mbbs ims msu


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Vertebrates, ribs,......

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mbbs ims msu

  1. 1. Vertebrates, Ribs and Sternum
  2. 2. Lordotic curves refer to the inward curve Kyphotic curves refer to the outward curve
  3. 3. Cervical vertebra (inferior view Cervical vertebra (superior view 1. Spinous process 1. Spinous process 2. Superior articular facets 2. Vertebral foramen 3. Vertebral foramen 3. Inferior articular facets 4. Transverse foramina 4. Transverse foramina 5. Transverse processes 5. Body 6. Body
  4. 4. Atlas C1 (inferior view) 1. Posterior arch 2. Transverse foramen 3. Transverse process 4. Inferior articular facet 5. Anterior arch Axis C2 (superior view) 1. Spinous process 2. Vertebral foramen 3. Transverse process 4. Superior articular surface 5. Odontoid process (dens
  5. 5. Thoracic vertebra (superior view 1. Spinous process 2. Transverse processes 3. Vertebral foramen 4. Inferior demifacets 5. Body 1. Facet for tubercle of the rib 2. Superior articular process 3. Superior demifacet 4. Inferior demifacet 5. Inferior notch 6. Spinous process Thoracic vertebra (right lateral view
  6. 6. Lumbar vertebra (superior view 1. Spinous process 2. Superior articular process 3. Transverse process 4. Vertebral foramen 5. Body 1. Superior articular process 2. Transverse process 3. Body 4. Inferior articular process 5. Spinous process Lumbar vertebra (right lateral view
  7. 7. The sacrum (anterior view 1. Superior articular process 2. Sacral promontory 3. Sacral foramen 1. Superior articular process 2. Auricular surface 3. Median sacral crest 4. Sacral foramen The sacrum (posterior view
  8. 8. 1. Manubrium The sternum 2. Costal cartilage 3. Body 4. Xiphoid process
  9. 9. Ribs In humans, a typical rib consists of a wedge-shaped head at the posterior end that articulates with the vertebral body, a tubercle that articulates with the same numbered thoracic vertebra, a central shaft (body) and an anterior (sternal) end. Located on the inferior portion of the inner surface of the body is a costal groove that contains blood vessels and nerves. Of the 12 pairs of ribs, all but the last two pairs are attached to the sternum either directly or indirectly at their anterior ends by costal cartilages. For this reason, the last two pairs of ribs (which have their costal cartilages embedded in the muscles of the body wall) are often called the "floating ribs".
  10. 10. 1. Tubercle 2. Neck 3. Head 4. Shaft (body 5. Anterior (sternal) end
  11. 11. 1. Intervertebral foramen 2. Herniation 3. Spinal nerve 4. Intervertebral disc the vertebrae are separated by discs of fibrous cartilage that cushion the bones from shock. Each disc is composed of an outer fibrocartilaginous ring called the annulus fibrosus and a soft, inner, highly elastic structure called the nucleus pulposus. Spinal nerves leave the spinal cord at regular intervals through the intervertebral foramina formed by the union of two vertebrae. As shock absorbers, the intervertebral discs are continually subjected to strong compressional forces. Occasionally, the discs between the lower vertebrae may become injured or weakened such that a portion of the nucleus pulposus protrudes into the intervertebral foramen, pressing on one of the spinal nerves in the process. This painful condition is called a herniated (slipped) disc.