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Process Mapping

Move from Current (As~Is) to Future (To~Be) State

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Process Mapping

  1. 1. Process Mapping Current (As~Is) to Future (To~Be) State Anand Subramaniam
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ I am not a teacher, I am an awakener.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Robert Frost </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Highlights <ul><li>Process Mapping Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Process Mapping Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>As~Is Process </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse, Evaluate & Sign-off </li></ul><ul><li>To~Be Process </li></ul><ul><li>Process – Tools & Maps </li></ul><ul><li>PDSA Cycle </li></ul>
  4. 4. Process Mapping Overview
  5. 5. Why, What etc etc … Process Mapping Displays the sequential steps involved in converting a specific input into the required output To analyse & develop specific areas for improvement and / or future change initiatives Tools & techniques used to understand, analyse and document processes & activities. Assist in identifying opportunities for improvement Establishing a shared knowledge base Produce a range of ‘As is’ and ‘To be’ process maps Understanding of the work process, resource allocation, training etc Identify efficiencies and where systems can support these Improve processes by removing non-value add, complexity & constrains
  6. 6. Moving from Functional to Process View Functions drive the business Processes are acknowledged, but Functions dominate Processes drive the business Purchasing Department Finance Department (A/P) Procure to Pay Order to Cash Recruit to Retire Materials Department (W/House) Purchasing Department Finance Department (A/P) Materials Department (W/House) Customer
  7. 7. Process Overview - SIPOC S UPPLIER I NPUTS P ROCESS VALUE ADDED ACTIVITIES O UTPUTS C USTOMER Manpower Machinery Material Methods Information Environment Products Services
  8. 8. Principles <ul><li>Simplify </li></ul><ul><li>Test using metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise hand-offs </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate tasks / activities </li></ul><ul><li>Look at I.T. as an enabler </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the logical workflow first </li></ul><ul><li>Work Backwards from Output to Input </li></ul><ul><li>Have a single point of contact - Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Place decision making close to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>What’s first, then who, where, when and how </li></ul><ul><li>See the business through the customers eyes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Information Required for Process Mapping Information Required Responsibility Key responsibilities of the process area Output Key deliverables of each activity - products and services Input methods, materials, manpower, information, equipment etc Activities Key Activities of the process area Key performance indicators Volumes Key volumes related to an activity Customers Recipients of each activity output Suppliers Suppliers of each activity input
  10. 10. Process Mapping – Watch out.. <ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Map the process as it actually happens </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the process across the entire organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Engage people who are involved in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Define the beginning and end of the process before you start </li></ul><ul><li>Map the process at a high level </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not </li></ul><ul><li>Map the process as you think it happens or as you think it ought to happen </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict your process map to the activities in your own department </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to process map before you identify a beginning and an end </li></ul><ul><li>Get bogged down with too much detail </li></ul>
  11. 11. Process Mapping Framework
  12. 12. Process Framework Continuous Improvement Identify Best Practices As~Is Analyse & Evaluate To~Be Implement Business Process Reengineer Business Process Improvement Approaches
  13. 13. Identify Best Practices
  14. 14. Process Mapping – Note… <ul><li>Agree on what you will be mapping & process mapping scope </li></ul><ul><li>Start & walk through with a high-level flow (Context Diagram) </li></ul><ul><li>Walk through each key sub process step by step (if required) </li></ul><ul><li>Define the beginning and end of each sub process (inputs & outputs) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify process and technology opportunities for improvement at the end of each sub process </li></ul><ul><li>Verify the accuracy of the flow </li></ul><ul><li>A person not familiar with the process should be able to easily understand the flow without any explanation </li></ul><ul><li>The level of detail should be adequate to describe inefficiencies </li></ul>
  15. 15. Process Activity Questions <ul><li>How do we do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we do it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the output? </li></ul><ul><li>How many outputs? </li></ul><ul><li>How long does it take? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the output go? </li></ul><ul><li>Who reviews it and when? </li></ul><ul><li>Who performs each activity? </li></ul><ul><li>What generates the process/task? </li></ul><ul><li>What forms and reports are used? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the customers of the process? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the suppliers of the process? </li></ul><ul><li>What decisions are made in the process? </li></ul><ul><li>What computer systems and files are used? </li></ul><ul><li>How are errors / problems / exceptions handled? </li></ul><ul><li>What sequence are the activities performed in? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the nature, frequency and cause of errors/problems? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Process Metrics <ul><li>What do we want to measure? </li></ul><ul><li>Time - value, cycle, waiting, productive / non-productive </li></ul><ul><li>Volumes – transactions per day, units per hour, %age </li></ul><ul><li>Rates or Costs - computed, fixed, per unit </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Used - cost </li></ul><ul><li>Value Added - real value, business value, no-value </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of using Metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights contribution or non-contribution of the activity </li></ul><ul><li>Shows bottlenecks, idle time, productive time </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for measuring success </li></ul>
  17. 17. As~Is Process
  18. 18. As~Is Process Design Select a specific Process Scope, Plan & Schedule Resources Select Technique Individual Interviews Focus Group Mapping Document As~Is Process & Improvement Opportunities Analyse, Evaluate & Sign-off
  19. 19. Select a Process <ul><li>What are the reasons for mapping the process? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it performing below expectations and / or ways to increase the value? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it an exercise to understand the current process or how a new product / service will be planned, sourced, made, sold, returned etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find the beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What event creates the demand? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What conditions trigger the process? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find the end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At what point is the demand satisfied? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What conditions satisfy the demand? