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Antiphospholipid antibody Syndrome (APS) by Sunil Kumar Daha


Advance Planning & Scheduling

APS Process

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Advance Planning & Scheduling

  1. 1. Advance Planning & Scheduling (APS) Anand Subramaniam
  2. 2. Highlights <ul><li>ERP & APS Overview </li></ul><ul><li>What is APS ? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning & Scheduling, </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>What can APS do? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>SCM & APS Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>APS Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing APS </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits from APS </li></ul><ul><li>Time Horizon </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. ERP & APS – An Overview <ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) systems have improved the integration of materials and capacity planning by use of constraint-based planning and optimisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Many ERP and APS systems make it possible to include supplier and customer in the planning procedure and thereby optimise a whole supply chain on a real-time basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of an ERP system that focuses on each individual link in the chain, an APS system acts like an umbrella, enabling to extract real-time information from that chain, to calculate a feasible schedule, resulting in a fast, reliable response to the customer. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is APS? <ul><li>APS is an enterprise and inter-enterprise planning system. </li></ul><ul><li>It utilises planning and scheduling techniques that consider a wide range of constraints to produce an optimised plan. </li></ul><ul><li>It optimises the plan, based on mathematical modeling techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>It determines a feasible plan that considers all demand needs and supply limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>It uses intelligent analytical tools to perform finite scheduling and produces a realistic plan. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is APS? (Contd.) <ul><li>It is an integrated system that can support shifting decisions in supply chain management. </li></ul><ul><li>It analyses the implications of alternative decisions, highlights problems & consequences, and schedules for transfer to execution tools. </li></ul><ul><li>It recommends a best overall solution that considers both material and resource availability. </li></ul><ul><li>Real time decision support & KPI support </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate What If, ATP, CTP, PTP, Bucketless planning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Planning options, APS looks at.. <ul><li>Concurrent planning (or unconstrained planning) </li></ul><ul><li>Constrained planning </li></ul><ul><li>Optimisation - Linear Programming, Genetic Programming, Theory of constraints, Heuristics </li></ul>
  7. 7. 5M Constraints, APS looks at.. <ul><li>Material – availability, safety stock levels </li></ul><ul><li>Machine - set-up, sequence, capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Man - labour capacity, competence </li></ul><ul><li>Money – Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Methods - distribution requirements, customer service level requirements (due dates) </li></ul>
  8. 8. APS uses Finite Scheduling <ul><li>Finite scheduling is a process that assumes a fixed maximum capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>It sequences jobs according to actual constraints (5M) the company faces. </li></ul><ul><li>It creates more realistic forecasts than infinite scheduling methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the accuracy of the production process. </li></ul><ul><li>Performs multiple data passes to optimize plans and schedules. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Planning & Scheduling
  10. 10. What can APS do? <ul><li>Compare supply chain performance to increase accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Operate in real-time </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Improve customer delivery times </li></ul><ul><li>Increase utilization of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance efficiency of asset deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve problems with ERP systems </li></ul><ul><li>Improves MRP processes </li></ul><ul><li>Employs more advanced technologies </li></ul>
  11. 11. How does APS system work? <ul><li>Follow a four part model </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize company specific constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Employ advanced mathematical technologies </li></ul>
  12. 12. AMR’s – APS - Four Part Model ~ Created by Advanced Manufacturing Research, Inc.
  13. 13. Constraints Considered by APS <ul><li>Limitations – eg. machine capacity, labor skills, and material requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Rules – eg. manufacturing policies enforced by the company that, have an impact on production </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives – eg. increase customer satisfaction, which could require that the company shorten lead times or improve delivery procedures </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mathematical utilised by APS <ul><li>Linear programming </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristics </li></ul><ul><li>Constraint based programming (CBP) </li></ul>
  15. 15. SCM Collaboration Demand Forecasting Optimizing product mix Capacity Planning Resource Planning Shop Floor Control Warehousing Management Ordering Administration Production Planning Demand Management Shipping Optimization Status Management Tactical Tactical Operational Operational Transcctional Transcctional Collaboration on Forecasting Collaboration on Capacity Planning Analyzing Supply Chain Collaboration on Resource Planning Inventory Tracking Inventory Planning Analyzing Supply Chain Shippment Tracking Order & Shipments Collaboration on Forecasting Matching demand -supply
