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Cns 18


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Cns 18

  1. 1. Emotion <ul><li>It is an outward expression of the internal state of an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental component – Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>- Affective </li></ul><ul><li>- Conative changes </li></ul><ul><li>Physical component </li></ul><ul><li>Genesis of emotion: Hypothalamus and limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>Papez circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Orbito-insulo-temporo-cingulate areas </li></ul>
  2. 2. Emotions If only it were as simple as the diagrams below…
  3. 3. <ul><li>Hippocampus – determines the emotional relevance of incoming stimuli from the frontal cortex and the cingulate cortex </li></ul><ul><li>- involved in Declarative Memory (cold hard facts) taken in from cortical areas </li></ul><ul><li>sensory 2/3 areas hippocampus (LTP) </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala – responsible for elaborating on the emotional response and directing the hypothalamus to respond. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Papez Circuit
  5. 5. Cognitive Circuit Precognitive Circuit Feedback
  6. 6. Emotion (continued) <ul><ul><li>Areas of the hypothalamus and limbic system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression: Amygdala and hypothalamus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear : Amygdala and hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rage: Wide area from lateral hypothalamus to central grey matter of mid-brain. It is also seen in decorticate animal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placidity: destructing amygdaloid bilaterally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sham Rage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus (feeding and satiety centers). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual drive and behavior: Neocortex plays a dominant role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus and limbic system ( cingulate gyrus and retrosplenial portion of limbic system- maternal feeling is lost) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Fear Response Before Training – a transient orienting response is induced to the sound Training – sound is paired with the shock After Training – placement in the box induces freezing when the sound is present.
  8. 8. Roles <ul><li>Hypothalamus: Integrates the endocrine, autonomic and motor activities to form an appropriate emotional behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex : Detailed processing the conscious experience of emotional feeling and provides the neural mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic system: elaboration and integration of the activity and also involved in ascending pathways to some areas in cortex. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Motivation <ul><ul><li>‘ That which moves the will ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal directed behavior (reward and punishment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus and frontal cortex. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reward centers : Ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, amygdala, septum, thalamus, basal ganglia etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment centers : Mid brain- perventricular area of dorsomedial tegmentum which extends to periventricular structures of hypothalamus and thalamus </li></ul></ul></ul>