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EQUAÇÕES QUÍMICAS TIPOS DE EQUAÇÕES QUÍMICAS BALANCEAMENTO DE EQUAÇÕES
<ul><li>Em todas as reações químicas, as substâncias denominadas  reagentes  são transformadas em substâncias diferentes, ...
<ul><li>As substâncias envolvidas são representadas por  fórmulas ; </li></ul><ul><li>A quantidade de cada substância é re...
<ul><li>(  ) – desprendimento de gás </li></ul><ul><li>(  ) – formação de precipitado </li></ul><ul><li>(  ) – aquecimen...
<ul><li>2 H 2(g)  + O 2(g)     2H 2 O (g)   </li></ul>
<ul><li>Uma molécula de dicromato de amônio ((NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) sólido, quando aquecida, produz gás nitrogênio (N 2 ), 4...
<ul><li>O fermento de pão pode ser preparado pela reação entre gás carbônico (CO 2 ), cloreto de sódio (NaCl), gás amônia ...
<ul><li>Durante a descarga de bateria de automóvel, o chumbo (Pb) sólido reage com o óxido de chumbo (PbO 2 ) sólido e com...
<ul><li>REAÇÃO DE SÍNTESE OU ADIÇÃO </li></ul><ul><li>REAÇÃO DE ANÁLISE OU DECOMPOSIÇÃO </li></ul><ul><li>REAÇÃO DE SIMPLE...
<ul><li>Quando dois ou mais reagentes formam apenas um produto. </li></ul><ul><li>A + B + C    D </li></ul><ul><li>2 Mg +...
<ul><li>Quando apenas um reagente forma dois ou mais produtos. </li></ul><ul><li>A    B + C + D </li></ul><ul><li>2 NaN 3...
<ul><li>Quando uma substância simples reage com uma substância composta, originando uma nova substância simples e outra co...
<ul><li>Quando duas substâncias compostas reagem entre si, trocando seus componentes e dando origem a duas novas substânci...
<ul><li>KClO 3  -> KCl + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2  + H 2  -> NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>KI + Cl 2  -> KCl + I 2 </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>CaCO 3  -> CaO + CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Na + CuSO 4  -> Cu + Na 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3  + NaCl ->...
<ul><li>Obedecendo a lei de  Lavoisier:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Na natureza nada se perde e nada se cria, tudo se transfo...
2 H 2  + O 2     2 H 2 O Acertar os coeficientes é fazer o balanceamento.
<ul><li>Para balancear uma equação mais facilmente, devemos seguir as seguintes regras: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Escolher por ...
<ul><li>Al  +  O 2      Al 2 O 3  </li></ul><ul><li>Começar pelo oxigênio.  </li></ul><ul><li>Trocar os índices de lado e...
<ul><li>KClO 3  -> KCl + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2  + H 2  -> NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>KI + Cl 2  -> KCl + I 2 </li></ul><ul...
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Reações químicas

  1. 1. EQUAÇÕES QUÍMICAS TIPOS DE EQUAÇÕES QUÍMICAS BALANCEAMENTO DE EQUAÇÕES
  2. 2. <ul><li>Em todas as reações químicas, as substâncias denominadas reagentes são transformadas em substâncias diferentes, denominadas produtos </li></ul><ul><li>As reações químicas são representadas por equações químicas . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>As substâncias envolvidas são representadas por fórmulas ; </li></ul><ul><li>A quantidade de cada substância é representada por números e é chamada de coeficiente ; </li></ul><ul><li>Os estados físicos das substâncias são representados por: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(g) – gasoso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(v) - vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(l) – líquido </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(s) – sólido </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(aq) - aquoso </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>( ) – desprendimento de gás </li></ul><ul><li>(  ) – formação de precipitado </li></ul><ul><li>(  ) – aquecimento </li></ul><ul><li>(  ) – presença de luz </li></ul><ul><li>(+) – antes da seta – reage com </li></ul><ul><li>(+) – depois da seta – e </li></ul><ul><li> - para formar (para produzir) </li></ul><ul><li>Além de que, antes da seta, temos os reagentes e depois da seta, temos os produtos. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>2 H 2(g) + O 2(g)  2H 2 O (g) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Uma molécula de dicromato de amônio ((NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) sólido, quando aquecida, produz gás nitrogênio (N 2 ), 4 moléculas de vapor de água (H 2 O) e óxido de cromo (Cr 2 O 3 ) sólido. </li></ul>(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7(s)  Cr 2 O 3(s) 4H 2 O (v) N 2(g) + + 
