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Cause & Effect

How to push teams beyond symptoms to uncover potential root causes

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Cause & Effect

  1. 1. Cause & Effect How to p ush teams beyond symptoms to uncover potential root causes Anand Subramaniam
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ The ability to focus attention on important things is a defining characteristic of intelligence. ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Robert J. Shiller </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cause & Effect - Overview <ul><li>Provides structure in cause identification (6Ms, 4Ps) </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the relationship between an effect (problem) and its potential causes </li></ul><ul><li>Pushes teams beyond symptoms to uncover potential root causes </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in identifying specific root causes to ‘drill-down’ and to identify Key Process Input Variables (KPIV) and controllable factors </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definition Cause Any event or condition that anticipates or precipitates another event or condition Effect Any event or condition that is caused by another event or condition
  5. 5. Definition Event An occurrence or happening Condition A state of being, a set of characteristics or attributes
  6. 6. 5 Whys <ul><li>Ask &quot;why&quot; each major cause happens at least 5 times </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up each answer with a question about that answer </li></ul><ul><li>Only stop when the team reaches a potential cause that the team can act upon </li></ul><ul><li>Pushes people to think about root causes and a sustainable solutions to fix the problem in the long run </li></ul>
  7. 7. Multi-voting <ul><li>Process to select or narrow a set of alternatives where each member to express ‘strength of opinion’ through voting </li></ul><ul><li>List all alternatives and count them (# of alternatives) </li></ul><ul><li>Rank order the alternatives based on total votes received </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the process until clear prioritisation can be viewed </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cause & Effect - Roadmap Identify the Problem / Issue Brainstorm Draw fishbone diagram Align Outputs with Cause Categories Allocate Causes Analyse for Root Causes Test for Reality
  9. 9. C & E - Analysis Machine Method Manpower Materials Process knowledge Training / Competence Shift / Overtime Injuries Supervision / Communication Inadequate Space Damage / Misdirect Verification - Weight / Size Repeatability Positioning Accuracy Accuracy Mistake Proofing Feed Traffic Flow Speed Lost Time KPI Fork lift path Handling Incompats Type Weight Priority Setting 5S & 8W on Work Practices Repeatability Reproducibility Operating Procedures Missed Shipment Staff Shortage In & Out Bound Carry Over – AM / PM Missed Scans Roster Freight Types / Volumes Dangerous Goods
  10. 10. Variation Sources - Materials <ul><li>How old is the material? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the level of quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the material supplier? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the material verified? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the material packaged? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the material produced? </li></ul><ul><li>Has there been a change in suppliers? </li></ul><ul><li>How is quality judged prior to your operation? </li></ul><ul><li>Can temperature, light or humidity affect the material quality? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Variation Sources - Machines <ul><li>Are the machines maintained regularly? </li></ul><ul><li>How old is the equipment or machinery? </li></ul><ul><li>Have any changes been made recently in the process? </li></ul><ul><li>What adjustments must the operator make during the process? </li></ul><ul><li>Is statistical analysis used to verify the capability of the machine? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the operator know if the machine is operating correctly? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the machine affected by heat or vibration or other physical factors? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Variation Sources - Manpower <ul><li>Is the work load reasonable? </li></ul><ul><li>How much experience does the person have? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the person satisfied or dissatisfied with his job? </li></ul><ul><li>Who does the person contact when problems arise? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the person have adequate supervision and support? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the person know what he is expected to do in his job? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the person have the tools/equipment needed to do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the person have the proper motivation to do his best work? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the person more- or less-productive at certain times of the day? </li></ul><ul><li>Do physical conditions such as light or temperature affect their work? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Variation Sources - Methods <ul><li>How is the method used defined? </li></ul><ul><li>Have other methods been considered? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the method regularly reviewed for adequacy? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the method used affected by external factors? </li></ul><ul><li>Have any changes been made recently in the process? </li></ul><ul><li>What adjustments must the operator make during the process? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the operator know if the method is operating effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>Is statistical analysis used to verify the effectiveness of the method? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Variation Sources - Measurements <ul><li>How are inspection results recorded? </li></ul><ul><li>How frequently are products inspected? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the measuring equipment calibrated? </li></ul><ul><li>Do inspectors know how to use the test equipment? </li></ul><ul><li>Are all products measured using the same tools or equipment? </li></ul><ul><li>Do inspectors follow the same procedures or are there set of standards? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Variation Sources – Mother Nature <ul><li>How are environmental conditions monitored? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the environment control measuring equipment calibrated? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there changes in conditions at different times of the day? </li></ul><ul><li>How does environmental change impact the processes being used? </li></ul><ul><li>How does environmental change impact the materials being used? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cause & Effect Matrix - CE <ul><li>C&E Matrix uses the Process Map as the primary source and the voice of the customer (VOC) to determine where to focus the improvement efforts </li></ul><ul><li>C&E Matrix relates Process Steps to Process Inputs and correlates to Process Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Each step is ranked (scored) to determine relative importance (impact) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer requirements are ranked by order of importance and then inputs and outputs are rated by their interaction impact. Identify which input variables (causes) influences the key process output variable (effect) </li></ul>
  17. 17. System & Process Causes System Causes Addresses how the management system allowed the process to become out of control Relates process factor causes to “weaknesses” in management systems policies / practices Process Causes Identifies factors and process that trigger the undesirable output Relates product output, (symptom), to process parameters, (causes)
  18. 18. Root Cause Analysis Level (Deep) Root Cause Consideration Tools Other (Wide) Product Defect/Detection cause Condition of controls to detect problem Control Barrier Analysis What other products have similar controls? Process Direct process cause, (trigger at process of origin Factors at process of origin triggering problem, (5Ms) Fishbone, (cause & effect) What processes have similar trigger cause? Plan Actual root cause, (led to trigger cause) Linkage to planning processes that trigger cause 5 Why with Hypothesis testing What other processes affected? System “ weakness” in mgt. policies or practices Linkage of mgt. system to actual cause System Cause Analysis Other affected mgt. policies
  19. 19. <ul><li>“ To succeed as a team is to hold all of the members accountable for their expertise .” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Mitchell Caplan </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Good Luck </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>