Biochem p h of blood(may.13.2010)

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Biochem p h of blood(may.13.2010)

  1. 1. pH of BLOOD, ITS REGULATION,<br /> ACIDOSIS & ALKALOSIS. <br />MAY.13.2010<br />
  2. 2. BASICS<br /><ul><li>Acid-base balance is a dynamic relationship which reflects the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the body.
  3. 3. Hydrogen ions are acids which must be maintained within strict limits
  4. 4. Any deviation from the norm affects biochemical events.
  5. 5. Acid-base relationship is measured in a logarithm (pH) which is inversely proportional to the hydrogen ion concentration.</li></li></ul><li>BASICS<br /> pH (power of H)<br /> pH = Negative log10 of the hydrogen ions concentration expressed in mol/L <br /> pH= - log10 [H+]<br /><ul><li>High H+ ion concentration = low pH
  6. 6. Low H+ ion concentration = high pH</li></li></ul><li>THE pH SCALE<br /><ul><li>Scale ranges from 1 to 14</li></ul>1 means only hydrogen ions are present<br />14 means no hydrogen ions present<br />The pH of water is 7.0 which is neutral<br />The normal range of the human body is 7.35 - 7.45<br />
  7. 7. Normal and abnormal<br />pH ranges of blood<br />pH’s of common<br />substances<br />Basic<br />Concentrated lye<br />14<br />Death<br />8.00<br />13<br />12<br />Alkalosis<br />Household ammonia<br />11<br />10<br />Baking soda<br />9<br />7.45<br />Pancreatic juice<br />8<br />Normal<br />Blood<br />pH neutral<br />7<br />Water<br />7.35<br />Milk<br />6<br />Urine<br />5<br />Coffee<br />Acidosis<br />4<br />Orange juice<br />3<br />Vinegar<br />Lemon juice<br />6.8<br />2<br />Death<br />Gastric juice<br />1<br />Battery acid<br />0<br />Acidic<br />
  8. 8. pH OF BLOOD [7.35-7.45]<br /><ul><li>Normal pH of body fluids
  9. 9. Arterial blood is 7.4
  10. 10. Venous blood and interstitial fluid is 7.35
  11. 11. Intracellular fluid is 7.0
  12. 12. Alkalosis or alkalemia – arterial blood pH rises above 7.45
  13. 13. Acidosis or acidemia – arterial pH drops below 7.35
  14. 14. Alteration outside these boundaries affects all body systems
  15. 15. Can result in coma, cardiac failure, and circulatory collapse.</li></li></ul><li>ACID AND BASES<br />ACID: Protons (hydrogen ions H+) donors.<br />BASES: Protons (hydrogen ions H+) acceptors.<br />(Cation= positive, Anion=negative)<br />
  16. 16. STRONG AND WEAK ACID<br />Strong acid: completely dissociate into anions and cation.<br />Weak acid: Partially dissociate. (not completely break apart)<br />
  17. 17. ACID IN THE BODY OF A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL<br />MAJOR SOURCES<br /><ul><li>Dietary sulfate and S-containing amino acids. (Cystine, Methionine.)
  18. 18. CO2 from TCA cycle
  19. 19. Anaerobic glycolysis
  20. 20. Glycolysis
  21. 21. TCA cycle and diet(e.g., citric fruits)
  22. 22. Fatty acid oxidation to ketone bodies
  23. 23. Fatty acid oxidation to ketone bodies
  24. 24. Ethanol metabolism
  25. 25. Dietary organic phosphates
  26. 26. Dietary nitrogen-containing compounds</li></ul>ACID <br />Strong Acid<br /><ul><li>Sulfuric acid </li></ul>Weak acid<br /><ul><li>Carbonic acid
  27. 27. Lactic acid
  28. 28. Pyruvic acid
  29. 29. Citric acid
  30. 30. Acetatoacetic acid
  31. 31. β-hydroxybutyric acid
  32. 32. Acetic acid
  33. 33. Dihydrogen Phosphate
  34. 34. Ammonium ion </li></li></ul><li>SOURCES OF HYDROGEN IONS<br /><ul><li>Most hydrogen ions originate from cellular metabolism.
