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Project, Program & Portfolio Management


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Project, Program & Portfolio Management

  1. 1. Project, Program & Project Portfolio Management Methods, Process, Tools & Techniques Anand Subramaniam
  2. 2. “The ultimate leader is one who is willing to develop people to the point that they surpass him or her in knowledge and ability.” - Fred A. Manske, Jr 2
  3. 3. Highlights  Project Management  Project Methodology  Program Management  Project / Program Office  Project Portfolio Management 3
  4. 4. Project Management
  5. 5. Why Projects fail? 5
  6. 6. Reasons for Project Failure  Poor project  Failure to manage specification user expectations  Scope/objectives  Failure to manage unclear change  Unrealistic timescales  Inappropriate staff  Over-optimism  Too much reliance on  Under-resourcing one individual  Lack of buy-in from key players 6
  7. 7. Managing Projects - Do & Don’t Do Don’t  Get all stakeholders  Overload people to sign up to project  Accept an plan unreasonable  Seek help if you need deadline without it challenging it  Devote time to early  Assume others have work same priorities as you  Use tools and procedures you don’t need 7
  8. 8. Criteria for Successful Project  Communication, Communication, Communication  Time invested at start to understand purpose and build relationships  A clearly defined scope  Realistic objectives  Commitment and buy-in from Project Board and senior managers  Clearly defined roles and responsibilities  A motivated and valued Project Team 8
  9. 9. Traits of a Good Project Manager  Spends time upfront  Plans thoroughly – keeps understanding project and getting workload, resources and commitment from stakeholders timescales in balance at all times  Communicates with all  Is accountable for all aspects of stakeholders openly and honestly the project  Explains and gets agreement from  Makes decisions based on the people on what they need to do information available and when  Puts the project before any other  Listens allegiances  Understand scope and objectives  Is honest with themselves and and keeps them in mind when others making decisions  Uses common sense  Builds the team and makes the  Is a good negotiator most of members’ skills  Anticipates, prioritises and  Keeps Project Team involved and addresses potential and real motivated problems as soon as they become  Is prepared to take calculated apparent risks 9
  10. 10. Importance of Lessons Learned Report  Review lessons learned from previous projects  Set up a Lessons Learned Log  Capture lessons learned throughout life of project  Review Log at key points in project  Write lessons learned report  Share lessons and good practice 10
  11. 11. Continuous Improvement  Build knowledge bases  Record lessons learned  Refer to case studies, websites  Learn from experience of others  Contribute to the body of knowledge  Learn from and build on own experience  Keep up-to-date with relevant publications  Join associations, support groups, committees 11
  12. 12. Project Methodology
  13. 13. Benefits of having a Methodology No Methodology Having a Defined Methodology Projects tend to be developed to attract funds Projects are designed to solve problems Projects have to fit a standardised set of outputs Projects develop local criteria and indicators to suit the local situation and achieve excellence Focus is on writing applications for funding Focus is on designing and making decisions before writing the proposal Stakeholders have not been active in designing Stakeholders help to define the problems and make decisions projects about the solutions Projects are driven by the funder or technical Projects are led by demand supply Poor analysis of local situation Through stakeholders’ involvement, the local situation is well understood Activity focused Projects are designed through identifying objectives as solutions to each problem Impact cannot be verified Each objective has clear evidence indicators that can be verified Short term vision The focus is always on the long-term and sustainable benefits Projects tend to include many areas and become Projects tend to be placed in an operational strategy and remain complex and exclusive focused on a single outcome Inconsistent documentation All documents are standardised to improve consistency and content 13
  14. 14. PMBOK  The PMI Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®) is an inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management.  PMBOK® includes knowledge of innovative and advanced practices that are widely applied in all fields of project management.  Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques applied to meet a projects requirements. 14
  15. 15. PRINCE2  PRINCE2 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) is a process-based approach for project management providing an easily tailored and scaleable method for the management of all types of projects.  The method is the de-facto standard for project management in the UK and is practiced worldwide. 15
  16. 16. Other Methodologies  Agile  SDM  Lean  Six Sigma  Kepner Tregoe  Lean Six Sigma  Theory of Constraints (TOC) 16
  17. 17. PMBOK vs. PRINCE2 PMBOK PRINCE2 Comprehensive Focuses on key risk areas only; does not claim to be complete Largely descriptive, Highly prescriptive, especially on prescriptive on a high level Process Structure, but adaptable to any size project Core and facilitating All processes should be processes; need to be scaled considered; also need to be to needs of project scaled Customer requirements driven Business case driven Sponsor and stakeholders Clear project ownership and direction by senior management US/International Standard UK Standard 17
