Career options in commerce


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Career options in commerce

  1. 1. Career Options In Commerce
  2. 2. Acknowledgements  I would like to convey my sincere thanks to my Economics teacher, Mrs. Poonam Goel who helped me choose the topic and gave me some valuable inputs. I also thank her for her motivation and guidance during the project and during my studies in general.
  3. 3. Why Commerce?  Contrary to the perception, careers in commerce provide a high earning and a respectable job.  Students interested in numbers and the financial aspect of life should choose commerce.  For most part of studies, commerce requires common sense and logic instead
  4. 4. Various Career Options  Today, there are a wide range of topics to choose from to pursue a career as compared to few years ago. Some of them specific to the stream of commerce are :- 1. Actuarial Science 2. Company Secretary 3. Cost and Work Accountant 4. Chartered Accountancy
  5. 5. Actuarial Science  An actuary is an expert in assessing the financial impacts of tomorrow’s uncertain events. They enable more informed decisions.  Eligibility :- 1. Should have completed 18 years of age 2. Should have attained anyone of the following Educational Standards-  Passed 10+2 or equivalent with at least 85% in Mathematics / Statistics  Graduate or Post Graduate in Mathematics/Stats/Econometrics  Any Engineer / CA / CS / MBA (Finance) / MCA  Fully qualified members of following Professional bodies such as :-  The Institute Of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)  The Institute of Cost and Works Accountant of India (ICWAI)  The Institute of Financial Analyst of India (IFAI)  The Insurance Institute of India (III) passing with subjects 81- mathematical Basis of Insurance and 82- Statistics. 3. An application should be recommended by a member of professional body like such as ICAI, ICWAI and ICSI.
  6. 6.  Core Technical Stage- 8 compulsory papers (CT1-CT8) with one paper of 100 marks  Core Application Stage- 2 compulsory subjects (CA 1 to CA3), CA1 consists of two papers whereas CA2 and CA3 shall have one paper each.  Specialist Technical Stage- 6 papers (ST1 to ST6) and the students have to choose any two.  Specialist Application Stage- 6 papers (SA1 to SA6) and the Specialist Application Stage Stages Of Examination Core Application Stage Specialist Technical Stage Core Technical Stage
  7. 7.  Future Prospects: 1. Insurance companies [be it private or public- life or general] 2. Firm of Consulting Actuaries 3. Authorities like IRDA, PFRDA & TAC. 4. Asset liability Management Companies 5. Large banks and Investment Firms like World Bank, ADB, etc 6. Pension Banks and Employee Benefit Companies- likely to be opened in India soon. 7. Large Capital & Turnkey Project Handling Companies 8. Software Development Companies 9. Actuarial BPO Companies
  8. 8. 1. In addition to the above, employment opportunities are expected to arise in future in the offices of: 2. Insurance Intermediates 3. Pension Providers other than insurance companies. 4. Education Institution (Providing Courses on Finance & Actuarial Science) 5. Re-insurances
  9. 9. Institute of Actuaries of India  Institute of Actuaries of India (IAI) is a statutory body established under The Actuaries Act 2006 (35 of 2006) for regulation of profession of Actuaries in India.  It is a member of the umbrella body International Actuarial Association
  10. 10. Objectives 1.Advancement of the Actuarial profession in India. 2.Providing opportunities for interaction among members of the profession. 3.Facilitating research, arranging lectures on relevant subjects. 4.Providing facilities and guidance to those studying for the Actuarial exams.