  35. 35. Breakdown of phosphorus-containing proteins releases phosphoric acid into the ECF.
  36. 36. Anaerobic respiration of glucose produces lactic acid.
  37. 37. Fat metabolism yields organic acids and ketone bodies.
  38. 38. Transporting carbon dioxide as bicarbonate releases hydrogen ions.</li></li></ul><li>BODY REGULATION OF ACID-BASE<br />
  39. 39. <ul><li>The body constantly produces acids through metabolism.
  40. 40. These acids must be constantly eliminated from the body.
  41. 41. Three systems perform this task
  42. 42. Buffer system
  43. 43. Respiratory system
  44. 44. Renal system</li></li></ul><li>BUFFER SYSTEMS IN BODY FLUIDS<br />
  45. 45. BUFFER SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>Buffers:
  46. 46. if pH rises, buffers bind H+;
  47. 47. if pH falls, buffers release H+
  48. 48. Protein buffer: Intracellular and plasma proteins absorb H+. Provide ¾ of buffering in body. E.g., hemoglobin.
  49. 49. Bicarbonate buffering system: Important in plasma
  50. 50. Phosphate buffer system: important as an intracellular buffer</li></ul> The fastest performer, works in seconds.<br /><ul><li>Bicarbonate ions combine with excess hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid in a dynamic relationship.</li></li></ul><li>THE CARBONIC ACID-BICARBONATE BUFFER SYSTEM<br />
  51. 51. CARBONIC ACID-BICARBONATE BUFFER SYSTEM IN REGULATIOIN OF pH<br />
  52. 52. THE CENTRAL ROLE OF CARBONIC ACID-BICARBONATE SYSTEM IN REGULATION OF pH<br />
  53. 53. AMINO ACID BUFFER <br />
  54. 54. BUFFER SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>For every molecule of carbonic acid, there are 20 molecules of bicarbonate.
  55. 55. Any change in the this 20:1 ratio is immediately corrected to maintain pH.
  56. 56. An increase H+ causes an increase in H2CO3.
  57. 57. A decrease in H+ causes a decrease in H2CO3.</li></li></ul><li>BUFFER SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>Carbonic acid is a weak, volatile acid which must be eliminated.
  58. 58. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes the carbonic acid to convert to carbon dioxide and water.
  59. 59. The CO2 and the H2O are easily eliminated by the lungs and kidneys.
  60. 60. The system also works in reverse.</li></li></ul><li>RESPIRATORY SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>Works in minutes
  61. 61. The lungs eliminate excess CO2 by increasing respirations, causing a decrease in H+ and an increase in pH.
  62. 62. The lungs can retain more CO2 by slowing respirations, causing an increase in H+ and a decrease in pH.
  63. 63. Respiratory center:
  64. 64. if pH rises, respiratory rate decreases;
  65. 65. if pH falls, respiratory rate increases.</li></ul>ACID- acid- increase<br />Alkali- alkali-lower<br />
  66. 66. RESPIRATORY ACID-BASE REGULATION <br />
  67. 67. RESPIRATORY ACID-BASE REGULATION <br />
  68. 68. RENAL SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>Can take hours to days to work
  69. 69. Kidneys can retain bicarbonate ion, causing a decrease in H+ and an increase in pH
  70. 70. Kidneys can excrete bicarbonate ion, causing an increase in H+ and a decrease in pH.
