Physiology

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Physiology

  1. 1. Mechanics of Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) <ul><li>Completely mechanical process </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Two phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration – flow of air into lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration – air leaving lung </li></ul></ul>Lecture-2
  2. 3. Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity <ul><li>Intrapulmonary pressure (P pul ) – pressure within the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapleural pressure (P ip ) – pressure within the pleural cavity </li></ul>
  3. 4. Pressure Relationships <ul><li>Intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure fluctuate with the phases of breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapulmonary pressure always eventually equalizes itself with atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapleural pressure is always less than intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure </li></ul>
  4. 5. Causes of negativity of Intrapleural pressure <ul><li>Lymphatic system drains the pleural fluid, generating a negative intra pleural pressure (- 2 mm Hg) </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity of lungs causes them to assume smallest possible size. But opposing force – elasticity of the chest wall pulls the thorax outward to enlarge the lungs. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Measurement of Intrapleural pressure <ul><li>Directly by introducing a needle to pleural cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect method: by introducing the esophageal balloon into esophagus </li></ul>
  6. 7. Significance of Intrapleural pressure <ul><li>Prevent the collapsing tendency of lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the venous return </li></ul>
  7. 8. Pressure Relationships
  8. 9. Intra-Alveolar pressure/Intra-Pulmonary pressure <ul><li>Measurement: Plethysmograph </li></ul><ul><li>Significance : </li></ul><ul><li>1. It causes flow of air in and out of alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Helps in the exchange of gases between alveolar air and blood. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Lung Collapse <ul><li>Caused by equalization of the intrapleural pressure with the intrapulmonary pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Transpulmonary pressure keeps the airways open </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transpulmonary pressure – difference between the intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures (P pul – P ip ) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Pulmonary Ventilation <ul><li>A mechanical process that depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure </li></ul>
  11. 12. Boyle’s Law <ul><li>Boyle’s law – the relationship between the pressure and volume of gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P = pressure of a gas in mm Hg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V = volume of a gas in cubic millimeters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscripts 1 and 2 represent the initial and resulting conditions, respectively </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Inspiration <ul><li>The diaphragm and external intercostal muscles (inspiratory muscles) contract and the rib cage rises </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs are stretched and intrapulmonary volume increases </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapulmonary pressure drops below atmospheric pressure (  1 mm Hg) </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows into the lungs, down its pressure gradient, until intrapleural pressure = atmospheric pressure </li></ul>
  13. 14. Inspiration
  14. 17. Expiration <ul><li>Inspiratory muscles relax and the rib cage descends due to gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic cavity volume decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic lungs recoil passively and intrapulmonary volume decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapulmonary pressure rises above atmospheric pressure (+1 mm Hg) </li></ul><ul><li>Gases flow out of the lungs down the pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 </li></ul>
  15. 18. Expiration
  16. 19. Forced Expiration <ul><li>Forced expiration is an active process due to contraction of oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, internal intercostals, and the latissimus dorsi. </li></ul><ul><li>The larynx is closed during coughing, sneezing, and Valsalva’s maneuver </li></ul><ul><li>Valsalva’s maneuver-Forced expiration against closed glottis . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air is temporarily held in the lower respiratory tract by closing the glottis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes intra-abdominal pressure to rise when abdominal muscles contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to empty the rectum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child birth . </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Factors causing collapsing tendency of lungs <ul><ul><li>Elasticity of lungs causes them to assume smallest possible size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface tension of alveolar fluid draws alveoli to their smallest possible size </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. Factors preventing Factors preventing collapse of lungs collapsing tendency of lungs <ul><li>The intrapleural pressure – it is always negative </li></ul><ul><li>Surfactant – secreted by the type 2 alveolar cells, which reduces surface tension. </li></ul>

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