Expansion of the lung
buds into the
At this stage the
canals are in
the peritoneal and
Ventral view of lung
Once the pericardioperitoneal canals separate from the pericardial and peritoneal cavities,
respectively, the lungs expand in the pleural cavities. Note the visceral and parietal pleura
and definitive pleural cavity. The visceral pleura extends between the lobes of the lungs
Histological and functional
development of the lung. .
period lasts from the 16th to the
26th week. Note the cuboidal cells
lining the respiratory
The terminal sac period
begins at the end of the
sixth and beginning of
the seventh prenatal
month. Cuboidal cells
become very thin and
with the endothelium of
blood and lymph capillaries
or form terminal sacs
Lung tissue in a newborn.
Note the thin squamous
epithelial cells (also
known as alveolar epithelial
cells, type I) and surrounding
capillaries protruding into
• LIVER AND GALL BLADDER.
• ANOMALIES OF LIVER/ G. BLADDER/ PANCREAS AND SPLEEN.
• THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, LARYNX, TRACHEA, BRONCHI, LUNGS.
• ANOMALIES OF LARYNX, TRACHEA, BRONCHI, LUNGS.
• BODY CAVITIES, PLEURAL AND PERITONEAL CAVITY.
• DIAPHRAGM, DEVELOPMENT AND ANOMALIES.
• Liver and biliary passages (endoderm) are derived
from the hepatic bud.
• Hepatic bud arises from the gut at the junction of
foregut and midgut.
• Pancreas (endoderm) develops from two buds,
• Dorsal and ventral .
• Most of pancreas is formed from the dorsal bud.
• Spleen (mesoderm) develops in the dorsal
• The respiratory system develop from a median
diverticulum of the foregut (endoderm).
• The diverticulum divides into right and left lung buds.
• The larynx and trachea develop from the
diverticulum, cranial to its division.
• The lung buds undergo repeated division to establish
the bronchial tree and alveoli of the lung.
• The peritoneal, pericardial and pleural cavities
develop from the intra-embryonic coelom.
• Intra-embryonic coelom consist of right and left
• These two halves are connected across the middle
line, (cranial to the prochordal plate).
• The pericardial cavity is derived from the median
midline part of the intra-embryonic coelom.
• The peritoneal cavity is derived from the right and left
limbs of the intra-embryonic coelom.
• The pleural cavities are formed from right and left
pericardio-peritoneal canals that connect the pericardial
and peritoneal cavities.
• The diaphragm develops in relation to the septum
• The diaphragm receives contributions from;
– The pleuro-peritoneal membranes,
– The body wall,
– The mesenteries of the oesophagus.
• At the point of junction between foregut and midgut.
• Liver develops from the endodermal bud that arises from the
ventral aspect of the gut,
• This bud grows into ventral mesogastrium and passes
through it into the septum transversum.
• The bud enlarges, and divides into a larger cranial part called
pars hepatica, and smaller caudal portion called the pars
• The pars hepatica divides into right and left parts, (right and
• Hepatic trabeculae;
• The cells of these divisions are broken up into interlacing
columns called hepatic trabeculae.
• Sinusoids of the liver;
• The umbilical and vitelline veins are broken up to form the
sinusoids of the liver.
• Sinusoids of the liver are also formed from the mesenchyme
of the septum transversum.
• Liver parenchyma + bile capillaries
• Endodermal cells of the hepatic bud give rise to the
parenchyma of the liver and to the bile capillaries.
• Capsule + fibrous tissue
• The mesoderm of the septum transversum forms the capsule
and fibrous tissue basis of the liver.
• The fetal liver is an important centre of blood
• Large aggregations of blood-forming cells are present
between hepatic cells and blood vessels.
• Bile formation begins when the fetus is about three
• The bile is responsible for the black colour of the first
stool (meconium) passed b the newborn.
GALL BLADDER AND BILIARY PASSAGES
• Gall bladder and cystic duct,
• Arise from the pars cystica of the hepatic bud.
• Bile duct,
• Arise from the hepatic bud proximal to the pars cystica.
• The bile duct at first opens on to the ventral aspect of the
• Then it comes to open on the dorsomedial aspect of the
duodenum along with the ventral pancreatic duct.
• Why ?????????
– Differential growth of the duodenal wall,
– Rotation of the duodenal loop.
• Develops from two endodermal buds, dorsal and ventral.
• The ventral bud arises in close relation to the hepatic duct,
(between the hepatic duct and the duodenum).
• The dorsal bud arises from the dorsal aspect of the gut.
• The dorsal bud grows into the mesoduodenum and the dorsal
• When the duodenal loop falls to the right, the ventral bud
comes to point to the right and the dorsal bud to the left.
• As a result of differential growth of the wall of the gut, the
attachment of the ventral bud (along with the bile duct) also
shift to the left side.