  11. 11. Company Secretary  A CS is a person who is:- 1. An expert in corporate laws, securities laws & capital market and corporate governance. 2. Chief advisor to the board of directors on best practices in Corporate Governance. 3. Responsible for all regulatory compliances of company. 4. Corporate planner and strategic manager. Stages in CS ProfessionalFoundation Executive
  12. 12. Foundation Programme  Eligibility:-  10+2 or equivalent  Provisional admission is allowed to a candidate who has appeared or enrolled for appearing in Senior Secondary (10+2 or equivalent) examination , provided proof of passing the examination is produced within 6 months of making the application.  Admission- Making an application in the prescribed Form FC-1 together with documentary evidence in support of date of birth and educational qualification.  Duration- 8 months, excluding the months of admission and the examination. # Students are required to pass the Foundation examination within 3 years from the date of their admission
  13. 13. Foundation Subjects Elements of Business Laws And Management Economics And Statistics Financial Accounting (100 Marks) Business Communication (50 Marks) English (50 Marks) Statistics (50 Marks) Economics (50 Marks) Elements of Business Laws (50 Marks) Elements of Management (50 Marks) English and Business Communication
  14. 14. Executive Programme  Registration Period:- 1. Five years from the month in which his application, complete in all respects, is accepted for registration. 2. A registered student is required to complete the Executive and the Professional examination within the registration period. Subjects Module IIModule I General & Commercial Laws Company Accounts and Cost & Management Accounting Tax Laws Company Law Economic And Labour Laws Securities Laws and Compliances $ All papers are of 100 marks
  15. 15. Professional Programme  Eligibility- Passing the Executive Programme examination. Subjects Module IVModule II Module IIIModule I Drafting, Appearances & Pleadings Company Secretarial Practice Restructuring And Insolvency Financial, Treasury & Forex Management Advanced Tax Laws and Practice Module Strategic Management, Alliances and International Trade Due Diligence & Corporate Compliance Management Governance, Business Ethics And Sustainability $ All papers are of 100 marks
  16. 16. Future Prospects  Employment :  Companies with a paid up share capital of Rs.5 crores or more are compulsorily required to appoint a whole time Company Secretary who is a Member of ICSI  All companies seeking listing on Stock Exchange are required to appoint a whole time company secretary  Membership of the Institute is recognized for appointment to superior posts and services under Central Government.  Self-Employment  After obtaining a ‘Certificate of Practice’ from the Institute, members of the Institute can go in for Independent Practice.
  17. 17.  The Institute of Company Secretaries of India is constituted under an Act of Parliament i.e. the Company Secretaries Act, 1980 (Act No. 56 of 1980). ICSI is the only recognized professional body in India to develop and regulate the profession of Company Secretaries in India.  Vision- To be a global leader in promoting Good Corporate Governance  Mission- To develop the high calibre professionals facilitating good Corporate Governance
  18. 18. Cost and Work Accountant  A cost accountant ensure that managerial decisions are well within the cost prescriptions. He is expected to give a prognosis for projects to be undertaken based on past and present financial performances  Eligibility- 10+2  Duration- 6 years Stages in CWA Foundation Course Final Course Intermediate Course
  19. 19.  Pass percentage- Minimum of 40% in each paper and an aggregate of 50% in all the papers together. Foundation Subjects Financial Accounting Fundamentals (100 Marks) Management (70 Marks) Organisation (30 Marks) Organisation & Management Fundamentals Economics & Business Fundamentals Economics (50 Marks) Business Fundamentals (50 Marks) Basic Mathematics & Statistics Fundamentals Arithmetic (15 Marks) Mensuration (30 Marks) Algebra (25 Marks) Elementary Statistics (30 Marks)
  20. 20. Intermediate Subjects Applied Direct Taxation (100 Marks) Financial Accounting (100 Marks) Commercial & Industrial Laws & Auditing Commercial & Industrial Law (50 Marks) Auditing (50 Marks) Cost & Management Accounting (100 Marks) Applied Indirect Taxes (100 Marks) Operation Management (50 Marks) Operation Management & Information Systems Information Systems (50 Marks) Group IIGroup I
  21. 21. Final Subjects Strategic Tax Management (100 Marks) Advanced Financial Management And International Finance (100 Marks) Operations & Project Management And Control Operations Management (50 Marks) Management Accounting- Decision Making (100 Marks) Management Accounting- Financial Strategy & Reporting (100 Marks) Cost Audit (50 Marks) Cost and Management Audit Management Audit (50 Marks) Group IVGroup III Project Management (50 Marks) Strategic Management And Marketing (100 Marks) Valuation Management & Case Study Valuations And Management (70 Marks) Case Study (30 Marks)
  22. 22.  The ICWAI came into being by "The Cost and Works Accountants Act" a special act passed by the parliament in 1959 on 28th May 1959  It specializes in the field of Cost and Management Accountancy.  Objective- Promoting, regulating and developing the profession of Cost Accountancy.