  16. 16. APS Collaboration
  17. 17. Solution Provided by APS <ul><li>Strategic and long-term planning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>products to be made, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>markets to pursue, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resolving conflicting goals, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROI on asset deployment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply chain network design </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimises the use of resources across the network of suppliers, customers, manufacturing locations and DCs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What-if analyses can be performed to test the impact of decisions to open new or move existing facilities on profit and customer-service level. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine where a new facility should be located to fulfil customer demand in the most optimal way. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To find the balance between holding more stock at a specific location or making more transportation costs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. APS Solution (Contd) <ul><li>Demand planning and forecasting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both statistical and time-series used to calculate a forecast based on sales history. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on this forecast, you can create more demand through promotions in periods where the demand is less than maximum production. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales and operations planning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use manufacturing planning and/or a supply chain network optimising solution to determine if the forecast demand can be met. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inventory planning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the optimal levels of safety stock at each locations of finished goods inventory to achieve the desired customer service levels. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply chain planning (SCP) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compares the forecast with actual demand to develop a multi-plant constrained master schedule, based on aggregate-level resources and critical materials. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimise the use of manufacturing, distribution and transportation resources. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. APS Solution (Contd) <ul><li>Manufacturing Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develops a constrained master schedule for a single plant based on material availability, plant capacity and other business objectives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on actual transportation costs and material allocation requirements a feasible plan on the distribution of finished goods inventory to different stocking point or customers, is generated to meet forecast and actual demand including Vendor Managed Inventory. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transportation Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses current freight rates to minimise shipping costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimises outbound and inbound material flow to minimise transportation costs or to maximise the utilisation of the truck fleet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidates shipments into full truckloads and optimises transportation routes by sequencing the delivery / pickup locations. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. APS Solution (Contd) <ul><li>Production Scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on detailed product attributes, work centre capabilities and material flow, a schedule is determined that optimises the sequence and routings of production orders on the shop floor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Shipment Scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines a feasible shipment schedule to meet customer due dates. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the optimal method and time to ship the order taking customer due dates into account. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. APS Solution / Time Horizon APS solutions related to the time horizon (Bermudez, 1998)
  22. 22. Implementing APS <ul><li>Define goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Define reasons for buying APS system </li></ul><ul><li>Select software that matches the needs of your company </li></ul><ul><li>Sound understanding of Supply chain management concepts and application </li></ul><ul><li>Experience along with roles & responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Human factor </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>System nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Data accuracy </li></ul>
  23. 23. Benefits gained from APS <ul><li>Improved throughput times </li></ul><ul><li>Improved delivery times </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum inventory levels </li></ul><ul><li>Better utilisation rates </li></ul><ul><li>Improved customer service levels </li></ul><ul><li>Reductions in costs </li></ul><ul><li>Improved sequencing for set-up efficiency </li></ul>
