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Thigh

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Thigh

  1. 1. ANATOMY OF THE THIGH<br />By:<br />Dr: Mohammed Faez<br />
  2. 2. Anatomy of the thigh<br />The thigh is the area between the pelvis and the knee. <br />The single bone in the thigh (femur).<br />
  3. 3. Surface anatomy of the thigh<br />Surface features of the Thigh<br />Sartorius muscle<br />Quadriceps femoris muscle<br />Adductor longus muscle<br />Hamstring muscles<br />Femoral triange<br />
  4. 4. Anatomy of the thigh<br />Thigh is divided to 3 groups of muscles called compartments.<br />Anterior compartment<br />Posterior compartment<br />Medial compartment<br />These three compartments are separated by fascia.<br />
  5. 5. Compartments of the Thigh<br />Fascial septa divide limb into compartaments<br />anterior compartment<br />medial compartment<br />posterior compartment<br />Anterior compartment<br />Medial (adductor) compartment<br /> Posterior compartment<br />Fascia Lata<br />
  6. 6. Anatomy of the thigh<br />The anterior compartment muscles of the thigh flex the femur at the hip and extend the leg at the knee.<br />The posterior compartment muscles of the thigh extend the thigh and flex the leg.<br />The medial compartment muscles all adduct the thigh.<br />
  7. 7. Anatomy of the thigh<br />The anterior compartment of the thigh is homologous to the posterior compartment of the arm.<br />The posterior compartment of the thigh is homologous to the anterior compartment of the arm.<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Anatomy of the thigh<br />Thigh innervations:<br />Anterior compartment from femoral nerve L2,3,4.<br />Medial compartment from obturator nerve L2,3,4.<br />Posterior compartment from sciatic nerveL4,5,S1,2,3 (sacral plexus).<br />
  10. 10. Thigh innervations<br />Anterior compartment-<br />Extensors of the knee<br />Femoral Nerve<br />femur<br />medial<br />lateral<br />Medial compartment-<br />Adductors of the knee<br />Obturator Nerve<br />Posterior compartment-<br />Flexors of the knee<br />Sciatic Nerve<br />
  11. 11. Anterior surface of thigh<br />Femoral Triangle:<br />Borders:<br />Superior: <br /> Inguinal Ligament <br />Medially: <br /> Adductor Longus Muscle <br />Laterally: <br /> Sartorius Muscle <br />
  12. 12. Anterior surface of thigh<br />Femoral Triangle:<br />Floor:<br />Iliopsoas muscle.<br />Pectineus muscle.<br /> Adductor longus muscle.<br />Roof:<br /> Fascia Lata<br />
  13. 13. Anterior surface of thigh<br />Femoral Triangle:<br />Contents (lateral to medial):<br /> Femoral Nerve<br /> Femoral Artery<br /> Femoral Vein<br />Lymphatics<br />
  14. 14. Anterior surface of thigh<br />Adductor Canal:<br />Borders:<br />Lateral:<br />Vastusmedialis muscle.<br />Posterior:<br /> Adductor longus and magnus.<br />Anteromedial:<br /> Sartorius muscle.<br />
  15. 15. Anterior surface of thigh<br />Adductor Canal:<br />Contents:<br />Saphenous nerve:<br /> Termination of femoral nerve.<br />Nerve to vastusmedialis.<br />Terminal part of obturator nerve.<br />Terminal parts of femoral artery and vein.<br />Deep lymph vessels.<br />
  16. 16. Anterior Compartment<br />Muscles:<br />Iliopsoas.<br />Sartorius.<br />Quadriceps:<br />Rectus femoris.<br />Vastuslateralis.<br />Vastusintermedius.<br />Vastusmedialis<br />
  17. 17. Anterior Compartment<br />Blood Supply:<br />Femoral Artery:<br />Superficial circumflex iliac.<br /> Superficial epigastric.<br /> Superficial external pudendal.<br /> Deep external pudendal.<br />Descending genicular.<br /> Deep femoral (profundafemoris)<br /> Lateral femoral circumflex.<br /> Medial femoral circumflex.<br />
  18. 18. Anterior Compartment<br />Innervation:<br /> Femoral Nerve:<br />Action:<br />Hip flexion.<br />Knee extension.<br />
  19. 19. Anterior Compartment<br />Iliopsoas<br /> Origin - Ilia, sacrum, lumbar vertebrae<br />Insertion – lesser trochanter<br />Action – flexor of thigh<br />Innervation – femoral nerve<br />
  20. 20. Anterior Compartment<br />Sartorius<br /><ul><li>Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine
  21. 21. Insertion: Medial side of superior tibia,viapesanserinus
  22. 22. Action: flex thigh at hip & flex leg at knee
  23. 23. Innervation: Femoral nerve</li></li></ul><li>Anterior Compartment<br />Quadriceps femoris muscle:<br />Rectus Femoris<br /><ul><li>Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine
  24. 24. Insertion: Tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament, part of quadriceps femoris
  25. 25. Action: Flex thigh at hip & extend leg at knee
  26. 26. Innervation: Femoral nerve</li></li></ul><li>Anterior Compartment<br />Quadriceps femoris muscle:<br />VastusMedialis<br /><ul><li>Origin: Intertrochanteric line
  27. 27. Insertion: Tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament, part of quadriceps femoris
  28. 28. Action: Extend leg at knee
