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Eye Histo lo gy




                  Assoc. Prof. Dr. Karim Al-Jashamy
-The superior and inferior tarsal
plates are dense fibrous plates
that give support and form to the
eyelids. Tarsal glands produce oily
secretions to prevent tears from
leaking out, while the eyelids stay
dry.
- The obicularis oculi muscle
contains both palpebral and orbital
parts and acts to close the eyelids.
- The levator palpebrae superioris
muscle elevates the upper eyelid.
It is a skeletal muscle under
voluntary control.
The eye
•   A complex and highly developed
    photosensitive organ that permits an
    accurate analysis of the form, light
    intensity, and color reflected from
    objects.

•    Each eye is composed of three
    concentric layers: an external layer
    that consists of the sclera and the
    cornea; a middle layer also called the
    vascular layer consisting of the
    choroid, ciliary body, and iris; and an
    inner layer of nerve tissue, the retina,
    which consists of an outer pigment
    epithelium and an inner retina
    proper.

•   The photosensitive retina proper is
    part of the central nervous system
    and      communicates    with   the
    cerebrum through the optic nerve
    and extends forward to the ora
    serrata.
Diagram, showing the structure of the eye, retina, fovea, and ciliary body.
An enlarged diagram of the fovea is shown at the lower right: (1) axons of
ganglion cells; (2) bipolar cells; (3) rods; (4) cones. Enlarged diagrams of the
ciliary body (upper right) and retina (lower left)
•The sclera         consists of tough,
dense connective tissue made up
mainly of flat collagen bundles
intersecting in various directions while
remaining parallel to the surface of the
organ, a moderate amount of ground
substance, and a few fibroblasts.

•The external surface of the sclera the
episclera is connected by a loose
system of thin collagen fibers to a dense
layer of connective tissue called
Tenon's capsule. Tenon's capsule
comes into contact with the loose
conjunctival stroma at the junction of the
cornea with the sclera.
• Between the sclera and the choroid is      Section of choroid and sclera. The choroid is a
                                             highly vascular layer (arrowheads) of
the suprachoroidal lamina, a thin layer
                                             connective tissue containing melanocytes that
of loose connective tissue rich in           prevent the reflection of incident light.
melanocytes, fibroblasts, and elastic        The sclera is a dense layer of connective
fibers.                                      tissue rich in fibers of collagen type I,
                                             arranged in parallel bundles.
• The outer layer, or sclera,
  consists of dense fibrous
  connective tissue.
– The sclera is "white" of the eye.
– The sclera is continuous with the
  transparent substantia propria of the
  cornea.
– The exposed front surface of the eye,
  including the cornea, is also covered
  by a thin, non-keratinized stratified
  squamous epithelium.

1 - cornea
2 - iris
3 - posterior chamber of the eye
4 - lens
5 - vitreous body
6 - ciliary body
7 - retina
8 - choroid
9 - sclera
10 - canal of Sclemm
11 - growth area of the lens
12 - anterior epithelium of the lens
RETINA, CHOROID
• 1 - 8 - retina
  1 - optic nerve fibers
  2 - ganglion cell layer
  3 - inner plexiform
  layer
  4 - inner nuclear layer
  5 - outer plexiform
  layer
  6 - outer nuclear layer
  7 - outer processes of
  rods and cones
  8 - pigmented
  epithelium
  9 - choroid
  10 - sclera
• Cornea
• colorless and transparent.
• A transverse section of the cornea
  shows that it consists of five layers:
  epithelium,     Bowman's   membrane,
  stroma, Descemet's membrane, and
  endothelium.

•   The corneal epithelium is stratified,
    squamous, and nonkeratinized and
    consists of five or six layers of cells.