  18. 18. PMBOK vs. PRINCE2 - Components PMBOK Knowledge Area PRINCE2 Components Integration Combined Processes, Components, Change Control Scope, Time, Cost Plans, Business Case Quality Quality, Configuration Management Risk Risk Communications Controls Human Resources Organisation (limited) Procurement Need to create procurement products 18
  19. 19. PMBOK vs. PRINCE2 - Match PMBOK P2: Project Level P2: Stage Level (“phase-by-phase”) Initiating Starting Up; Directing Managing Stage Boundaries; Directing Planning Initiating, Planning Managing Stage Boundaries; Planning Executing/ [managed on a stage Controlling a Stage; Controlling by-stage basis] Managing Product Delivery; Directing Closing Closing A Project Managing Stage Boundaries 19
  20. 20. Program Management
  21. 21. What is Program Management? The orchestration of a portfolio of projects effecting organisational change to deliver business benefits of strategic importance 21
  22. 22. Why Program Management?  Good management control of costs  The wider context of risks is better understood  The gap between strategies and projects is filled  Co-ordination and control of the complex range of activities  Projects are prioritised and integrated to manage resources better  Effective management of the Business Case to achieve the vision  Formal process for identifying, managing, realising and measuring benefits  A management framework that focuses on business change objectives  Clear responsibilities for preparing for implementing business change 22
  23. 23. Project vs. Program Management Area Project Management Program Management Focus Single objective Business strategy Scope Narrow Wide-ranging, cross- functional Benefits Determined in advance Used to make decisions Accrue after completion Accrue during the programme Deliverables Few, clearly defined Many , many initially undefined Timescale Clearly defined Loosely defined Change To be avoided Regarded as inevitable Success Time, budget, specification Mission, cash-flow, ROI Factors Plan Specific, detailed, bounded High-level and evolving 23
  24. 24. Change Management - Blueprint  Data required  Business models of the new functions, processes and operations  Organisation structure, staffing levels, roles, and skill requirements  Information systems, tools, equipment and buildings  Costs, performance and service levels for support of future operations 24
  25. 25. Benefit Definitions  Depends on other activities outside the control of the programme  Business / operations areas expected to be affected  Projected changes from the current business operations  current measures of the business operations and the target for improvement (e.g. financial savings or improved throughput)  When the benefit is expected to be realised  Financial & non financial value of the benefit 25
  26. 26. Risk Hierarchy  Strategic - Other programmes, other initiatives, inter-programme dependencies, political pressures  Program - Changing objectives, program definition, management skills, inter-project dependencies  Project - Project risks, third party  Operational - Transfer of deliverables to operations, acceptability within business operations, acceptability to stakeholders 26
  27. 27. Program Stakeholders  Third-party suppliers  Regulatory bodies  The program management team  The governing body of the program  People creating the program’s deliverables  Providers of support for the program's deliverables  All business areas impacted by the program, both during the program or after its completion  Providers of support to the program's activities in areas outside the Program Manager's control  Custodians of standards and policies relating to the program's activities  Providers / supporters of the technical infrastructure used by the program 27
  28. 28. Program - Key Roles  Change Agents  Quality Manager  Governing Body  Program Sponsor  Program Manager  Technical Authority  Business Planners  Project Managers  Business Change Managers  Program Management / Support Office 28
  29. 29. Program vs. Project Manager Program Manager Project Manager  Plans program-level activities and  Plans a project given the schedule of projects dependencies and interfaces  Defines TOR for projects defined by the Program Manager  Starts, stops and monitors  Works within the defined TOR progress of constituent projects  Runs a project, reporting to the  Manages program level risks and Program Manager issues. Delegates risks to projects  Manages project risks and issues,  Sets policies and procedures for escalating to the Program projects Manager wherever necessary  Resolves resource conflicts  Runs project according to policies  Determines program standards and procedures  Uses assigned resources  Delivers products to the defined standards 29
  30. 30. Program Manager Competencies  Strong leadership and management skills  Effective interpersonal and communications skills  Ability to create a sense of community  Ability to find ways of solving and pre-empting problems  Marketing and communication skills to “sell” the program into the business areas  Good knowledge of techniques for planning, monitoring and controlling programmes  Knowledge of project management approaches  Good knowledge of budgeting and resource allocation procedures  Knowledge of business change techniques, e.g. BPR  Knowledge of benefits identification and management techniques 30
