn’t new,
 even to archivists.
http://listserv.muohio.edu/scripts/wa.exe?S1=archives
http://web.archive.org/web/19961119070640/http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/
http://web.archive.org/web/19970607085119/www.lib.berkeley.edu/BANC/
http://web.archive.org/web/19970606072913/http://www.nara.gov/
Web-based archival
description isn’t new.
http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/FindingAids/EAD/bfap.html
http://web.archive.org/web/19961119074344/http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/governors/roberts/serieslist.html
http://web.archive.org/web/19970523152709/http://www.library.yale.edu/beinecke/aboutosb.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/19990203012659/lcweb.loc.gov/ead/
The Web, at its essence,
    is about links.
We take links for
granted in our work.
http://www.nypl.org/research/manuscripts/result.cfm
http://www.nypl.org/research/manuscripts/result.cfm
http://www.nypl.org/research/manuscripts/result.cfm
http://www.nypl.org/research/manuscripts/result.cfm
http://nypl.org/research/chss/spe/rbk/mss.html
http://nypl.org/research/sc/scm/marb.html
http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/rbk/faids/nywf39fa.pdf
http://catalog.nypl.org/record=b11686556
http://catalog.nypl.org/record=b11868615
http://ruby.labs.nypl.org/search/search_title
Links go beyond the
easily accessible sort.
http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/rbk/faids/nywf39fa.pdf#page=4
http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/rbk/faids/nywf39fa.pdf#page=4
http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchresult.cfm?word=title_id_list:359208
http://catalog.nypl.org/record=b11686556
http://catalog.nypl.org/search~S1?/dNew+York+World%27s+Fair+%281939-1940%29/dnew+york+worlds+fair
       +1939+1940/1%2C20%2C118%2CB/exact&FF=dnew+york+worlds+fair+1939+1940&1%2C81%2C
http://authorities.loc.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?
AuthRecID=1478033&v1=1&HC=2&SEQ=20090805162017&PID=F7Xv5TwgcI32WPUC_IBAlDc4BDx
http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/rbk/faids/nywf39fa.pdf#page=5
Further down the
  rabbit hole.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1939_New_York_World%27s_Fair
http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=su%3ANew+York+World%27s+Fair+%281939-1940%29&dblist=638&fq=dt
                                      %3Amix&qt=facet_dt%3A
http://catalog.dalnet.lib.mi.us/ipac20/ipac.jsp?session=1J4S505034402.430&profile=henryford&source=~!
                     merge&view=subscriptionsummary&uri=full=3100033~!563601~!
                   0&ri=1&aspect=subtab318&ipp=20&spp=20&staffonly=&term=world's
                   +fair&index=.BFGW&uindex=&aspect=subtab318&menu=search&ri=1
http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/ead/htmldocs/RMM04477.html
http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/EART/maps/sf-1939.html
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?fq=name%3A%22New+York+World%27s+Fair%22&view=grid&start=0
Links become implicit.
Computers don’t “do”
   implicit links.
Humans must correlate
 data on both ends.
http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/rbk/faids/nywf39fa.pdf#page=5
http://www.archimuse.com/publishing/AMInewsletters/AMInewsletter1994_8-1.pdf
Linked Data
(blame this guy)
  http://www.flickr.com/photos/tanaka/3212373419/
I have a dream for the Web [in which
computers] become capable of analyzing
all the data on the Web – the content, links,
and transactions between people and
computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should
make this possible, has yet to emerge, but
when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of
trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will
be handled by mac hines talking to
machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people
have touted for ages will finally materialize.
              Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving The Web.
Linked Data is a way
    to link better.

               Dan Chudnov, Better Living Through Linking.
  http://onebiglibrary.net/story/tcdl-2009-talk-better-living-through-linking
Linked data is not a new
   concept in archives.
[W]hat should be done with series which
begin under one Administration and End
under another? ... It seems quite clear that
the Archivist’s only plan in such a case if he
wishes to avoid confusion is to class the
Archives separately under the
Administrations which actually created
them ... a proper system of cross-reference
will leave no doubt as to what has occurred.


  Hilary Jenkinson, Manual of Archive Administration. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1922. p. 86.
If the series becomes the primary level of
classification, and the item the secondary
level, a) items are kept in their
administrative context and original order by
physical allocation to their appropriate
series, and b) series are no longer kept in
any original physical order in a record or
shelf group (if there is any such order) but
simply have their administrative context and
associations recorded on paper.

