Suppressor T cells<br />They  are capable of suppressing the function of both cytotoxic and helper T cell<br />They serve ...
Autoimmune Disorders<br />Antigens stimulate development of antibodies that are unable to distinguish antigens of internal...
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)<br />Caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)<br />HIV infects T-helper cel...
Lymphatic System<br />
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM<br />The lymphatic system take away the excess fluid from around the cells and returns it to the blood<br...
Functions of lymphatic system<br />1. To remove excess fluid from the tissue<br />2. To return the fluid to the blood	<br ...
Lymph System<br />Lymph originates in blood plasma<br />Interstitial fluid<br />cleans and nourishes body tissues<br />col...
The main function<br />   -  collect excess large particles and tissue fluid<br />lymph<br />
Special lymph capillaries ---  Lacteals<br />-  collect digested fats  ( in chylomicrons)<br />
Travel along with blood vessels.<br />lymphatic vessels<br />
Lymphatic System<br />Lymphatic system consist of:<br />Lymphatic tissue<br />Lymphatic vessels<br />lymph <br />
Components of Human Immune System <br />
<ul><li>blind ended vessels
permeable to proteins even cells</li></li></ul><li>Flow of Lymph<br />Once lymph enters a lymphatic vessel, valves prevent...
Valves are present to prevent backflow.<br />
Lymph Nodes<br />located in lymph vessels<br />small round or oval structures  (filters)<br />depositories for cellular de...
Lymph Nodes<br />inside are masses of tissue which contain WBCs (lymphocytes) <br />invading cells destroyed in nodes and ...
Lymph Nodes<br />small organs<br />embedded in connective tissue-– near body surface<br />cluster along lymphatic vessels<...
functions of Lymph Nodes<br />1) filter*<br />– phagocytic macrophages remove & destroy microorganisms enter the lymph fro...
Lymphoid tissues<br /> <br />Include: <br />Function:<br />     eliminates abnormal (sick, aged, or cancerous) cells and p...
Spleen<br />Largest mass of <br />of lymphatic tissue<br />Upper left diaphragm <br />Has two types of tissue<br />Red pul...
Spleen<br />functions<br />– Filter blood<br />– defective blood cells and platelets<br />– debris, foreign matter–<br />–...
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Lecture 16

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Lecture 16

  1. 1. Suppressor T cells<br />They are capable of suppressing the function of both cytotoxic and helper T cell<br />They serve functions of preventing the cytotoxic cells from causing excessive immune reactions that may damage the body own tissues, this called immune tolerance<br />Immune Tolerance<br />The condition of not mounting an immune response against the antigens that normally found within one’s own body. Lack of self tolerance underlies autoimmune diseases<br />
  2. 2. Autoimmune Disorders<br />Antigens stimulate development of antibodies that are unable to distinguish antigens of internal cells. <br />Body makes antibodies and T cells against itself and attacks own tissues.<br />
  3. 3. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)<br />Caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)<br />HIV infects T-helper cells<br />AIDS name applied during advanced stages of disease<br />After immune system destroyed, opportunistic infections occur.<br />
  4. 4. Lymphatic System<br />
  5. 5. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM<br />The lymphatic system take away the excess fluid from around the cells and returns it to the blood<br />The fluid from around the cells is called tissue fluid<br />Once inside the lymphatic system the fluid is called lymph<br />
  6. 6. Functions of lymphatic system<br />1. To remove excess fluid from the tissue<br />2. To return the fluid to the blood <br />3. To produce antibodies and lymphocytes<br />4. To clean and filter the fluid<br />5. To transport absorbed fats from the intestines to the blood <br />
  7. 7. Lymph System<br />Lymph originates in blood plasma<br />Interstitial fluid<br />cleans and nourishes body tissues<br />collects cellular debris, bacteria<br />
  8. 8. The main function<br /> - collect excess large particles and tissue fluid<br />lymph<br />
  9. 9. Special lymph capillaries --- Lacteals<br />- collect digested fats ( in chylomicrons)<br />
  10. 10. Travel along with blood vessels.<br />lymphatic vessels<br />
  11. 11. Lymphatic System<br />Lymphatic system consist of:<br />Lymphatic tissue<br />Lymphatic vessels<br />lymph <br />
  12. 12. Components of Human Immune System <br />
  13. 13. <ul><li>blind ended vessels
  14. 14. permeable to proteins even cells</li></li></ul><li>Flow of Lymph<br />Once lymph enters a lymphatic vessel, valves prevent lymph from flowing backward (back toward the interstitial space)<br />Lymph can only move toward a collecting duct <br />As it moves through vessels, it is filtered periodically by lymph nodes.<br />
  15. 15. Valves are present to prevent backflow.<br />
  16. 16. Lymph Nodes<br />located in lymph vessels<br />small round or oval structures (filters)<br />depositories for cellular debris<br />bacteria and debris phagocytized<br />
  17. 17. Lymph Nodes<br />inside are masses of tissue which contain WBCs (lymphocytes) <br />invading cells destroyed in nodes and often swell as an indicator of the disease process<br />
  18. 18. Lymph Nodes<br />small organs<br />embedded in connective tissue-– near body surface<br />cluster along lymphatic vessels<br />function<br />– filter lymph as it is transported back to bloodstream<br />mall organs<br />mall organs<br />mall organs<br />embedded in connective tissue<br />embedded in connective tissue<br />embedded in connective tissue<br />cluster along lymphatic vessels<br />cluster along lymphatic vessels<br />cluster along lymphatic vessels<br />function<br />function<br />function<br />– filter lymph<br />– filter lymph<br />– filter lymph<br />• as it is transported back to bloodstream<br />• as it is transported back to bloodstream<br />• as it is transported back to bloodstream<br />
  19. 19. functions of Lymph Nodes<br />1) filter*<br />– phagocytic macrophages remove & destroy microorganisms enter the lymph from loose connective tissue<br />– prevent them from being delivered to the blood<br />2) activate the immune system<br />3) fight against antigens<br />– lymphocytes located in lymphnodes<br />
  20. 20. Lymphoid tissues<br /> <br />Include: <br />Function:<br /> eliminates abnormal (sick, aged, or cancerous) cells and pathogens<br />Lymph Nodes<br />Spleen<br />Thymus<br />Tonsils<br />
  21. 21. Spleen<br />Largest mass of <br />of lymphatic tissue<br />Upper left diaphragm <br />Has two types of tissue<br />Red pulp-responsible for removing RBC<br />White pulp-site for immune interaction<br />
  22. 22. Spleen<br />functions<br />– Filter blood<br />– defective blood cells and platelets<br />– debris, foreign matter–<br />– site for immune interaction<br />

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