• These two buds fuses to form one mass.
• The ventral bud forms the lower part of the head and the
uncinate process of the pancreas.
• The dorsal bud forms the upper part of the head, the body
and the tail of the pancreas.
• Duct system is established as follows;
– The ducts of the dorsal and ventral buds anastomose with
– The duct of the dorsal bud forms the accessory pancreatic
– The main pancreatic duct is formed from the dorsal and
• Distal part is formed from the dorsal bud,
• Proximal part is formed from the ventral bud.
• The main pancreatic duct opens into the
duodenal papilla, along with the bile duct.
• The secretory elements of the pancreas are
formed by the proliferation of the primitive ducts.
• The islets of Langerhans are also derived from
the primitive duct system.
• Develops as a collection of mesenchymal cells in the
• Some of these cells are contributed by the coelomic
epithelium lining the mesogastrium.
• The mesenchymal cells differentiate into lymphoblasts
and other blood forming cells.
• The mesenchymal cells proliferate, they form a mass,
• The mass projects to the left and is covered by
• The gastrosplenic ligament and the lienorenal ligament
are derived from the dorsal mesogastrium.
• Liver anomalies;
1. Rudimentary left lobe.
2. Anomalous lobation.
3. Reidel’s lobe.
4. Absence of quadrate lobe with the absence of
5. Accessory liver in the falciform ligament.
ANOMALIES OF THE GALL BLADDER
1. Anomalies of the shape.
2. Anomalies of position.
4. Other anomalies.
Gall bladder/ Anomalies of the shape
1) Phryngian cap (folded fundus).
2) Hartmann’s pouch (infundibulum projection).
Anomalies of position.
I. Lie Transversely under the right lobe, or lie
under the left lobe of the liver.
II. Floating gall bladder.
III. Embedded in the substance of the liver.
A. The lumen may be partially or completely
subdivided by a septum, (septum may extend
to the cystic duct).
B. The gall bladder may be partially or
Other anomalies skip
i. Sessile bladder, (no cystic duct ?????).
ii. Absent gall bladder.
iii. Diverticula, (may arise any from part of t e
Anomalies of the extrahepatic duct system
1. Abnormal length (abnormal short/ long).
2. Abnormal mode of termination;
a) The cystic duct join the left side of the CHD.
b) The cystic duct may end in the Rt. Hepatic Duct.
c) The cystic duct may be anterior to the duodenum before
joining the CBD.
d) The CBD may open into the pyloric or cardiac end of the
4. Duplication (accessory cholecystohepatic duct/ between the right
lobe and the gall bladder, cystic duct or CBD).
Anomalies of the pancreas skip
1. Annular pancreas.
2. Divided pancreas.
3. Accessory pancreatic tissue (may be found in the
stomach, duodenum, jejunum, Meckel’s diverticulum, gall
bladder and spleen).
4. Inversion of pancreatic duct (persistence of the
embryonic arrangement of the ducts/ the greater
part of the pancreas is drained through the minor
Anomalies of the spleen skip
1. Lobulated spleen.
2. Absent (rare).
3. Accessory spleen;
a. At the hilum of the spleen.
b. In the gastrosplenic ligament.
c. In the lienorenal ligament.
The Respiratory System 1/2
• The respiratory system develops from a median diverticulum of
• The connective tissue, cartilage and muscle, in relation to the
organs of respiration are derived from the splanchnopleuric
• The median diverticulum is first seen as a midline groove
(tracheobronchial groove), in the floor of the developing pharynx.
• Tracheobronchial groove is just caudal to the hypobranchial
The Respiratory System 2/2
• This groove is flanked by the six pharyngeal arches.
• The distal part of the groove is separated from the oesophagus.
• The proximal end continues to communicate with the pharynx.
• The free end of the diverticulum become bifid.
• Each subdivision is called the lung bud.
• The part of the diverticulum cranial to the bifurcation forms the
larynx and trachea.
• The lung buds form the bronchi and lung parenchyma.
• Develops from the cranial most-part of the respiratory
• The communication between the diverticulum and the
pharynx persists as the inlet of the larynx.
• Epiglottis is formed from the caudal part of the hypobranchial
• The thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages are derivative of
the 4th , 5th and 6th pharyngeal arches.
TRACHEA AND BRONCHI
• Trachea develops from the part of the respiratory diverticulum,
that lies between the point of its bifurcation and the larynx.
• The two primary divisions of the respiratory diverticulum form
the right and the left principal bronchi.
• The right division divides into three lobar bronchi.
• The left bronchus divides into two lobar bronchi.
• The left bronchus lies more transversely than the right bronchus.
• The right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than
the left main bronchus. The right main bronchus subdivides into
three lobar bronchi while the left main bronchus divides into two.