•    In the basal part of the epithelium are
    numerous mitotic figures that are
    responsible for the cornea's remarkable
    regenerative capacity

•  The surface corneal cells show
  microvilli protruding into the space
  filled by the precorneal tear film.
• This epithelial tissue is covered by a
  protective     layer    of     lipid and
  glycoprotein, about 7 m thick. The
  cornea has one of the richest sensory
  nerve supplies of any eye tissue.
CORNEA
•1 - anterior epithelium
 (stratified squamous
 epithelium)
 2 - anterior basement
 (Bowman's) membrane
 3 - substantia propria
 4 - posterior basement
 (Descemet's)
 membrane
 5 - posterior epithelium
 (simple squamous or
 endothelium)
•   This layer, Bowman's membrane, consists of collagen fibers crossing at random,
    a condensation of the intercellular substance, and no cells . Bowman's membrane
    contributes greatly to the stability and strength of the cornea.
•   The stroma is formed of many layers of parallel collagen bundles that cross at
    approximately right angles to each other. The collagen fibrils within each lamella
    are parallel to each other and run the full width of the cornea. Between the several
    layers, the cytoplasmic extensions of fibroblasts are flattened like the wings of a
    butterfly.

•   Descemet's membrane is a thick homogeneous structure composed of fine
    collagenous filaments organized in a three-dimensional network.

•   The endothelium of the cornea is a simple squamous epithelium. These cells
    possess organelles for secretion that are characteristic of cells engaged in active
    transport and protein synthesis and that may be related to the synthesis and
    maintenance of Descemet's membrane.

•   The corneal endothelium and epithelium are responsible for maintaining the
    transparency of the cornea. Both layers are capable of transporting sodium ions
    toward their apical surfaces. Chloride ions and water follow passively, maintaining
    the corneal stroma in a relatively dehydrated state. This state, along with the
    regular orientation of the very thin collagen fibrils of the stroma, accounts for the
    transparency of the cornea.
• The corneoscleral junction, or limbus, is an area of transition from
  the transparent collagen bundles of the cornea to the white opaque
  fibers of the sclera. It is highly vascularized, and its blood vessels
  assume an important role in corneal inflammatory processes.

• The cornea, an avascular structure, receives its metabolites by
  diffusion from adjacent vessels and from the fluid of the anterior
  chamber of the eye.

• In the region of the limbus in the stromal layer, irregular endothelium-
  lined channels, the trabecular meshwork, merge to form Schlemm's
  canal, which drains fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye.
  Schlemm's canal communicates externally with the venous system.
• Middle, or Vascular, Layer
• The middle (vascular) layer of the eye consists of three parts: choroid,
  ciliary body, and iris, known collectively as the uveal tract.
- The ciliary body contains ciliary muscle that is composed of smooth muscle. Contraction
and relaxation of the ciliary muscles change the tension of the zonular fibers, or suspensory
ligaments, of the lens. This allows the lens to change shape, a process known as
accommodation.
- The ciliary processes are folds of connective tissue that are covered by two layers of
epithelium. There is also a complex vasculature that cannot be seen easily. Fluid from these
vessels is processed and transported by the epithelial cells to the posterior chamber as
aqueous humor. The epithelial cells constitute the blood-aqueous barrier.
-
-   The aqueous humor enters the anterior
    chamber through the pupil as it flows
    between the lens and the iris.
-    Aqueous humor leaves the anterior
    chamber   through  the  trabecular
    meshwork and into the canal of
    Schlemm.
-   This    is    an     endothelial lines,
    circumferentially arranged vessel that
    communicates with veins in the sclera
    and returns the aqueous humor back to
    the general circulation.
-    Obstruction of the trabecular meshwork
    and canals of Schlemm are thought to
    be the major cause of elevated
    intraocular pressure, which could then
    lead to glaucoma.
- The iris is detailed here in higher magnification. Note
the anterior and posterior chambers to help orient
yourself.
- The anterior surface of the iris contains loose, variably
pigmented stroma. It is open to the circulating aqueous
humor within the anterior chamber.
- Two layers of heavily pigmented epithelium cover the
posterior surface of the iris.
- Note that the sphincter pupillae muscle can be easily
seen near the pupil margin. It is smooth muscle
controlled by parasympathetics. The dilator pupillae
muscle is more difficult to identify, but it dilates the pupil
upon sympathetic innervation.
Lens
• The lens consists of a
  lens capsule, the
  subcapsular epithelium
  and lens fibres. It does
  not contain blood
  vessels or nerves.