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepare a document that includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of the specific process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business problem or opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific objectives / stakeholder expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope – In and Out </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Scope - Identify All Process Steps <ul><li>Observe process : Collect Data : Document your observations </li></ul><ul><li>List the parameters that can change a product characteristic at that step (machine settings, supplies) </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs: all necessary parameters to complete a step </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6M’s = Man, Machine, Measurement, Method, Material and Mother Nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs : end-product parameters that are measurable or assessable </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs & outputs can be identified & verified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming - Work instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operators experience - Industry standards </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Plan & Schedule Resources <ul><li>Systems & Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who and what systems are involved in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a role rather than a job title helps to shift emphasis from a functional to process mindset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems name should be what people in the organisation use and call </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel – who’s and what role will they play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task and time estimate – a list of tasks, people responsible and time required </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Select Technique / Interview Planning <ul><li>Select mapping techniques (flowchart, block diagrams) </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for process interviews – focus group / individual </li></ul><ul><li>Review any existing process documentation / maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous mapping efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that actual processes likely have no resemblance to documentation or SOP </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation can help you identify the process experts </li></ul><ul><li>Start with a group interview to get an overall picture and interactions between roles </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up from group to individual interviews to get more detail </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conducting Interviews <ul><li>Conduct individual interviews in the order the roles appear on the process map </li></ul><ul><li>Explain to participants prior to the interview why the process is being mapped </li></ul><ul><li>Confine the discussion to the roles in the process being mapped, </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the objectives & scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are you creating the map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you expect to accomplish from the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide a current process map and obtain agreement on scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually your only interested in a small portion of the person’s entire job </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Conducting Interviews (Contd.) <ul><li>What you want to know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles from whom the person receives input and roles to whom the person gives output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input tasks and output tasks – when does the person first become involved and when are they finished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks performed, including decisions, in sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to other processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process walk through (chronological order) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify every task and every decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help all parties to visualise what is physically happening at each step </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Conducting Interviews (Contd.) <ul><li>Avoid jargon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The map must communicate to people in other functional areas or new employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Map the official way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If there are enough differences then people need to see the official way so they can see what deficiencies are causing people to vary from it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Display the map as it emerges from the discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With groups you can use flip charts, a white board, post-it notes or something similar </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. As~Is - Process Steps <ul><li>Describe the activities that transform inputs into outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Map the ACTUAL process the way it occurs now </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not the ideal process (the way it should occur) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not the formally documented process - the way the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) says it happens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What major activities occur in this process? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do decisions need to be made or approvals occur before the next step? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What causes extra work or rework in this process? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there places where more than one method is occurring? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What factors inhibit process members from performing well? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List each step on its own Post-It® and place vertically </li></ul>
  27. 27. As~Is – Sequencing / Responsibility <ul><li>Arrange the steps in the order in which they occur </li></ul><ul><li>Place each step under the role (primary responsibility) for accomplishing it </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange steps and players as needed, until they accurately show how the process flows </li></ul>
  28. 28. Classify Process Parameters <ul><li>Classify Inputs into the following categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N = Noise Factors - Uncontrollable factors in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C = Controllable Factors - Process factors that can be changed to see the effect on product characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S = Standard Operating Procedures - A procedure is used to define and run those factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cr = Critical Factors – Important factors that determines the outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Show total time as Value Add and Non Value Add percentages for the entire process </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the NVA steps, measure distance traveled (feet) and investigate time wasted. (time operator goes away from the working area, waiting and idle time) </li></ul>
  29. 29. As~Is - Process Map <ul><li>Assign the correct flowchart symbols to each step </li></ul><ul><li>Review the process flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add steps if missing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorder steps if needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Show the flow of activity between steps with arrows </li></ul><ul><li>Show shared responsibility for a step with circles and lines </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a symbol key at the bottom (or on the last page) of the flowchart </li></ul>
  30. 30. As~Is – Checks & Balances <ul><li>Are symbols used correctly? </li></ul><ul><li>Are process steps clearly described? </li></ul><ul><li>Does every path take you either back to or ahead to another step? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the chart accurately depict what really happens? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you labeled your flowchart and provided a key? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Analyse, Evaluate & Sign-off
