Embryology vascular development


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Embryology vascular development

  2. 2. Vascular Development ARTERIAL SYSTEM VENOUS SYSTEM Circulation Before and After Birth Lymphatic System
  4. 4. Aortic Arches • When pharyngeal arches form during the fourth and fifth weeks of development, each arch receives its own cranial nerve and its own artery. • These arteries, the aortic arches, arise from the aortic sac, • The aortic arches are embedded in mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches and terminate in the right and left dorsal aortae. • During further development, this arterial pattern becomes modified, and some vessels regress completely. • Division of the truncus arteriosus by the aorticopulmonary septum divides the outflow channel of the heart into the ventral aorta and the pulmonary artery.
  5. 5. Aortic Arches • The aortic sac then forms right and left horns, • By day 27, most of the first aortic arch has disappeared (small portion persists to form the maxillary artery). • The second aortic arch soon disappears. The remaining portions of this arch are the hyoid and stapedial arteries. • The third arch is large; • The fourth and sixth arches are in the process of formation. • In a 29-day embryo, the first and second aortic arches have disappeared . • The third, fourth, and sixth arches are large. • The truncoaortic sac has divided so that the sixth arches are now continuous with the pulmonary trunk.
  6. 6. Main intraembryonic and extraembryonic arteries (red) and veins (blue) in a 4-mm embryo (end of the fourth week). Only the vessels on the left side of the embryo are shown.
  7. 7. A. Aortic arches at the end of the B. Aortic arch system at the beginning of the sixth fourth week. The first arch is week. Note the aorticopulmonary septum and the obliterated large pulmonary arteries before the sixth is formed.
  8. 8. Aortic arches and dorsal aortae before transformation into the definitive vascular pattern.
  9. 9. Aortic arches and dorsal aortae after the transformation. Broken lines, obliterated components.
  10. 10. After disappearance of the distal part of the sixth aortic arch , the right recurrent laryngeal nerve hooks The great arteries in the adult around the right subclavian artery
  11. 11. The following changes occur • The third aortic arch forms the common carotid artery and the first part of the internal carotid artery. • The remainder of the internal carotid is formed by the cranial portion of the dorsal aorta. • The third aortic arch forms the external carotid artery . • The fourth aortic arch persists on both sides,. On the left it forms part of the arch of the aorta. On the right it forms the most proximal segment of the right subclavian artery, • The fifth aortic arch either never forms or forms incompletely and then regresses. • The sixth aortic arch, also known as the pulmonary arch, gives off an important branch that grows toward the developing lung bud. • On the right side the proximal part becomes the proximal segment of the right pulmonary artery. The distal portion of this arch disappears. • On the left the distal part persists during intrauterine life as the ductus arteriosus.
  12. 12. Changes from the original aortic arch system
  13. 13. OTHER CHANGES 1. The dorsal aorta between the entrance of the third and fourth arches, known as the carotid duct, is obliterated. 2. The right dorsal aorta disappears between the origin of the seventh intersegmental artery and the junction with the left dorsal aorta. 3. The carotid and brachiocephalic arteries elongate ., the left subclavian artery, distally fixed in the arm bud. 4. recurrent laryngeal nerves becomes different on the right and left sides. Initially these nerves, branches of the vagus, supply the sixth pharyngeal arches. • On the right, when the distal part of the sixth aortic arch and the fifth aortic arch disappear, the recurrent laryngeal nerve moves up and hooks around the right subclavian artery. • On the left the nerve does not move up, since the distal part of the sixth aortic arch persists as the ductus arteriosus, which later forms the ligamentum arteriosum
  14. 14. Main intraembryonic and extraembryonic arteries (red) and veins (blue) in a 4-mm embryo (end of the fourth week). Only the vessels on the left side of the embryo are shown.
  15. 15. Vitelline and Umbilical Arteries • The vitelline arteries, initially a number of paired vessels supplying the yolk sac, gradually fuse and form the arteries in the dorsal mesentery of the gut. • In the adult they are represented by the celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric arteries. • These vessels supply derivatives of the foregut, midgut, and hindgut, respectively. • The umbilical arteries, initially paired ventral branches of the dorsal aorta, course to the placenta in close association with the allantois. • During the fourth week, each artery acquires a secondary connection with the dorsal branch of the aorta, the common iliac artery, and loses its earliest origin. • After birth the proximal portions of the umbilical arteries persist as the internal iliac and superior vesical arteries, • and the distal parts are obliterated to form the medial umbilical ligaments
  16. 16. CLINICALCORRELATES Arterial System Defects • A patent ductus arteriosus, one of the most frequently occurring abnormalities of the great vessels (8/10,000 births), especially in premature infants. • Under normal conditions the ductus arteriosus is functionally closed through contraction of its muscular wall shortly after birth to form the ligamentum arteriosum. • Anatomical closure by means of intima proliferation takes 1 to 3 months. • Coarctation of the aorta occurs in 3.2/10,000 births, • The aortic lumen below the origin of the left subclavian artery is significantly narrowed. • The constriction two types, preductal and postductal, • In the preductal type the ductus arteriosus persists, • in the postductal type, which is more common, this channel is usually obliterated
  17. 17. Preductal type Postductal type The caudal part of the body is supplied by large hypertrophied intercostal and internal thoracic arteries. ??? X-Ray findings???? In postductal type collateral circulation between the proximal and distal parts of the aorta is established by way of large intercostal and internal thoracic arteries
  18. 18. Abnormal origin of the right subclavian artery Obliteration of the right fourth aortic arch and the The abnormal right proximal portion of the subclavian artery right dorsal aorta with crosses the midline persistence behind the of the distal portion of the esophagus and may right dorsal aorta compress it.