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Histology of eye

  • 1. Eye Histo lo gy Assoc. Prof. Dr. Karim Al-Jashamy
  • 2. -The superior and inferior tarsal plates are dense fibrous plates that give support and form to the eyelids. Tarsal glands produce oily secretions to prevent tears from leaking out, while the eyelids stay dry. - The obicularis oculi muscle contains both palpebral and orbital parts and acts to close the eyelids. - The levator palpebrae superioris muscle elevates the upper eyelid. It is a skeletal muscle under voluntary control.
  • 3. The eye • A complex and highly developed photosensitive organ that permits an accurate analysis of the form, light intensity, and color reflected from objects. • Each eye is composed of three concentric layers: an external layer that consists of the sclera and the cornea; a middle layer also called the vascular layer consisting of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris; and an inner layer of nerve tissue, the retina, which consists of an outer pigment epithelium and an inner retina proper. • The photosensitive retina proper is part of the central nervous system and communicates with the cerebrum through the optic nerve and extends forward to the ora serrata.
  • 4. Diagram, showing the structure of the eye, retina, fovea, and ciliary body. An enlarged diagram of the fovea is shown at the lower right: (1) axons of ganglion cells; (2) bipolar cells; (3) rods; (4) cones. Enlarged diagrams of the ciliary body (upper right) and retina (lower left)
  • 5. •The sclera consists of tough, dense connective tissue made up mainly of flat collagen bundles intersecting in various directions while remaining parallel to the surface of the organ, a moderate amount of ground substance, and a few fibroblasts. •The external surface of the sclera the episclera is connected by a loose system of thin collagen fibers to a dense layer of connective tissue called Tenon's capsule. Tenon's capsule comes into contact with the loose conjunctival stroma at the junction of the cornea with the sclera. • Between the sclera and the choroid is Section of choroid and sclera. The choroid is a highly vascular layer (arrowheads) of the suprachoroidal lamina, a thin layer connective tissue containing melanocytes that of loose connective tissue rich in prevent the reflection of incident light. melanocytes, fibroblasts, and elastic The sclera is a dense layer of connective fibers. tissue rich in fibers of collagen type I, arranged in parallel bundles.
  • 6. • The outer layer, or sclera, consists of dense fibrous connective tissue. – The sclera is "white" of the eye. – The sclera is continuous with the transparent substantia propria of the cornea. – The exposed front surface of the eye, including the cornea, is also covered by a thin, non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. 1 - cornea 2 - iris 3 - posterior chamber of the eye 4 - lens 5 - vitreous body 6 - ciliary body 7 - retina 8 - choroid 9 - sclera 10 - canal of Sclemm 11 - growth area of the lens 12 - anterior epithelium of the lens
  • 7. RETINA, CHOROID • 1 - 8 - retina 1 - optic nerve fibers 2 - ganglion cell layer 3 - inner plexiform layer 4 - inner nuclear layer 5 - outer plexiform layer 6 - outer nuclear layer 7 - outer processes of rods and cones 8 - pigmented epithelium 9 - choroid 10 - sclera
  • 8.
  • 9. • Cornea • colorless and transparent. • A transverse section of the cornea shows that it consists of five layers: epithelium, Bowman's membrane, stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium. • The corneal epithelium is stratified, squamous, and nonkeratinized and consists of five or six layers of cells. • In the basal part of the epithelium are numerous mitotic figures that are responsible for the cornea's remarkable regenerative capacity • The surface corneal cells show microvilli protruding into the space filled by the precorneal tear film. • This epithelial tissue is covered by a protective layer of lipid and glycoprotein, about 7 m thick. The cornea has one of the richest sensory nerve supplies of any eye tissue.
  • 10. CORNEA •1 - anterior epithelium (stratified squamous epithelium) 2 - anterior basement (Bowman's) membrane 3 - substantia propria 4 - posterior basement (Descemet's) membrane 5 - posterior epithelium (simple squamous or endothelium)