The lobar bronchi divide into tertiary bronchi, also known as
segmental bronchi, each of which supplies a bronchopulmonary
segment There are ten segments per lung, but due to anatomic
development, several segmental bronchi in the left lung fuse,
giving rise to eight
• The substance of the lungs is derived formed by further
subdivisions of the lobar bronchi.
• The total number of subdivisions of each main bronchus are
about 17 before birth.
• 6 more subdivisions after birth.
• Alveoli !!!!!!/////////?????????
• After the establishment of the bronchial tree, ALVEOLI are
formed by expansion of the terminal parts of the tree.
• Mesoderm separates the lung parenchyma, developing from the
• This mesoderm forms the connective tissue basis of the lung.
• Mesoderm also gives rise to the pleura.
• The pleura lines the surface of each lobe separately.
• The lobes come to be separated by fissures.
• During the fetal life, the lining epithelium is a cubical
epithelium. (the canalicular phase of lung development).
• After birth, /with the onset of respiration/ the alveoli become
dilated and their lining epithelium become thin.
• In the postnatal period there is a considerable increase in the
number of alveoli.
• The pulmonary circulation is established early in fetal life.
• At first most of the blood is short-circuiting through
• The foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus.
• The amount of blood circulating through the lungs progressively
• By the seventh month of intrauterine life the circulation is rich enough to
provide adequate oxygen for sustaining life.
• Within the respiratory passages, some cells become specialized for
production of surfactant.
• Surfactant forms a thin layer over the alveoli and reduce the surface
• Before birth the respiratory passages are full of fluid,
• The fluid also contains surfactant.
• When the new born begins to breath, the fluid is absorbed and partly
• The surfactant remains as a thin layer lining the alveoli.
• Surfactant prevents collapse of alveoli during expiration.
• In premature ?????????????????????/////
• Anomalies of the larynx
2. Congenital stenosis or atresia.
3. Duplication (entire larynx, or part of it).
4. Laryngoptosis (low lying in the neck).
5. Laryngeal cartilage absence (one or more).
• Anomalies of the trachea
a. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula.
c. Accessory bronchi. Such bronchus may be;
ii. Supply accessory lobe.
iii. Replace a normal bronchus in one of the lungs
d. Absent trachea (very rarely).(bronchi arise from blind bifurcation or from
ANOMALIES OF THE LUNGS AND BRONCHI
1. Agenesis or hypoplasia.
2. Lung hernia through the inlet of the thorax/ defect in the thoracic wall/ into
mediastinum or into opposite pleural cavity.
3. Displaced bronchi. May arise from the trachea above the bifurcation or from the
oesophagus, they may supply a normal segment, an accessory lobe or may be blind.
4. Abnormalities of lobes.
1) Absence of fissures that normally present.– reduction in lobe number
2) Presence of abnormal fissure;
i. Transverse fissure in the left lobe.
ii. Cardiac lobe ( medial basal segment separated by a fissure).
iii. Superior segment of the lower lobe may be separated (like above).
iv. Azygos lobe – part of the upper lobe of right lung may come medial to the
azygos vein. --- mesoazygos (parietal pleura suspends the vein).
3) Accessory lobes. Depending from where it arises,
a. Upper accessory lobe.
b. Lower accessory lobe.
4) Sequestration of lung tissue. Frequently seen in the lower lobe of the
i. Lobar sequestration.
ii. Intralobar sequestration.
BODY CAVITIES 1/2
• The pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities are derivatives
of the intra-embryonic coelom.
• By the formation of this cavity the lateral plate mesoderm is
split into Parietal (somatopleuric) and visceral
• The parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium, pleura and
peritoneum are formed from these layers of mesoderm.
• The mesodermal cells lining the cavities is called Mesothelium.
• The mesothelium gives the peritoneum, pleura and pericardium
their smooth surfaces.
Growth of the lung
buds into the
Transformation of the pericardioperitoneal canals into the pleural cavities
and formation of the pleuropericardial membranes. Note the pleuropericardial folds
containing the common cardinal vein and phrenic nerve. Mesenchyme of the body wall
splits into the pleuropericardial membranes and definitive body wall. B. The thorax after
fusion of the pleuropericardial folds with each other and with the root of the lungs. Note
the position of the phrenic nerve, now in the fibrous pericardium. The right common
cardinal vein has developed into the superior vena cava.
BODY CAVITIES 2/2
• The intra-embryonic coelom is a horseshoe-shaped cavity,
• Having a narrow midline portion and two lateral parts.
• The midline part lies near the cranial end of the embryonic
• The pericardial cavity is formed from this midline part.
• The two lateral limbs (parts) of the coelom form the
• Pericardio-peritoneal canals are pair of narrow canals,
connect the two cavities for some time.
• These two canals enlarge greatly to form the pleural cavities.