  24. 24. APS – Resources / Reference <ul><li>Alvord, Charles H. “The S in APS.” IIE Solutions. Vol. 31(10). Oct 1999: 38-41. </li></ul><ul><li>Amstel, P. van (1998), Snel, sneller, snelst, APS-systeem schiet logistiek manager te hulp, Tijdschrift voor Inkoop & Logistiek, 5, 18-23. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashkenas, R. (1995), The boundaryless organization, Breaking the chains of organizational structure. Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco. </li></ul><ul><li>Bendiner, J. (1998), Understanding Supply Chain Optimization: From “Wat if”to What’s best, APICS The Performance advantage, 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Bermudez, J. (1998), Advanced Planning and Scheduling: Is it as good as it sounds? The report on Supply Chain Management, March, 3-18. </li></ul><ul><li>Bermudez, J. (1999), Advanced Planning and Scheduling Systems: Just a fad or a breakthrough in manufacturing and Supply Chain Management?, The report on manufacturing, December, 16-19. </li></ul><ul><li>Bermudez, John. “APS: Just a Fad or a Breakthrough in Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management?” The Report on Manufacturing. Advanced Manufacturing Research, Inc., 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Boorsma, M. & Noord, J. Van (1992), Ketenintegratie, Tijdschrift voor inkoop en logistiek, 6, 40-48. </li></ul><ul><li>Carol, A. (1999), ERP Tools, Techniques and Applications for Integrating the Supply Chain, USA. </li></ul>
  25. 25. APS – References (Contd) <ul><li>Davis, T. (1993), Effective supply chain management, Sloan Management Review, Summer, 35-46. </li></ul><ul><li>Elliott, Monica. “APS Vendors.” IIE Solutions. Vol. 32(10). Oct 2000: 48-56. </li></ul><ul><li>Forrester, J.W. (1958), Industrial dynamic , M.I.T. Press, Cambridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Gattorna, J. (1998), Supply Chain alignment, Best practice in supply chain management , Gower Publishing, Aldershot. </li></ul><ul><li>Goldratt, E.M., Fox, J. (1986), The Race , North River Press, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Goor, A.R. van, et al. (1999), Fysieke distributie: denken in toegevoegde waarde , EPN. </li></ul><ul><li>Grackin, A. (1998), How to select a Supply Chain solution, Evolution of the APS market , APS Magazine, 2, 45-47. </li></ul><ul><li>Hadavi, K.C. (1998), Order management via Advanced Planning Systems , APICS The performance advantage, 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Hess, U. (1998), The care and feeding of real-time Advanced Planning and Scheduling , APICS The Performace Advantage, 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Hicks, D.A (1997), The manager´s guide to supply chain and logistics problem-solving tools and techniques , IIIE Solutions, 10, 24-29. </li></ul><ul><li>Holmes, G. (1995), Supply Chain Management , Europe’s new competitive battleground , The Economist Intelligence Unit, London. </li></ul><ul><li>Kok, T.G. de (2001), Comparison Of Supply Chain Planning Concepts For General Multi-Item, Multi-Echelon Systems , Research Report, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. </li></ul>
  26. 26. APS – References (Contd) <ul><li>Kok, T.G. de (2001), Comparison Of Supply Chain Planning Concepts For General Multi-Item, Multi-Echelon Systems , Research Report, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. </li></ul><ul><li>Landeghem, H. van (2000), Robuust Planning: a new paradigm for Demand Chain Planning , International Journal of Operations Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Lapide, L. (2000), Supply Chain Planning Optimisation: Just the Facts , The report on Supply Chain Management, May, 28-29. </li></ul><ul><li>Lee, H. & Billington, C. (1992), Managing supply chain inventories: pitfalls and opportunities , Sloan Management Review. </li></ul><ul><li>Mann, Paul. “Start From Within.” MSI. Vol. 19(2). Feb 2001:46-50. </li></ul><ul><li>McKenna, E. (1998), Technology helps companies promise what they can deliver , APICS The Performance advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Naden, Jeff. “Have a successful APS implementation.” IIE Solutions. Vol. 32 (10). Oct 2000: 46-48. </li></ul><ul><li>Proasis (1998), Frequently Asked Questions about Planning and Scheduling , . </li></ul><ul><li>Proot, J. (1997), Te Hoge verwachtingen? Planning tegen eindige capaciteit, Business Logistics, 5, 41-46. </li></ul>
  27. 27. APS – References (Contd) <ul><li>Quinn, J. (1993), The intelligent Enterprise , The Free Press, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Russell, Roberta S. and Bernard W. Taylor. Operations Management. 4th Edition. New Jersey: Pearsons Education, Inc., 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Slack, N. et al. (1998), Operations Management , Pitman Publishing, London. </li></ul><ul><li>Shapiro, J. (1998), Quantitative Models for Supply Chain Management , Kluwer Academic Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Sheridan, J.H. (1995), Which path to follow , Industry Week, 13, 41. </li></ul><ul><li>Spekman, R.E., et al. (1998), An empirical investigation into supply chain management: a perspective on partnershipsi, Supply chain management, 2, 53-67. </li></ul><ul><li>Turbide, D. (1998), Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) Systems . Midrange ERP Magazine, 1. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Abbreviations <ul><li>APS Advanced Planning and Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>ATP Available To Promise </li></ul><ul><li>CBP Constrained Based Planning </li></ul><ul><li>CTP Capable To Promise </li></ul><ul><li>CRP Capacity Resources Planning </li></ul><ul><li>DC Distribution Centre </li></ul><ul><li>DRP Distribution Resources Planning </li></ul><ul><li>ERP Enterprise Reources Planning </li></ul><ul><li>ICP Intelligent Client Processes </li></ul><ul><li>IT Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>KPI Key Performance Indicator </li></ul><ul><li>MPS Master Production Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>MRP I Material Requirements Planning </li></ul><ul><li>MRP II Manufacturing Resources Planning </li></ul><ul><li>OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>PTP Profitable To Promise </li></ul><ul><li>SCM Supply Chain Management </li></ul><ul><li>SCP Supply Chain Planning </li></ul><ul><li>SIC Statistical Inventory Control </li></ul><ul><li>TOM Total Order Management </li></ul>
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APS Process


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