  • 11. This layer, Bowman's membrane, consists of collagen fibers crossing at random, a condensation of the intercellular substance, and no cells . Bowman's membrane contributes greatly to the stability and strength of the cornea. • The stroma is formed of many layers of parallel collagen bundles that cross at approximately right angles to each other. The collagen fibrils within each lamella are parallel to each other and run the full width of the cornea. Between the several layers, the cytoplasmic extensions of fibroblasts are flattened like the wings of a butterfly. • Descemet's membrane is a thick homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments organized in a three-dimensional network. • The endothelium of the cornea is a simple squamous epithelium. These cells possess organelles for secretion that are characteristic of cells engaged in active transport and protein synthesis and that may be related to the synthesis and maintenance of Descemet's membrane. • The corneal endothelium and epithelium are responsible for maintaining the transparency of the cornea. Both layers are capable of transporting sodium ions toward their apical surfaces. Chloride ions and water follow passively, maintaining the corneal stroma in a relatively dehydrated state. This state, along with the regular orientation of the very thin collagen fibrils of the stroma, accounts for the transparency of the cornea.
  • 12. • The corneoscleral junction, or limbus, is an area of transition from the transparent collagen bundles of the cornea to the white opaque fibers of the sclera. It is highly vascularized, and its blood vessels assume an important role in corneal inflammatory processes. • The cornea, an avascular structure, receives its metabolites by diffusion from adjacent vessels and from the fluid of the anterior chamber of the eye. • In the region of the limbus in the stromal layer, irregular endothelium- lined channels, the trabecular meshwork, merge to form Schlemm's canal, which drains fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye. Schlemm's canal communicates externally with the venous system. • Middle, or Vascular, Layer • The middle (vascular) layer of the eye consists of three parts: choroid, ciliary body, and iris, known collectively as the uveal tract.
  • 13. - The ciliary body contains ciliary muscle that is composed of smooth muscle. Contraction and relaxation of the ciliary muscles change the tension of the zonular fibers, or suspensory ligaments, of the lens. This allows the lens to change shape, a process known as accommodation. - The ciliary processes are folds of connective tissue that are covered by two layers of epithelium. There is also a complex vasculature that cannot be seen easily. Fluid from these vessels is processed and transported by the epithelial cells to the posterior chamber as aqueous humor. The epithelial cells constitute the blood-aqueous barrier. -
  • 14. - The aqueous humor enters the anterior chamber through the pupil as it flows between the lens and the iris. - Aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber through the trabecular meshwork and into the canal of Schlemm. - This is an endothelial lines, circumferentially arranged vessel that communicates with veins in the sclera and returns the aqueous humor back to the general circulation. - Obstruction of the trabecular meshwork and canals of Schlemm are thought to be the major cause of elevated intraocular pressure, which could then lead to glaucoma.
  • 15. - The iris is detailed here in higher magnification. Note the anterior and posterior chambers to help orient yourself. - The anterior surface of the iris contains loose, variably pigmented stroma. It is open to the circulating aqueous humor within the anterior chamber. - Two layers of heavily pigmented epithelium cover the posterior surface of the iris. - Note that the sphincter pupillae muscle can be easily seen near the pupil margin. It is smooth muscle controlled by parasympathetics. The dilator pupillae muscle is more difficult to identify, but it dilates the pupil upon sympathetic innervation.
  • 16. Lens • The lens consists of a lens capsule, the subcapsular epithelium and lens fibres. It does not contain blood vessels or nerves.