  31. 31. Project / Program Office - Questionnaire
  32. 32. Project Management Office  How do you keep costs down?  How do you eliminate redundancy?  How do you ensure cross-functional alignment?  What is the impact of change?  How can you leverage your existing investments in information and IT? 32
  33. 33. Program Management Office  Can you estimate the business value of programs ?  How do you plan and manage the investments and deliver the business benefits?  How can you gauge under / over performance of programs?  How do you link business case to business strategy?  How can you effectively use business cases for executive decision making?  How can you assess the actually achievement to the anticipated business value?  How can you scope the complexity of the programs initiated?  How can you estimate the transformation change and the change management strategy for business improvement programs?  How can you stop programs for underperformance or for not supporting the business strategy anymore? 33
  34. 34. Transformation Change  How do you define and manage strategic business change?  How do you maximise the value in investments in business change?  How to create blueprints for change in the business and its IT resource?  How to deliver and maintain information system solutions?  How to deliver change - on time, on budget, to defined requirements? 34
  35. 35. Project Portfolio Management
  36. 36. What is PPM? Corporate Focus on Balance Risk Regulatory Changing Project Strategy Value Vs. Value Compliance Priorities Changes Ongoing Re-calibration Align Plan Execute Measure Core Operating Processes (Prioritisation, Governance, Monitoring, Resources) Project Optimal Work Output & Continuous Net Value Approvals, Resource / $$ Performance Improvement Contribution Completions & Utilisation Trends Recommendation Cancelations 36
  37. 37. Symptoms calling for PPM… Teams overworked / Seek accurate Intense competition under appreciated estimates based on internally with regard to financing / staffing firm’s history & lessons learned projects Rework and “out of control” costs with Many projects are not 3rd party vendors adding “strategic value” Symptom to the organisation No prioritisation s process for Project benefits not business requests captured or tracked Excessive Too many project No tracking Frequent change of small delays due or status of projects projects to lack of accountabilit (active – on-hold – underway resources y for project priority – on-hold) success 37
  38. 38. PPM - Benefits Justifies killing projects that do not Improves communication and supports support organisation strategy agreement on project goals Balances risk across Builds discipline into all projects project selection process Links project selection GRB & PMO jointly Benefits to strategic metrics execute PPM Processes Prioritises project Provides executive Allocates oversight of the firm proposals across a resources to common set of projects that criteria, rather than align with Provides the structure/process on politics or emotion strategic for project portfolio governance direction & avoids duplication / waste 38
  39. 39. PPM - Goals  Helps the organisation to make the best use of its resources  Enables the removal of low value projects from the portfolio  Ensures that all new and existing projects are aligned with the organisation’s mission, goals and objectives  Produces and maintains a comprehensive listing of all projects which the organisation is undertaking  Develops a “bigger picture view” and a deep understanding of the project collection as a whole  Creates an “objective” methodology for identifying, ranking, prioritising and selecting new projects  Ensures that a healthy balance across different types of projects with different cost, schedule, complexity and risk profiles is maintained 39
  40. 40. Project Portfolio Management (PPM)  Are you doing the right things?  Are you doing them the right way?  Are you getting them done well?  Are you getting the benefits?  How are (or will) the benefits be delivered? 40
  41. 41. PPM (Contd.)  How do you ensure that the investments are aligned with the key business objectives?  How do you find the most efficient ways to realise the strategic goals?  How do you check the right balance of investments across the portfolio?  How do you realise the predicted benefits of these efforts?  How do you assess programs and projects in the portfolio and to say 'No' and 'Stop‘?  How do you provide information to make better decisions?  How do you align actions to strategy and increase success on strategic initiatives?  How do you minimise risk, manage workload, decrease time to delivery, decrease costs and to increase value delivered? 41
  42. 42. PPM (Contd.)  How do you create an Inventory of current programs and projects?  How do you apply categorisation to understand the different kinds of initiative in the portfolio?  How do you apply evaluation criteria which enables reliable selection of high value / low risk initiatives?  How do you create visualisation of the Portfolio to support executive decision making?  How do you define and create the capability / Maturity level target and develop a "roadmap" of how to get there in a realistic timeframe? 42
  43. 43. “You can tell whether a man is clever by his answers. You can tell whether a man is wise by his questions.” - Naguib Mahfouz 43
  44. 44. Good Luck 44