Forensic medicine post mortem artefact


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Forensic medicine post mortem artefact

  2. 2. Animal – induced <ul><ul><li>Bodies found in sandy locations, will be invaded by a variety of insects such as ants and beetles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They will produce extensive superficial tissues damage which resemble abrasions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These injuries might be thought to have been produced by dragging through the sand of over rough ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lack of linear patterns should be sufficient to exclude dragging injuries </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In more covered places, rats, mice, dogs and foxes may feed on bodies when normal food supplies have been exhausted. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals when ravenous have been known to destroy large areas of a body. </li></ul><ul><li>Buzzards, crows and birds have been seen around a body and they can execute considerable damage, rendering a body almost to a skeleton in a few days, depending very much on the time of the year and thir feeding requirements </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>When a body is found in water there are numerous invaders which may cause extensive damage to the soft tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Crabs, shrimps and other crustaceans, some fish and sea feeding birds are the common culprits but in tropical water there are many others including turtles and sharks </li></ul><ul><li>All these possibilities must be kept in mind and a close examination of the edge of the injuries may reveal characteristic teeth, beak or claw marks. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Post mortem ant bites </li></ul>
  6. 7. Pathologist-induced <ul><li>In removing the throat organs care must be exercised so as not to fracture the segments of the thyroid cartilage or the hyoid bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to recognize that he has caused the damage may lead the pathologist to an erroneous opinion of an ante mortem fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>In elderly debilitated persons there are may be unusual fragility of the bones especially the ribs. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Rough handling or undue pressure on the chest may cause them to fracture, and without due care a wrong interpretation will be placed on the finding. </li></ul><ul><li>Undue haste or inability to see clearly may produce a knife cut or tissue damage which may not be appreciated at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to recognize his own clumsiness may cause a false interpretation to be given to the damage done. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Clinician induced <ul><li>Vigorous resuscitative care or diagnostic techniques in the ante mortem period may leave a series of bruises, abrasions, therapeutic injection marks and other tissue damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual bruises found on a body of a child have given rise prematurely to thoughts of child abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>If in doubt as to what an unusual mark is, the pathologist should request the attendance of the clinician to explain it. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>A situation in which this is important is when a victim of a stabbing is admitted to the hospital seriously ill and dies after surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>At autopsy other stab wounds for diagnostics purposes or for therapy are frequently seen along with the fatal wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Worse still is the case where are surgeon has enlarged a true stab wound, thus vitually destroying the evidence. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>The surgeon must be present at the time of the autopsy to identify his wounds and to explain his actions to the satisfaction of the pathologist </li></ul>
  11. 12. Embalmer induced <ul><li>The process of embalming a body is increasingly in demand and it is essential if the body is to be transported out of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>On occasion it is carried out before an autopsy is performed. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial stages are easily identified because the incisions are made over major blood vessels in the neck, elbow and upper thigh. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>The later stages consist of passing a trochar into the cavities and the larger organs. </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure causes extensive and bizarre puncture wounds and will release blood, urine, gastric contents, bile, and other fluids into the cavities. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from the direct effect of the embalming fluid on the organs, this post mortem trauma may make the interpretation of findings rather difficult. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Machine induced <ul><li>This problem is the most difficult of all to interpret. </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies in water can be severely mutilated by passing ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from the screw, which can reap extensive havoc on a body, there are many underwater projections on modern ships which can produce lacerations and fractures. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>In road traffic accidents there is the problem of a body having been knocked down by one vehicle only to be struck or run over by a following vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>There is always difficulty in trying to distinguish primary from secondary injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Other areas of interest include industrial accident involving moving parts of machinery, high speed accidents as with railway or aircraft accidents. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>All cases are difficult cases. </li></ul><ul><li>The pathologist will always welcome help from any direction, both expert and non-expert, before expressing an opinion as to the cause of the injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Once made it is often difficult to retract it and replace it with a plausible alternative </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>In studying post mortem changes and the variety of pathological findings that present themselves it is of paramount importance that those professionals who have an interest in the results do not too readily arrive at a conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Always remember to maintain an open mind until all the facts are known, recognizing that there are few scientific certainties in post mortem appearances. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Mourning and funerary artifact </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul><ul><li>Study smart </li></ul>