  29. 29. Innervation: Femoral nerve</li></li></ul><li>Anterior Compartment<br />Quadriceps femoris muscle:<br />VastusLateralis<br /><ul><li>Origin: Greater trochanter
  30. 30. Insertion: Tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament, part of quadriceps femoris
  31. 31. Action: Extend leg at knee
  32. 32. Innervation: Femoral nerve</li></li></ul><li>Anterior Compartment<br />Quadriceps femoris muscle:<br />VastusIntermedius<br /><ul><li>Origin: Anterolateral surface of femur
  33. 33. Insertion: Tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament, part of quadriceps femoris
  34. 34. Action: Extend leg at knee
  35. 35. Innervation: Femoral nerve</li></li></ul><li>Anterior Compartment<br />
  36. 36. Anterior Compartment<br />
  37. 37. Anterior (extensor) compartment of the thigh<br />Innervation: Femoral Nerve<br />anterior<br />anterior<br />
  38. 38. Medial Compartment<br />Muscles:<br />Gracilis.<br /> Adductor longus.<br /> Adductor brevis.<br /> Adductor magnus.<br />Pectineus<br />
  39. 39. Medial Compartment<br />Blood Supply:<br />Obturator artery:<br /> Branch of internal iliac artery.<br />
  40. 40. Medial Compartment<br />Innervation:<br />Obturator nerve.<br />Tibial nerve:<br /> To hamstring portion of adductor magnus.<br />Action:<br />Adduction<br />
  41. 41. Medial Compartment<br />Adductor longus<br />Origin – Medial portion of superior pubic ramus<br />Insertion - lineaaspera of femur<br />Action – adducts and medial rotates<br />Innervation – Obturator nerve<br />
  42. 42. Medial Compartment<br />Adductor brevis<br />Origin – Inferior pubic ramus<br />Insertion - lineaaspera of femur<br />Action – adducts and medial rotates<br />Innervation – Obturator nerve<br />
  43. 43. Medial Compartment<br />Adductor magnus<br />Origin – Ischiopubicramus and ischialtuberosity<br />Insertion - lineaaspera of femur<br />Action – adducts and medial rotates<br />Innervation – Obturator nerve<br />
  44. 44. Medial Compartment<br />Gracilis<br />Origin - Pubic symphysis and inferior pubic ramus<br />Insertion – medial tibia<br />Action – adducts thigh, flex, medial, rotates leg<br />Innervation – Obturator nerve<br />
  45. 45. Medial Compartment<br />Pectineus<br />Origin - pubis<br />Insertion – lesser trochanter<br />Action – adducts, medial rotates<br />Innervation – femoral nerve<br />
  46. 46. Medial Compartment<br />
  47. 47. Medial Compartment<br />
  48. 48. Medial (adductor) compartment of the thigh<br />Innervation: <br />obturatornerve*<br />medial<br />*Adductor Magnus innervated by both obturator n and tibial division of sciatic n<br />medial<br />
  49. 49. Posterior Compartment<br />Muscles:<br />Hamstrings:<br />Biceps Femoris:<br /> Long head.<br /> Short head.<br />Semimembranosus.<br />Semitendinosus.<br />Adductor Hiatus<br />
  50. 50. Posterior Compartment<br />Vascular Supply:<br />Perforating arteries (from profundafemoris)<br />
  51. 51. Posterior Compartment<br />Innervation:<br />Common Peroneal Nerve:<br />To biceps femorisbrevis.<br />Tibial nerve:<br />Action:<br />Hip Extension.<br /> Knee Flexion.<br />
  52. 52. Posterior Compartment<br />Biceps Femoris (2 Heads)<br />Origin – Ischialtuberosity(long head), lineaaspera(short head).<br />Insertion - Lateral tibia, head fibula<br />Action - Thigh extension, knee flexion, lateral rotation<br />Innervation- (short head)<br />Common Fibular Nerve branch of Sciatic Nerve.<br />(long head) Tibial Nerve branch of Sciatic Nerve.<br />
  53. 53. Posterior Compartment<br />Semitendinosus<br />Semimembranosus<br />Origin - ischialtuberosity<br />Insertion - medial tibia<br />Action - thigh extension, knee flexion, medial rotation<br />Innervation- Tibial nerve branch of sciatic nerve. <br />
  54. 54. Posterior Compartment<br />
  55. 55. Posterior Compartment<br />
  56. 56. Posterior compartment of the thigh<br />Hamstring mm: Arise from ischialtuberosity & innervated by tibial division of sciatic n.<br />Innervation:<br /><ul><li>Tibial division of sciatic nerve
  57. 57. Except short head of biceps femoris: common fibular division of sciatic nerve</li></ul>posterior<br />
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
  61. 61. 10-50<br />Muscles of the Knee Joint/Leg<br />Fig. 12.17<br />Fig. 12.18<br />Iliopsoas<br /><ul><li> flexor of hip</li></ul>Adductors<br /><ul><li> adductor of thigh
  62. 62. laterally rotate thigh</li></ul>Quadriceps femoris<br /><ul><li> prime extensor of knee
  63. 63. attaches to tibial tuberosity</li></ul>Hamstrings<br /><ul><li> flex knee
  64. 64. extends hip with Gluteus maximus</li></li></ul><li>Tensor Fascia Latae<br />Psoas Major<br />Rectus Femoris<br />Iliacus<br />Vastus Intermedius DEEP TO RECTUS FEMORIS<br />Adductor Longus<br />Vastus Lateralis<br />Sartorius<br />Vastus Medialis<br />
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  68. 68. Thank You <br />

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