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mbbs ims msu

  1. 1. Human Anatomy <br />History of Anatomy<br />Assoc. Prof. Dr. Karim Al-Jashamy<br />October 2009 <br />
  2. 2. Early Greeks<br />Greeks explained illness in terms of the 4 body humors (fluids). <br />Thought the humors were governed by air, water, fire, and earth<br />Healthy person had all four humors in balance. <br />
  3. 3. Physicians had to know the proper prayers and charms wherewith to approach &quot;Apollo the Healer,&quot; who would tell them what kind of herb poultice to put on a wound.<br />
  4. 4. Many “doctors” practiced by trial and error. If they made a lot of errors, people quit going to them.<br />Socles, a physician, treated a hunchback by piling three solid stones, each four feet square, on his spine. He was crushed and died, but he became straighter.<br />
  5. 5. Early Greek physician<br />Believed that illness had a physical cause<br />Rejected superstitions<br />Based medical treatments on observations<br />Hippocrates (460 to 379 BC)<br />
  6. 6. Role of Religion<br />Many religions influenced the study of the body. <br />Against doctrine to dissect a human.<br />
  7. 7. Claudius Galen (120 to 200)<br />Roman physician, “team doctor” for the gladiators. <br />Kept them alive so they could fight again.<br />
  8. 8. Did not dissect humans, but did extensive work on pigs and monkeys. <br />His mistake was to assume that humans and animals were identical internally. <br />His writings were taken as “law” for hundred of years.<br />
  9. 9. Early anatomical drawing based on misinformation.<br />
  10. 10. Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 to 1519)<br />Artists in Renaissance period interested in human form, so studied anatomy. <br />Da Vinci made hundreds of anatomically correct drawings. <br />He dissected bodies in secret. <br />
  11. 11. Andreas Vesalius (1514 to 1564)<br />Barber surgeon (combination barber, dentist, doctor). <br />Got special permission from the Pope to dissect criminals. <br />First scientist to understand human anatomy. <br />Wrote the first accurate book on human anatomy.<br />
  12. 12. Shortage of cadavers<br />In England and Scotland, medical schools began to open.<br />No one donated bodies to science – churchgoers believed in literal rising from grave, so dissection spoiled chances of resurrection.<br />Became a tradition to rely on executed prisoners, even up to 18th and 19th centuries. <br />
  13. 13. Serious Crimes<br />The added punishment of being dissected after death was considered another deterrent from crime.<br /> Ex. – Steal a pig: you were hung<br /> Kill a person: you were hung and dissected<br />Anatomists were often associated withexecutioners. <br />
  14. 14. Because they needed body parts, anatomists at medical school bought odd things.<br />A man could sell the leg of his son if it had to be amputated<br />
  15. 15. William Harvey (English) Circa 1590 <br />“Father of Anatomy”; studied circulatory system<br />Harvey dissected his own freshly dead family members (his father and sister) before burial.<br />
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  17. 17. Grave Robbing<br />Some medical students raided grave yards; some professors did also.<br />In certain Scottish schools in 1700s, you could trade a corpse for your tuition.<br />
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  19. 19. Anatomical Implementation branches<br /> Gross Anatomy<br /> Histological Anatomy<br /> Applied Anatomy (surgical Anatomy)<br /> Clinical Anatomy<br /> Forensic (Forensic Pathology) <br />
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  25. 25. Tools used<br />The following are tools commonly used in biological dissection.<br />Scalpel <br />Scissors<br />Thumb Forceps or Fine point splinter <br />Surgical Spatula <br />Magnifying glass <br />Razor <br />Blow Pipe (surgical) <br />Pipette or Medicine dropper <br />Ruler or caliper <br />T pins <br />Dissecting Pan<br />