  32. 32. Analyse Process Maps <ul><li>Review process map and look for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundant activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delays between steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unnecessary process steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role or responsibility ambiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottlenecks (backlogs) in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endless “do-loops” where rework is common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity time (lapse of time to complete a given step) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle time (total time elapsed from first to last step) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity flows that go back and forth repeatedly between players </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Segment and group the steps of the process map and select an appropriate measure for each segment </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a causal analysis on the inputs to your process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine whether one input or another is generating problems </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Evaluate Process Performance <ul><li>Identify where and what to measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depicts how process currently works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to figure out where to set up measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool to begin studying the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods to measure processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pareto charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process behavior charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause-and-effect diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process modeling and simulation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. As~Is - Stakeholder Review & Sign-off <ul><li>Identify appropriate people to attend As~Is final review workshop session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure all key players are represented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite others (manager, supervisor, customer) who may wish to learn about the process flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confirm and complete a process improvement plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-hanging fruit (i.e., quick fixes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend Process Behavior Charts Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend Data Analysis and Graphing Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas process could be simplified, improved (short & long term) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewed by all Stakeholders & Signed-off </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Core Team Review - Process Measures <ul><li>Serve as the basis to understand the performance of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Show the occurrence and extent of problems in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in diagnosing process inefficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Help to determine why problems occur </li></ul><ul><li>Help in identifying how to make process improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for the study of the interrelationships between events and among players in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Gauge the results of changes made to the process </li></ul>
  36. 36. Examples – Process Measures <ul><li>Number of unscheduled repairs </li></ul><ul><li>Number of facility deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Problem resolution time of help desk requests </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of billing transactions processed with errors </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of notification memos sent out within 1 week </li></ul><ul><li>Type and location of occurrence of security violations </li></ul><ul><li>Time between customer order and delivery of product </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle time from customer request to providing service </li></ul><ul><li>Percent “errors” found in radioactive materials inventory </li></ul>
  37. 37. To~Be Process
  38. 38. To~Be Process Design Implementation and Change Management Improvement Opportunities from As~Is Process Design Visioning Workshops Senior Management Vision Best Practice, Benchmarks, Performance, Goals Visioning Workshops
  39. 39. Deliverables <ul><li>Process documented, highlighting problem areas </li></ul><ul><li>Problems identified using root cause analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Plan highlighting identified & prioritised suggestions for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Documented differences between existing and new process using “Best Practices” </li></ul>Suggestion for improvement - Quick Fix Problem Solution Due date Effect Problem Causes ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------- -------- -------- ---------- -------- --------- --------- --------- -------- --------- ---------- Prioritised Action plans 1. Automate.......... --------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- 2. Simplify........ --------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- 3. Eliminate....... --------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- Quick Fix Project Importance Performance x x x x x x x x x x Prioritised suggestions for improvement Cross-functional process map PROCESS POLICY TECHNOLOGY PEOPLE Best Practice 1 GAP: Best Practice 2 GAP: Best Practices vs. existing workflow 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1 5
  40. 40. Process – Tools & Maps
  41. 41. Process Mapping Symbols Action/Process Start or End On Page Connector System Activity Decision Document Start End No Yes Yes Direction of Flow Off Page Connector
  42. 42. Relationship Map Central Mfg Suppliers Local Dealers End Customers End Customers Local Dealers End Customers End Customers Goods Goods Sales consultations Sales consultations Goods Goods Prognosis and orders Goods Negotiations about agreements
  43. 43. Block Diagram Requisition Purchase Order Receive Goods Pay Supplier Procure to Pay Process
  44. 44. Linear Flowchart Receive Payment Process order Receive order Prepare materials Assemble order Deliver order
  45. 45. Process Flow Map A Begins Load skins in racks Install in jig and drill Return for rework A Apply spray dot Trim, remove lug, clean & apply sealing Verify prior trim Manual rivet, identify and mark B Rework dots Drill identification holes Automatic riveting Apply liquid shim Final drill, countersink B C Ends Fastener/ bracket installation Clean, ident. and scratch repair Ship to next step C Inspect Inspect
  46. 46. Cross Functional – “Swim-lane” Maps Shipping Printing Dept Packaging Dept QA Dept Customer Printing Process The information to be published is collected The printed material is stuck and bound together Spelling checks for grammar and spelling are run Order received Ready for distribution? Magazine Publication Process Request Order Fulfilment Process
  47. 47. As~Is Process (Value / Non Value Add)
  48. 48. Process / Product Benchmarking Sydney Perth Brisbane NZ Start 1 2M 3M 4M 5M 6M 7M Start 1 2 3 PAINT PAINT 4 5 6 PAINT Start 2P 1 3P 4P . 5P ) 6P 7P Start 1S l 2St 3S 4S Obtain approval 5S . 6S 7S 8S PAINT CURE
  49. 49. The PDSA Cycle
  50. 50. The PDSA Cycle <ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the improvement you seek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you will make the changes in your processes to bring about the improvement? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you will measure the improvement? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement your improvement plan, testing it on a trial basis first </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect data on your improvement effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study the results of your improvement actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand what occurred? And why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take action on what you learned in the previous stage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt the improvement for broader implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust your improvement plan and try again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abandon the effort because the benefits do not outweigh the cost of improvement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. The PDSA Cycle <ul><li>Act </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt on a large scale </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt </li></ul><ul><li>Abandon </li></ul><ul><li>Study </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data to verify improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Set hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Validate causes </li></ul><ul><li>Plan a test </li></ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Test on small scale </li></ul>A P S D
  52. 52. <ul><li>“ That is the essence of science: Ask an impertinent question, and you are on the way to a pertinent answer.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Jacob Bronowski </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Good Luck </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>