  23. 23. Career Prospects  Own practice  Auditing  Maintenance of cost records  Employment in private sector as managers, internal auditor, etc.
  24. 24. Chartered Accountancy  Accounting, auditing and taxation are the core areas dealt with by chartered accountants.  They are also capable of expert level services in the areas of General Management, Personnel Management, Financial Management, Operations Management, HR Management
  25. 25. Course Structure Stages in CA Common Proficiency Test Integrated Professional Competence Course (IPCC) Final 4 subjects- 2 papers 9 subjects 4 papers- group I 3 papers- group II Articleship + ITT Apprenticeship Under a practicing CA for 3 years + 100 hours of IT training 8 subjects 4 papers- group I 4 papers- group II General Management Course Compulsory GMC course During/ after Finals • Academic Qualification- 10+2 or equivalent as recognised by ICAI
  26. 26. Common Proficiency Test (CPT)  Pass Marks- To pass/qualify at the examination a student has to obtain a minimum of 50% marks in all the papers together.  Re attempting- Failing to get the pass mark requires the student to reappear in all the papers again.  No Exemptions- There are no provisions for exemptions, even in conditions where the student has obtained high marks.  CPT duration is minimum 2 months.  Each session is of 2 hours.
  27. 27. Subjects Session IISession I Mercantile Laws (40 Marks) Fundamentals Of Accounting (60 Marks) Quantitative Aptitude (50 Marks) General Economics (50 Marks)
  28. 28. Integrated Professional Competence Course (IPCC)  Pass Marks- Minimum of 40% in each paper and an aggregate of 50% in all the papers of both the groups together if attempting both the groups or all the papers of a single group, A student has to get through both the groups either at once or separately to be eligible to go for the next level i.e. Final.  Exemptions- In cases where the student has obtained high marks in one or more papers and has failed the group.  Minimum duration of IPCC is 9 months.
  29. 29. Subjects in IPCC Group IIGroup I Law, Ethics and Communication Advanced Accounting (100 Marks) IT and Strategic Development Auditing and Assurance (100 Marks) Information Technology (50 Marks) Strategic Management (50 Marks) Business Communications (20 Marks) Business Ethics (20 Marks) Law (60 marks) Cost Accounting And Financial Management Cost Accounting (50 Marks) Financial Management (50 Marks) Taxation VAT (25 Marks) Service Tax (25 Marks) Income Tax (50 Marks)
  30. 30. Final  Pass Marks- Minimum of 40% in each paper and an aggregate of 50% in all the papers of both the groups together if attempting both the groups or all the papers of a single group, A student has to get through both the groups either at once or separately to be eligible to go for the next level i.e. Final.  Exemptions- In cases where the student has obtained high marks in one or more papers and has failed the group.  Minimum duration of Finals in 3 years.
  31. 31. Subjects in Finals Group I Group II Corporate & Allied Laws Company Law (70 Marks) Strategic Financial Management (100 Marks) Financial Reporting (100 Marks) Allied Laws (30 Marks) Advanced Auditing and Professional Ethics (100 Marks) Advanced Management Accounting (100 Marks) Information Systems Control & Audit (100 Marks) Direct Tax Laws (100 Marks) Indirect Tax Laws Central Excise (40 Marks) Service Tax And VAT (40 Marks) Customs (20 Marks)
  32. 32.  The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) is a statutory body established under the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 (Act No. XXXVIII of 1949) for the regulation of the profession of Chartered Accountants in India.  ICAI now is the second largest accounting body in the whole world
  33. 33. B.Com/ B.Com (Hons.)  B.Com is an undergraduate commerce course. It covers the study of principles of accounting, micro and macroeconomics, money and banking systems, economic theory, etc.  Duration- 3 Years  Eligibility- 10+2
  34. 34. Job and Employment Prospects  Employment Prospects:- 1. Import/Export Companies 2. Customs Department 3. Economic Consulting Jobs 4. Finance, Banking Sectors 5. Consulting Firms
  35. 35.  Job Prospects:- 1. Finance Manager 2. Corporate/Business Analyst 3. Executive Assistants 4. Financial/ Investment/ Market Analysts 5. Investments Banker 6. Senior Accountant 7. Operations Manager 8. Money Manager 9. Risk Analysts