  7. 7. <ul><li>O fermento de pão pode ser preparado pela reação entre gás carbônico (CO 2 ), cloreto de sódio (NaCl), gás amônia (NH 3 ) e água. Nessa reação formam-se bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO 3 ) no estado aquoso, que é o fermento e cloreto de amônio (NH 4 Cl) também no estado aquoso. </li></ul>CO 2(g) NaCl (s) NH 3(g) H 2 O (l) NaHCO 3(aq) NH 4 Cl (aq) + + + + 
  8. 8. <ul><li>Durante a descarga de bateria de automóvel, o chumbo (Pb) sólido reage com o óxido de chumbo (PbO 2 ) sólido e com o ácido sulfúrico (H 2 SO 4 ) aquoso, formando sulfato de chumbo (PbSO 4 ) aquoso e água. </li></ul>Pb (s) PbO 2(s) PbSO 4(aq) H 2 O (l) + +  + H 2 SO 4(aq)
  9. 9. <ul><li>REAÇÃO DE SÍNTESE OU ADIÇÃO </li></ul><ul><li>REAÇÃO DE ANÁLISE OU DECOMPOSIÇÃO </li></ul><ul><li>REAÇÃO DE SIMPLES TROCA OU DESLOCAMENTO </li></ul><ul><li>REAÇÃO DE DUPLA TROCA </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Quando dois ou mais reagentes formam apenas um produto. </li></ul><ul><li>A + B + C  D </li></ul><ul><li>2 Mg + O 2 -> 2 MgO </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Quando apenas um reagente forma dois ou mais produtos. </li></ul><ul><li>A  B + C + D </li></ul><ul><li>2 NaN 3 -> 3 N 2 + 2 Na </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Quando uma substância simples reage com uma substância composta, originando uma nova substância simples e outra composta. </li></ul><ul><li>A + XY  X + AY </li></ul><ul><li>Zn + 2 HCl -> ZnCl 2 + H 2 </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Quando duas substâncias compostas reagem entre si, trocando seus componentes e dando origem a duas novas substâncias compostas. </li></ul><ul><li>Ab + XY  Xb + AY </li></ul><ul><li>HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H 2 O </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>KClO 3 -> KCl + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 + H 2 -> NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>KI + Cl 2 -> KCl + I 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 -> CaO + CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>BaCl 2 + H 2 SO 4 -> BaSO 4 + HCl </li></ul>SÍNTESE ANÁLISE SIMPLES TROCA DUPLA TROCA ANÁLISE
  15. 15. <ul><li>CaCO 3 -> CaO + CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Na + CuSO 4 -> Cu + Na 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + NaCl -> AlCl 3 + NaSO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Na 2 O + H 2 O -> NaOH </li></ul>ANÁLISE SIMPLES TROCA DUPLA TROCA SÍNTESE
  16. 16. <ul><li>Obedecendo a lei de Lavoisier: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Na natureza nada se perde e nada se cria, tudo se transforma.” </li></ul></ul>H 2 + O 2  H 2 O Está sobrando 1 átomo de oxigênio
  17. 17. 2 H 2 + O 2  2 H 2 O Acertar os coeficientes é fazer o balanceamento.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Para balancear uma equação mais facilmente, devemos seguir as seguintes regras: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Escolher por qual átomo começar; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Átomo que aparece apenas uma vez como reagente e uma vez como produto; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Átomo que tiver o maior índice. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2- Trocar os índices de lado e usá-los como coeficientes; </li></ul><ul><li>3- Balancear os outros átomos por tentativas. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Al + O 2  Al 2 O 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Começar pelo oxigênio. </li></ul><ul><li>Trocar os índices de lado e usar como coeficiente </li></ul><ul><li>Balancear o alumínio pela lógica </li></ul><ul><li>4 Al + 3 O 2  2 Al 2 O 3 </li></ul>3 2 4
  20. 20. <ul><li>KClO 3 -> KCl + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 + H 2 -> NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>KI + Cl 2 -> KCl + I 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 -> CaO + CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>BaCl 2 + H 2 SO 4 -> BaSO 4 + HCl </li></ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 -> CaO + CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Na + CuSO 4 -> Cu + Na 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + NaCl -> AlCl 3 + NaSO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Na 2 O + H 2 O -> NaOH </li></ul><ul><li>Ca(OH) 2 + H 3 PO 4 -> Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 O </li></ul>

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