Peter J. Scott, “The Record Group Concept: A Case For Abandonment,” American Archivist 29(4), 1966.
Peter J. Scott, “The Record Group Concept: A Case For Abandonment,” American Archivist 29(4), 1966.
Peter J. Scott, “The Record Group Concept: A Case For Abandonment,” American Archivist 29(4), 1966.
All these interrelationships are not fixed
one-to-one linkages, as in most archival
descriptive approaches (despite some cross-
referencing), but rather exist as many-to-
one, one-to-many, and many-to-many
relationships ... In effect, Scott shifted the
entire archival description enterprise from a
static cataloguing mode to a dynamic
system of multiple interrelationships.


         Terry Cook, “What is Past is Prologue,” Archivaria 43 (1997).
I would argue that, as we explore the facets
of multiple-provenance more deeply, the
greatest danger to be avoided is any
confusion between linkages (relationships)
which are established to show provenance
and others which are designed to retrieve
on the basis of different ideas (e.g. subject).



  Chris Hurley, “Problems with Provenance,” Archives and Manuscripts 23(2) (November 1995).
Design Principles
1. Use URIs for names of things
2. Use HTTP URIs so people can look up
   those names
3. Provide useful information in standard
   formats* at those URIs
4. Include links to other URIs so people
   can discover more things

Tim Berners-Lee, Linked Data - Design Issues. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
Naming things with
URIs tells us what to call
 them unambiguously.
Using HTTP URIs tells
us how and where to
  find these things.
Providing data in
standard formats* tells
 us what that thing is.
*EAD is not a standard
 format in this sense.
RDF
1. Resource Description Framework
2. Presents relationships in a simple data
   structure
3. We can draw graphs of those relationships
4. We can represent those relationships in
   multiple formats for computers

  Tim Berners-Lee, Linked Data - Design Issues. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
In RDF, we say some
thing has a property
with a certain value.
This three-part concept
is called an RDF triple.
The thing in a triple is
 that triple’s subject.
The property in a triple
is that triple’s predicate.
The value in a triple is
 that triple’s object.
<http://matienzo.org/#me> foaf:firstName “Mark”.
<http://matienzo.org/#me> foaf:firstName “Mark”.
        thing (Me)          property    value
<http://matienzo.org/#me> foaf:firstName “Mark”.
        thing (Me)          property    value
         subject            predicate   object
An RDF Graph

                          foaf:firstName
                                          “Mark”



http://matienzo.org/#me
An RDF Graph
                          foaf:firstName
                                            “Mark”
                           foaf:surname
                                            “Matienzo”

                          foaf:based_near
                                            http://dbpedia.org/resource/Brooklyn

http://matienzo.org/#me
An RDF Graph
                          foaf:firstName
                                               “Mark”
                           foaf:surname
                                               “Matienzo”

                          foaf:based_near
                                               http://dbpedia.org/resource/Brooklyn




                                                                             foaf:depiction
http://matienzo.org/#me




                                                 rdf:type




                                                                owl:sameAs
                                            dbpedia-owl:Place

                                                http://www.geonames.org/5110302/
Simply linking to things
    is not enough.
RDF graphs show why
we link to other things.
These links say what
the relationships are.
Links between things
become crossreferences.
http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/lod-datasets_2009-07-14_colored.png
http://www.flickr.com/photos/85456381@N00/3814288909/
Precision improves
with exposed links to
 detailed metadata.
http://sindice.com/search?q=new+york+world%27s+fair+1939&qt=term
Recall improves
traversing relationships
     in “reverse.”
http://sindice.com/search?q=http%3A%2F%2Fdbpedia.org%2Fresource%2FCategory%3ARobert_Moses_projects&qt=term
Examples in Libraries
LIBRIS




http://libris.kb.se/bib/1379487
@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .
@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix libris: <http://libris.kb.se/vocabulary/experimental#> .
@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://libris.kb.se/data/bib/1379487> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> rdf:type            bibo:Book .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> dc:title            "Swedish arts and crafts : Swedish modern - a
                                                                movement towards sanity in design"@en .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> dc:type              "text" .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> dc:publisher         "Slöjdfören" .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> dc:date              "1939" .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> dc:description "Utställning, New York world's fair,1939"@en .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> dc:subject          "Konsthantverk" .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/Arkm> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/Ko> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/L> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/S> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/Lkul> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/M> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/N> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/F> .
<http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487> libris:held_by <http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/Ghdk> .