  19. 19. Abnormal origin of the right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria) • occurs when the artery is formed by the distal portion of the right dorsal aorta and the seventh intersegmental artery. • The right fourth aortic arch and the proximal part of the right dorsal aorta are obliterated. • the origin of the abnormal right subclavian artery finally settles just below that of the left subclavian artery. • it must cross the midline behind the esophagus to reach the right arm. • This location does not usually cause problems with swallowing or breathing, since neither the esophagus nor the trachea is severely compressed.
  20. 20. Double aortic arch The double aortic arch forms a vascular Persistence of the ring around the trachea and esophagus distal portion of the right dorsal aorta
  21. 21. Obliteration of the fourth Case of interrupted aortic arch. aortic arch on the right The aorta supplies the head; and left and persistence the pulmonary artery, by way of of the distal portion of the the ductus arteriosus, right dorsal aorta supplies the rest of the body.
  22. 22. INTERRUPTED AORTIC • An interrupted aortic arch is caused by obliteration of the fourth aortic arch on the left side. • It is frequently combined with an abnormal origin of the right subclavian artery. • The ductus arteriosus remains open, and the descending aorta and subclavian arteries are supplied with blood of low oxygen content. • The aortic trunk supplies the two common carotid arteries
  24. 24. VENOUS SYSTEM • In the fifth week, three pairs of major veins can be distinguished: • the vitelline veins, (omphalomesenteric veins) • carrying blood from the yolk sac to the sinus venosus. • the umbilical veins, • originating in the chorionic villi, carrying oxygenated blood to the embryo. • the cardinal veins, • draining the body of the embryo proper.
  25. 25. Main components of the venous and arterial systems in a 4-mm embryo (end of the fourth week).
  26. 26. Vitelline Veins • Before entering the sinus venosus, the vitelline veins form a plexus around the duodenum and pass through the septum transversum. • The liver cords growing into the septum interrupt the course of the veins, and an extensive vascular network, the hepatic sinusoids, forms. • With reduction of the left sinus horn, blood from the left side of the liver is rechanneled toward the right, resulting in an enlargement of the right vitelline vein (right hepatocardiac channel). • The right hepatocardiac channel forms the hepatocardiac portion of the inferior vena cava. • The proximal part of the left vitelline vein disappears. • The anastomotic network around the duodenum develops into a single vessel, the portal vein . • The superior mesenteric vein derives from the right vitelline vein. • The distal portion of the left vitelline vein also disappears.
  27. 27. Development of the vitelline and umbilical veins during the (A) fourth and (B) fifth weeks. Note the plexus around the duodenum, formation of the hepatic sinusoids, and initiation of left-to-right shunts between the vitelline veins.
  28. 28. Development of vitelline and umbilical veins in the (A) second and (B) third months. Note formation of the ductus venosus, portal vein, and hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava. The splenic and superior mesenteric veins enter the portal vein.
  29. 29. Umbilical Veins • Initially the umbilical veins pass on each side of the liver, but some connect to the hepatic sinusoids. • The proximal part of both umbilical veins and the remainder of the right umbilical vein then disappear, • The left vein is the only one to carry blood from the placenta to the liver. • With the increase of the placental circulation, a direct communication forms between the left umbilical vein and the right hepatocardiac channel, the ductus venosus. • The ductus venosus bypasses the sinusoidal plexus of the liver. • After birth the left umbilical vein and ductus venosus are obliterated and form the ligamentum teres hepatis and ligamentum venosum, respectively.
