Work factor-Anant Patel

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Work factor-Anant Patel

  1. 1. WORK-FACTOR PRESENTED BY: ANANT PATEL MTO9IND010 M.Tech. Industrial Engineering, VNIT, NAGPUR. 2009-10
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Types of predetermined time standards  Definitions of Work-Factor terms  Work-Factor Systems • Detailed Work-Factor • Simplified Work-Factor • Abbreviated Work-Factor • Ready Work-Factor • Brief Work-Factor • Detailed Mento-Factor  Work-Factor notation  Recording the Analysis  Work-Factor standard elements of work
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Work-Factor (WF) is an elemental time systems for compiling time standards to establish the expected productivity of the human when performing useful manual and mental work.
  4. 4. TYPES OF PREDETERMINED TIME STANDARDS  Methods Time Analysis (MTA), 1925  Work-Factor (WF), 1938  Engstrom, 1940  400 system, 1944  Methods Time Measurements (MTM), 1948  Methods Time Standards (MTS), 1950  Basic Motion Timestudy (BMT), 1951  Dimension Motion Time (DMT), 1954  Maynard’s Operation Sequence Technique (MOST),1967
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS OF WORK-FACTOR TERMS  Work-Factor Time  Adequate Task Physique  Adequate Task Intelligence  Adequate Task Vision  Work-Factor Analysis  Basic Motion  Work-Factor  Work-Factor Standards Elements of Work
  6. 6. WORK-FACTOR SYSTEMS  The requirements of work measurement vary according to the factors of  operation,  uniformity,  frequency of repetition,  purpose of measurements....
  7. 7.  WF system consists integrated systems….  Detailed Work-Factor  Simplified Work-Factor  Ready Work-Factor  Abbreviated Work-Factor  Brief Work-Factor  Detailed Mento Factor
  8. 8. DETAILED WORK-FACTOR  DWF is utilized for operation which need Accurate time standards.  The Work-Factor system is based on the principle that the Four Major Variables which affect the time to perform manual motions are: 1. Body Member used 2. Distance Moved 3. Manual Control required 4. weight or Resistance involved
  9. 9. 1. Body Member  7 definite body members… 1) Finger or Hand 2) Arm 3) Forearm Swivel 4) Trunk 5) Foot 6) Leg 7) Head Time values for these body members are illustrated in table.
  10. 10. 2. Distance  All distances are measurements in straight lines between the starting and stopping points of the motion as described by body members.  Measured in inches.  Tables specify the point at which various body members motion has to be measured.
  11. 11. 3. Manual control  Definite Stop Work-Factor  Steer Work-Factor  Precaution Work-Factor  Direction Change Work-Factor • Its evaluation is made more difficult as there is no physical measuring device with which its effects can be checked
  12. 12. 4. Weight or Resistance  Effect of weight on time varies with  Body Members used  Sex of operator  Measured in pounds for all Body Members except Forearm Swivel.  Forearm Swivel Motions are rotary, measured in pound-inches of torque.
  13. 13. EXAMPLE 1  ARM MOVES 18 inches to TOSS A SMALL COIN IN A TRAY….  Body member involve is Arm (A)  Distance 18 inch  No manual controls requirements  Basic Motion  As per table, value is 55, corresponds to 0.0055 minutes
  14. 14. WORK-FACTOR NOTATION Body members Symbol • Finger F • Hand H • Arm A • Forearm Swivel FS • Trunk T • Foot Ft • Leg L • Head Turn HT
  15. 15. Work-Factors Symbols • Weight W • Steer S • Precaution P • Direction Change U • Definite Stop D
  16. 16. RECORDING THE ANALYSIS  Toss small part aside 10 in. (Basic Motion)  A10  0.0042 minutes  Reach 30 inches to bolt in bin (Definite Stop Motion)  A30D  0.0096 minutes  Move 4 pound brick 30 in. from pile to place on work table (Weight, Definite Stop Motion)  A30WD  0.0119 minutes
  17. 17. WORK-FACTOR STANDARD ELEMENTS OF WORK  8 Work-Factor Standard Elements of Work… 1. Transport (Reach & Move) (R, M) 2. Grasp (Gr) 3. Pre-position (PP) 4. Assemble (Asy) 5. Use (Manual, Process or Machine Time) (Use) 6. Disassemble (Dsy) 7. Mental Process (MP) 8. Release (Rl)
  18. 18. TRANSPORT  The Standard Element Transport involves a single motion by a given body member.  Reach  Move
  19. 19. GRASP  Act of obtaining Manual Control of an object for the purpose of transporting, using, or holding.
  20. 20. PRE-POSITION  Act of turning or orienting an object to a correct position for a subsequent Standard Element of Work.  A bolt 2 inches long weighing 3 pound can be pre-positioned for assembly into a tapped hole by turning it end-for-end with one hand. An average of 3 Finger Motion is required to complete the Pre-position.  Analysis for this Pre-position is V3F1-50%.
  21. 21. ASSEMBLE  Act of joining objects together or placing them in useful locations.  Assemble begins immediately after the Move bringing the objects to a position where Assemble can start.  All Work-Factor Assembles utilize the concept of Plug and Target, where a Plug is inserted into or placed on a Target.
  22. 22. RELEASE  Contact Release  Gravity Release  The Unwrap Release MENTAL PROCESS  Concurrent Mental Process  Sequential Mental Process
  23. 23. SIMPLIFIED WORK-FACTOR  General higher level system  Suitable for medium quantity production  Developed from Detailed Work-Factor  Quite effective in preparing estimates before actual production starts.
  24. 24. ABBREVIATED WORK-FACTOR  Developed from Detailed Work-Factor  Suitable for small quantity job shops.  Abbreviated time unit is 0.005 (recorded as 5) minutes rather than 0.0001 minutes used in the DWF.  Accuracy of AWF is expected to average +12 percent of the DWF.
  25. 25. READY WORK-FACTOR  Based on Detailed Work-Factor  Normally utilized in evaluating manual work in industry.  One Ready Units equals 10 Detailed Work-Factor Time Units (0.0010 minutes)  15 inch Arm factor with two Work- Factor required 9 Ready Units, or 0.009 minute.
  26. 26. BRIEF WORK-FACTOR  BWF system is relatively new and like the AWF uses the time unit of 0.005 minute.  It was developed to make the format conform with the Detailed, and with the Ready systems.
  27. 27. DETAILED MENTO FACTOR  It is a basic level system which is used for measuring mental processes such as …  Inspection  Proof reading  Colour matching  Calculations  Any repetitive predominantly mental operation
  28. 28. References  Quick J. H., Duncan J. H., Malcolm J. A., Jr., Work-Factor Time Standards, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1962.  Barnes R. M., Motion and Time Study- Design and Measurement of Work, Seventh Edition, John Wiley and Sons.  Sharma S. K., Work Study and Ergonomics, Katson Books, Delhi, 2003-04.  ILO, Introduction to Work Study, vol-3, 1986.
  29. 29. THANK YOU

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