                       http://libris.kb.se/data/bib/1379487?format=text%2Frdf%2Bn3
<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
  xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/"
  xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"
  xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
  xmlns:libris="http://libris.kb.se/vocabulary/experimental#"
  xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" >
 <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/1379487">
  <dc:subject>Konsthantverk</dc:subject>
  <dc:date>1939</dc:date>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/Ko"/>
  <dc:title xml:lang="en">
     Swedish arts and crafts : Swedish modern - a movement towards sanity in design
  </dc:title>
  <rdfs:isDefinedBy rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/data/bib/1379487"/>
  <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Book"/>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/S"/>
  <dc:publisher>Slöjdfören</dc:publisher>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/N"/>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/Ghdk"/>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/L"/>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/Arkm"/>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/Lkul"/>
  <dc:type>text</dc:type>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/F"/>
  <libris:held_by rdf:resource="http://libris.kb.se/resource/library/M"/>
  <dc:description xml:lang="en">Utställning, New York world's fair,1939</dc:description>
 </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
                  http://libris.kb.se/data/bib/1379487?format=application%2Frdf%2Bxml
id.loc.gov




http://id.loc.gov/authorities/sh85046354
id.loc.gov




http://id.loc.gov/authorities/sh85046354
Chronicling America




 http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1904-08-14/ed-1/seq-42/
NSDL Registry




   http://metadataregistry.org/
Examples in Archives
UK Archival Thesaurus




   http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-swbp-skos-core-guide-20050510/
Archives de France “Thesaurus W”




    http://www.archivesdefrance.culture.gouv.fr/gerer/classement/normes-outils/thesaurus/
Agrippa (AMVC)




http://www.analogousspaces.com/media/docs/GUNS_AS_MAY08.pdf
Linked, Encoded
    Archival
   Description
It’s an easy concept.
It’s not necessarily
  easy to execute.
EAD isn’t up for the task.
EAD is document-centric
    standard, not a
 data-centric standard.
EAD is both too flexible
 and too unforgiving.
EAD doesn’t allow
elements from other
   namespaces.
Attributes like
@authfilenumber and
@encodinganalog are
 totally insufficient.
Linking Elements in EAD
       with @href
 •<archref>   •<extrefloc>
 •<bibref>    •<ptr>
 •<dao>       •<ptrloc>
 •<daoloc>    •<ref>
 •<extptr>    •<refloc>
 •<extref>    •<title>
None of those linking
elements describe why
  we make links in a
machine-friendly way.
What about linked
archival description?
Here be dragons.




  http://www.flickr.com/photos/versageek/2059145960/
Archival description
  contains lots of
implicit information.
“Inheritance” of data in
multi-level description is
     highly implicit.
Archival inheritance is
entirely different from
what “inheritance” is
in other data models.
In object-oriented programming, inheritance
 is a way to form new classes (instances of
 which are called objects) using classes that
 have already been defined. The new
 classes, known as derived classes, take over
 (or inherit) attributes and behavior of the
 pre-existing classes, which are referred to as
 base classes (or ancestor classes). It is
 intended to help reuse existing code with
 little or no modification.

"Inheritance (computer science)," Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inheritance_(computer_science).
Bearman/Hurley:
Terminological Control
 Physical Inheritance
Bearman/Hurley:
   Contextual Control
Associational Inheritance
How does a descriptive
   system inherit data
across descriptive levels?
ISAD(G) § 2.4
        NON-REPETITION OF INFORMATION
Purpose:
     To avoid redundancy of information in
hierarchically related archival descriptions.
Rule:
  At the highest appropriate level, give information
that is common to the component parts. Do not
repeat information at a lower level of description
that has already been given at a higher level.
This should be resolved
in descriptive output, not
   the underlying data.
Humans can benefit with
 non-redundant data.
Computers need that
 extra redundancy.
Archival description, in
its current state, is not
   computer-friendly.
Archival description, in
its current state, is not
 Linked Data-friendly.
We can do some things
  in the meantime.
Expose data in public
 descriptive systems as
best we can (e.g. RDFa).
Build out meaningful
    links from online
descriptive apparatuses.
Revise our descriptive
  standards to allow
better recombination of
       metadata.
Follow the lead of our
  library and museum
colleagues and develop
 conceptual models of
  archival description.
Thank You
     mark@matienzo.org
     http://matienzo.org/
http://twitter.com/anarchivist

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