  71. 71. Kidneys
  72. 72. if pH rises, distal tubule decreases H+ secretion into the urine and decreases HCO3- absorption into the blood (more H2CO3 will dissociate into H+ and HCO3-);
  73. 73. if pH falls, distal tubule increases H+ secretion into the urine and increases HCO3- absorption into the blood</li></li></ul><li>KIDNEY TUBULES AND pH REGULATION<br />
  74. 74. KIDNEY TUBULES AND pH REGULATION<br />
  75. 75. ACID-BASE DISORDERS<br />
  76. 76. ACID-BASE DISORDERS<br /><ul><li>Respiratory acid base disorders
  77. 77. Result when abnormal respiratory function causes rise or fall in CO2 in ECF
  78. 78. Metabolic acid-base disorders
  79. 79. Generation of organic or fixed acids
  80. 80. Anything affecting concentration of bicarbonate ions in ECF </li></li></ul><li>ACIDOSIS AND ALKALOSIS<br /><ul><li>Acidosis: pH body fluids below 7.35
  81. 81. Respiratory: Caused by inadequate ventilation- reduced elimination of CO2, asthma, damage to respiratory center in brain, emphysema.
  82. 82. Metabolic: Results from all conditions other than respiratory that decrease pH- diarrhea, vomiting, ingesting overdose of aspirin, untreated diabetes mellitus, anaerobic respiration.
  83. 83. Alkalosis: pH body fluids above 7.45
  84. 84. Respiratory: Caused by hyperventilation, high altitude (reduced partial pressure of O2)
  85. 85. Metabolic: Results from all conditions other than respiratory that increase pH- severe vomiting, too much aldosterone, ingestion of substances like bicarbonate of soda.</li></li></ul><li>RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS<br /><ul><li>Results from excessive levels of CO2 in body fluids.</li></li></ul><li>RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS<br /><ul><li>Relatively rare condition
  86. 86. Associated with hyperventilation</li></li></ul><li>METOBOLIC ACIDOSIS<br /><ul><li>Major causes are:
  87. 87. Depletion of bicarbonate reserve
  88. 88. Inability to excrete hydrogen ions at kidneys
  89. 89. Production of large numbers of fixed / organic acids
  90. 90. Bicarbonate loss due to chronic diarrhea</li></li></ul><li>METOBOLIC ALKALOSIS<br /><ul><li>Occurs when HCO3- concentrations become elevated
  91. 91. Caused by repeated vomiting.</li></li></ul><li>THE RESPONSE TO METABOLIC ACIDOSIS<br />
  92. 92. THE RESPONSE TO METABOLIC ALKALOSIS<br />
  93. 93. ACID-BASE AND POTASSIUM IMBALANCE<br /><ul><li>Acidosis
  94. 94. H+ diffuses into cells and drives out K+, elevating K+ concentration in ECF
  95. 95. H+ buffered by protein in ICF, causes membrane hyperpolarization, nerve and muscle cells are hard to stimulate; CNS depression may lead to death</li></ul>Hyperkalemia<br />Acidosis<br />
  96. 96. ACID-BASE AND POTASSIUM IMBALANCE<br /><ul><li>Alkalosis
  97. 97. H+ diffuses out of cells and K+ diffuses in, membranes depolarized, nerves over-stimulate muscles causing spasms, tetany, convulsions, respiratory paralysis </li></ul>Hypokalemia<br />Alkalosis<br />
  98. 98. DETECTION OF ACIDOSIS AND ALKALOSIS<br /><ul><li>Diagnostic blood tests (Arterial Blood Gases) ABG
  99. 99. Blood pH
  100. 100. PCO2
  101. 101. Bicarbonate levels</li></li></ul><li>INCREASED IN BLOOD pH<br />
  102. 102. DECREASED IN BLOOD pH<br />
  103. 103. POINTS TO REMEMBER<br /> pH= - log10 [H+]<br /><ul><li>High H+ ion concentration = low pH
  104. 104. Low H+ ion concentration = high pH
  105. 105. Normal pH OF BLOOD [7.35-7.45]
  106. 106. Regulation of acid-base balance by 3 systems.
  107. 107. Acid-base disorders.
  108. 108. Regulation of acidosis and alkalosis.</li></li></ul><li>有難う御座います。<br />

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