  30. 30. Cardinal Veins • Initially the cardinal veins form the main venous drainage system of the embryo. • The anterior cardinal veins drains the cephalic part of the embryo, • The posterior cardinal veins drains the rest of the embryo. • The anterior and posterior veins join before entering the sinus horn and form the short common cardinal veins. • During the fourth week, the cardinal veins form a symmetrical system. • During the fifth to the seventh week a number of additional veins are formed: 1. The subcardinal veins, mainly drain the kidneys; 2. The sacrocardinal veins, drain the lower extremities; 3. The supracardinal veins, drain the body wall by way of the intercostal veins, taking over the functions of the posterior cardinal veins.
  31. 31. Cardinal Veins • Formation of the vena cava system is characterized by the appearance of anastomoses between left and right in such a manner that the blood from the left is channeled to the right side. • The anastomosis between the anterior cardinal veins develops into the left brachiocephalic vein. • Most of the blood from the left side of the head and the left upper extremity is then channeled to the right. • The terminal portion of the left posterior cardinal vein entering into the left brachiocephalic vein is retained as a small vessel, the left superior intercostal vein. • This vessel receives blood from the second and third intercostal spaces. • The superior vena cava is formed by the right common cardinal vein and the proximal portion of the right anterior cardinal vein.
  32. 32. Cardinal Veins • The anastomosis between the subcardinal veins forms the left renal vein. • The left subcardinal vein disappears, and only its distal portion remains as the left gonadal vein. • The right subcardinal vein becomes the main drainage channel and develops into the renal segment of the inferior vena cava. • The anastomosis between the sacrocardinal veins forms the left common iliac vein. • The right sacrocardinal vein becomes the sacrocardinal segment of the inferior vena cava. • When the renal segment of the inferior vena cava connects with the hepatic segment, the inferior vena cava (consisting of hepatic, renal, and sacrocardinal segments) is complete.
  33. 33. Cardinal Veins • The 4th to 11th right intercostal veins empty into the right supracardinal vein, which together with a portion of the posterior cardinal vein forms the azygos vein. • On the left the 4th to 7th intercostal veins enter into the left supracardinal vein, and the left supracardinal vein, then known as the hemiazygos vein, empties into the azygos vein.
  34. 34. CLINICALCORRELATES Venous System Defects • The complicated development of the vena cava accounts for the fact that deviations from the normal pattern are common. • A double inferior vena cava occurs when the left sacrocardinal vein fails to lose its connection with the left subcardinal vein. The left common iliac vein may or may not be present, but the left gonadal vein remains as in normal conditions. • Absence of the inferior vena cava arises when the right subcardinal vein fails to make its connection with the liver and shunts its blood directly into the right supracardinal vein. the bloodstream from the caudal part of the body reaches the heart by way of the azygos vein and superior vena cava. Usually this abnormality is associated with other heart malformations
  35. 35. Double inferior vena cava at the lumbar level arising from the Absent inferior vena cava. The lower half of the persistence body is drained by the azygos vein, which enters of the left the superior vena cava. The hepatic vein enters sacrocardinal the heart at the site of the inferior vena cava vein
  36. 36. Venous System Defects • Left superior vena cava is caused by persistence of the left anterior cardinal vein and obliteration of the common cardinal and proximal part of the anterior cardinal veins on the right. In such a case, blood from the right is channeled toward the left by way of the brachiocephalic vein. The left superior vena cava drains into the right atrium by way of the left sinus horn, that is, the coronary sinus. • Double superior vena cava is characterized by the persistence of the left anterior cardinal vein and failure of the left brachiocephalic vein to form. The persistent left anterior cardinal vein, the left superior vena cava, drains into the right atrium by way of the coronary sinus.
  37. 37. Left superior vena cava draining into Double superior vena cava. The the right atrium by communicating (brachiocephalic) way of the vein between the two anterior coronary sinus cardinals has failed to develop (dorsal view) (dorsal view)
  38. 38. Circulation Before and After Birth
  39. 39. FETAL CIRCULATION Before birth • Before birth, blood from the placenta, about 80% saturated with oxygen, returns to the fetus by way of the umbilical vein. • On approaching the liver, most of this blood flows through the ductus venosus directly into the inferior vena cava, short-circuiting the liver. • A smaller amount enters the liver sinusoids and mixes with blood from the portal circulation. • A sphincter mechanism in the ductus venosus, regulates flow of umbilical blood through the liver sinusoids. • This sphincter closes when a uterine contraction renders the venous return too high, preventing a sudden overloading of the heart.
