Liver 1


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Liver 1

  1. 1. THE LIVE R Assoc. Prof Dr. Karim Al-Jashamy IMS/ MSU 2010
  2. 2. Hepatic Circulation
  3. 3. Hepatic Circulation
  4. 4. LIVER
  5. 5. Structure of the liver. The liver lobule in the center is surrounded by the portal space. Arteries, veins, and bile ducts occupy the portal spaces. In the lobule, note the radial disposition of the plates formed by hepatocytes; the sinusoidal capillaries separate the plates. The bile canaliculi can be seen between the hepatocytes. The sublobular (intercalated) veins drain blood from the lobules.
  6. 6. Anatomy of a Lobule: A Portal Tract Notice the direction of various flows.
  7. 7. Liver Lobule
  8. 8. Liver Parenchyma Hepatocytes are arranged in plates one cell thick. Blood flows over plates through sinusoids to reach terminal hepatic venule.
  9. 9. LOBULE Hepatocytes Sinusoid CV
  10. 10. Portal Tract L = lymphatics B = bile duct A = arterioles
  11. 11. Hepatic Artery branch Portal Tract x10 Bile ductule Lymphatic Portal Vein
  12. 12. Hepatocytes
  13. 13. Sinusoids
  14. 14. A Sinusoid
  15. 15. Bile Canaliculi
  16. 16. Bile Canaliculi
  17. 17. PANCREAS
  18. 18. Gland with Double Duties • Endocrine and exocrine functions • Exocrine anatomy – CT capsule surrounds pancreas – Septa divide it into sections – Compound acinar gland • Secretions – 1500 – 3000 ml pancreatic fluid (alkaline) – Contain water, ions, proteases, lipases, amylake, nucleases, ribonuclease
  19. 19. The structure of pancreatic acini. Acinar cells are pyramidal, with granules at their apex and rough endoplasmic reticulum at their base. The duct partly penetrates the acini.
  20. 20. Duct PANCREAS x10 Septum
  21. 21. Endocrine Gland • Islet of Langerhans –  cells (glucagon) ~ 20% –  cells (insulin) ~ 70% –  cells (somatostatin) ~ 5%
  22. 22. Acini Islet of Langerhans
  23. 23. A section of the pancreas showing an islet of Langerhans surrounded by pancreatic acinar cells. The islet cells form cords separated by blood capillaries, here seen as white spaces. Islet is surrounded by reticular fibers separating it from acinar cells.
  24. 24. An islet of Langerhans showing {a} (A) cells and {b} (B) cells. Gomori’s trichrome stain.
  25. 25. Electron-microscope immunocytochemical localization of insulin in a B cell of an islet of Langerhans. The black granules are gold particles used to label anti- insulin. They indicate the sites where this antibody was attached to the insulin in the secretory granules. Note also the clear zone between the secretory material and the granule membrane.
  26. 26. The main steps of insulin synthesis and secretion by a B cell in the islets of Langerhans. RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum. (Based on Orci L: A portrait of the pancreatic B cell.
  27. 27. Gallbladder The gallbladder is a hollow, pear-shaped organ attached to the lower surface of the liver It can store 30-50 mL of bile. The wall of the gallbladder consists of a mucosa composed of simple columnar epithelium and lamina propria, a layer of smooth muscle, a perimuscular connective tissue layer, and a serous membrane