• After formation of the head fold, the pericardium comes to lie on the
ventral aspect of the embryo,
• The pericardio-peritoneal canals wind backwards on either side of the
• The lung buds invaginate these canals.
• As the buds enlarge to form the lungs, the canals balloon out to form the
• Pericardio-pleural opening connect the pericardial and the pleural cavities.
• Pleuro-peritoneal opening connect the peritoneal and the pleural cavities.
• Pericardio-pleural and pleuro-peritoneal openings are closed by the
pericardio-pleural and pleuro-peritoneal membranes.
• Pericardio-pleural membrane forms the fibrous pericardium. (why phrenic
nerve courses over the pericardium).
• The peritoneal cavity is formed from the two limbs of the horseshe-
shped intra-embryonic coelom.
• The two part are at first separate,
• Fuse to form one cavity.
• The two halves of the peritoneal cavity remain separate in the
cranial part of the abdomen.
• The attachment of the mesentery of the primitive gut on the
posterior abdominal wall is at first in the midline.
• Then the line of attachment of the mesentery becomes
• The peritoneal cavity is subdivided into a number of pockets that
are partially separated by folds of peritonium.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE LESSER SAC ½
• There are three processes involved in the formation of the lesser
1. Right and left pneumato-enteric recesses are formed in the dorsal
mesogastrium, the left disappears, the right recess enlarges
considerably and extends to the left to form part of the lesser sac
that lies behind the stomach. It extends cranially, on the right side
of the oesophagus and behind the liver. At the establishment of
the diaphragm the upper part forms the infracardiac bursa, the
lower part forms the superior recess of the lesser sac.
2. The right recess extends to the left, the stomach changes its
orientation, so the posterior border (to which the dorsal
mesogastrium was attached faces to the left). This border forms
the greater curvature.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE LESSER SAC 2/2
• The ventral border (to which the dorsal mesogastrium was attached)
comes to face to the right and forms the lesser curvature. The ventral
mesogastrium may now called the lesser omentum. A part of
peritoneal cavity comes to lie behind the lesser omentum. This part
of the peritoneal cavity now forms part of the lesser sac.
3. With the altered orientation of the stomach, the dorsal
mesogastrium may be subdivided into two parts;
Part A and Part B
Part a gives rise to ;
The gastrosplenic ligament.
The lienorenal ligament.
Part B forms the greater omentum that projects below the level of the stomach
and becomes folded on itself. The space within this fold forms the lower
part of the lesser sac.
• The diaphragm is a partition that separates the thoracic and
• The pericardial and pleural cavities are above (cranial to) it,
• The peritoneal cavity is caudal to it.
• The development of the diaphragm is intimately related to the
development of these cavity.
• The septum transversum forms a mesodermal mass lying caudal to
the pericardial cavity.
• Posterior to the septum transversum the pleural and the peritoneal
cavities communicate through the pleuro-peritoneal canals (that lie
on either side of the oesophagus).
• The partition between the thorax and the abdomen is completed
when the pleuro-peritoneal canals are closed by the formation of
the pleuro-peritoneal membrane.
DEVLOPMENT OF THE DIAPHRAGM
• The diaphragm enlarges at the expense of the body
• The diaphragm is formed from the following
1. Septum transversum.
2. Pleuro-peritoneal membranes.
3. Ventral and dorsal mesenteries of the oesophagus.
4. Mesoderm of the body wall, including the
mesoderm around the dorsal aorta.
Anomalies of the Diaphragm
1. Very rarely, an accessory diaphragm may be present in the thoracic
cavity. (when it is present it partially subdivides the lung into two parts.
2. Congenital eventation of the diaphragm. (the muscle may be thin and
aponeurotic and may bulge upwards into the thorax, the bulging may
be unilateral or may be confined to a small area.
3. Parts of the diaphragm may fail to develop resulting in gaps in the
muscle. Abdominal contents may pass through these gaps to produce
Diaphragmatic hernia may be;
i. Posterolateral: (due to failure of a pleuro-peritoneal canal to close).
ii. Posterior: (due to the failure of the development of the crura).
iii. Retrosternal: (due to abnormally large gap between the sternal and costal parts
of the muscle.
iv. Central: (through the dome of the diaphragm) occasionally one entire half
(usually the left) of the diaphragm may be absent.
Development of the
appear at the
beginning of the fifth
al folds fuse
Transverse section at the fourth month of development. An additional rim derived from the
body wall forms the most peripheral part of the diaphragm.
Timetable of some events Described in this lecture
Age Developmental event
3 weeks The hepatic bud appears.
The pancreatic bud appears thereafter.
4 weeks The septum transversum is established.
The tracheobronchial diverticulum is formed.
6 weeks The diaphragm descends to the thoracic level.
7 weeks Fusion of dorsal and ventral pancreas.
3 months Bile formation begins.
Pancreatic islets are formed.
5 months Insulin secretion begins