  36. 36. Top Commerce Colleges  SRCC, DU  St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai  St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata  Symbiosis, Pune  LSR, DU  St. Joseph’s College, Bangalore
  37. 37.  Presidency College, Chennai  Hindu College, DU  Hans Raj College, DU  Indian Institute of Management & Commerce, Hyderabad  Shri Narsee Monjee College of Commerce and Economics, Mumbai  Loyola College, Chennai  BM College, Pune
  38. 38. Other Career Options  Other than the careers discussed above, there are careers which can be pursued by a student from any stream. Some of them are:- 1. Law 2. Hotel Management 3. Indian Administrative Services
  39. 39. Law  Eligibility- 10+2, CLAT  Duration- 5 Years, 3 Years, 2 years  Careers:- 1. Advocate 2. Advocate General 3. Attorney General 4. District Attorney 5. Legal Advisors 6. Magistrate 7. Notary 8. Public Prosecutors
  40. 40. Law Courses  B.A LL.B (Undergraduate Law Course) Eligibility- 10+2 50% in all the core subjects and English put together.  LL.B  Bachelor of General Law (BGL) / Bachelor of Academic Law (BAL)  Master of Law (LLM) Eligibility- LL.B. degree or its equivalent from a recognized University
  41. 41. Reputed Law Schools  Symbiosis Law College, Pune  Faculty of Law, BHU, Banaras  University Law College - Bangalore University  NLSIU Bangalore  NLIU, Bhopal
  42. 42.  KLE Society’s Law College, Bangalore  NALSAR, Hyderabad  Faculty of Law, DU, Delhi  Lucknow university, Faculty of Law, Lucknow  University of Calcutta, Kolkata  Amity Law School, New Delhi
  43. 43. Hotel Management  Hospitality management studies provides a focus on management of hospitality operations including hotels, restaurants, cruise ships, amusement parks, and related industries.  Eligibility- For certificate, diploma and bachelors courses 10+2 is sufficient.  Duration-  Certificate courses- six months to one year.  Bachelor and diploma courses- 1.5 - 3 years.  Post graduate diploma courses- 1 year.  Selection to most government recognised institutes is
  44. 44. Premier Hotel Management Schools  Some of the premier hotel management schools in India are:- 1. National Institute of Hotel Management and Catering Technology 2. Taj Group’s Institute of Hotel Management (IHM), Aurangabad 3. WelcomGroup’s Graduate Hotel Administeration School, Manipal 4. STEP- Oberoi Center for Learning and Development
  45. 45. 1. Indian Institute for Hotel Management (IIHM), Kolkata 2. Instittue for International Management and Technology (IIMT), Gurgaon 3. Federation of Hotel and Restaurant Associations of India (FHRAI),Greater Noida 4. Banarasidas Chandiwala Institute of Hotel Management (IP university)
  46. 46. Jobs and Prospects in Hotel Management  Jobs:- 1. Manager 2. Front Office 3. Food and Beverages 4. Housekeeping 5. Restaurant Managers 6. Executive Housekeeper 7. Marketing Department
  47. 47.  Prospects- Besides working in hotels, there are other areas where hotel management is required 1. Restaurant Management 2. Club Management/Recreation & Health Centre Management 3. Cruise Ship Hotel Management 4. Hospital Administration and Catering 5. Institutional and Industrial Catering 6. Airline Catering and Cabin Services 7. Catering Departments in banks and insurance houses 8. With government owned catering departments, for example railway, armed forces, ministerial conventions, etc.
  48. 48. Indian Administrative Services  The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) is the administrative civil service of the Government of India.  The officers of the IAS play a major role in managing the bureaucracy of both the Union Government and the State governments, with its members holding strategic posts across the country.
  49. 49.  Eligibility- 1. A citizen of India 2. A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 30 years. 3. A degree with any recgonised university.  Test Pattern- 1. Civil Services Aptitude Test 2. Main Test 3. Interview
  50. 50. Job Prospects 1. Depending upon his rank, a candidate is recruited to services such as the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS) and other departments including Finance, Post and Telegraph, Revenue, Secretariat and so on. 2. The appointment offers executive power. 3. Promotions are time bound and increase in privileges are automatic.
  51. 51. Sources         