  40. 40. oxygenated blood mixes with deoxygenated blood
  41. 41. oxygenated blood mixes with deoxygenated blood
  42. 42. FETAL CIRCULATION Before birth • Blood in the inferior vena cava enters the right atrium. • Blood is guided toward the oval foramen by the valve of the inferior vena cava, and most of the blood passes directly into the left atrium. • A small amount is prevented, and remains in the right atrium. Here it mixes with desaturated blood returning from the head and arms by way of the superior vena cava. • In the left atrium, blood mixes with a small amount of desaturated blood returning from the lungs, blood enters the left ventricle and ascending aorta
  43. 43. FETAL CIRCULATION Before birth • The heart musculature and the brain are supplied with well oxygenated blood. ( the coronary and carotid arteries are the first branches of the ascending aorta). • Desaturated blood from the superior vena cava flows by way of the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk. • The resistance in the pulmonary vessels is high, • Most of this blood passes directly through the ductus arteriosus into the descending aorta, where it mixes with blood from the proximal aorta. • After coursing through the descending aorta, blood flows toward the placenta by way of the two umbilical arteries. • The oxygen saturation in the umbilical arteries is approximately 58%.
  44. 44. FETAL CIRCULATION Before birth • During its course from the placenta to the organs of the fetus, blood in the umbilical vein gradually loses its high oxygen content as it mixes with desaturated blood. • Theoretically, mixing may occur in the following places: 1. In the liver, by mixture with a small amount of blood returning from the portal system; 2. In the inferior vena cava, which carries deoxygenated blood returning from the lower extremities, pelvis, and kidneys; 3. In the right atrium, by mixture with blood returning from the head and limbs; 4. In the left atrium, by mixture with blood returning from the lungs; 5. At the entrance of the ductus arteriosus into the descending aorta.
  45. 45. CIRCULATORY CHANGES AT BIRTH • Changes in the vascular system at birth are caused by cessation of placental blood flow and the beginning of respiration. • Since the ductus arteriosus closes by muscular contraction of its wall, the amount of blood flowing through the lung vessels increases rapidly. • This, in turn, raises pressure in the left atrium. Simultaneously, pressure in the right atrium decreases as a result of interruption of placental blood flow. • The septum primum is then apposed to the septum secundum, and functionally the oval foramen closes.
  46. 46. Ligamentum arteriosum Pulmonary artery Superior vena cava Closed foramen ovale Pulmonary vein Inferior vena cava Descending aorta Portal vein Ligamentum teres hepatis Superior vesical artery Medial umbilical ligament
  47. 47. CIRCULATORY CHANGES AT BIRTH • Closure of the umbilical arteries, accomplished by contraction of the smooth musculature in their walls, is probably caused by thermal and mechanical stimuli and a change in oxygen tension. • Functionally the arteries close a few minutes after birth, although the actual obliteration of the lumen by fibrous proliferation may take 2 to 3 months. • Distal parts of the umbilical arteries form the medial umbilical ligaments, and the proximal portions remain open as the superior vesical arteries. • Closure of the umbilical vein and ductus venosus occurs shortly after that of the umbilical arteries. Hence blood from the placenta may enter the newborn for some time after birth. • After obliteration, the left umbilical vein forms the ligamentum teres hepatis. • The ductus venosus forms the ligamentum venosum.
  48. 48. CIRCULATORY CHANGES AT BIRTH • Closure of the ductus arteriosus by contraction of its muscular wall occurs almost immediately after birth; it is mediated by bradykinin, a substance released from the lungs during initial inflation. Complete anatomical obliteration by proliferation of the intima is thought to take 1 to 3 months. In the adult the obliterated ductus arteriosus forms the ligamentum arteriosum. • Closure of the oval foramen is caused by an increased pressure in the left atrium, combined with a decrease in pressure on the right side. The first breath presses the septum primum against the septum secundum. During the first days of life, however, this closure is reversible. Crying by the baby creates a shunt from right to left, which accounts for cyanotic periods in the newborn. Constant apposition gradually leads to fusion of the two septa in about 1 year. In 20% of individuals, however, perfect anatomical closure may never be obtained (probe patent foramen ovale).
  49. 49. Lymphatic System • The lymphatic system begins its development later than the cardiovascular system, not appearing until the fifth week of gestation. • The origin of lymphatic vessels is not clear, • but they may form from mesenchyme in situ or may arise as saclike outgrowths from the endothelium of veins. • Six primary lymph sacs are formed: – Two jugular, at the junction of the subclavian and anterior cardinal veins; – Two iliac, at the junction of the iliac and posterior cardinal veins; – One retroperitoneal, near the root of the mesentery; – One cisterna chyli, dorsal to the retroperitoneal sac.
  50. 50. Lymphatic System • Numerous channels connect the sacs with each other and drain lymph from the limbs, body wall, head, and neck. • Two main channels, the right and left thoracic ducts, join the jugular sacs with the cisterna chyli, • and soon an anastomosis forms between these ducts. • The thoracic duct then develops from the distal portion of the right thoracic duct, the anastomosis, and the cranial portion of the left thoracic duct. • The right lymphatic duct is derived from the cranial portion of the right thoracic duct. • Both ducts maintain their original connections with the venous system and empty into the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins.