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  1. 1. INDIA I. I Critical Historical Junctures II. Governance and Policy-Making III. R III Representation and Participation dP IV. Political Economy V. Political Culture VI. VI Indian Politics in Transition
  2. 2. I. I Critical Historical Junctures Mughal (Muslim) Empire g ( ) p British East India Company (‘British Raj’) Indian (S I di (Sepoy) Mutiny (1857) ) M ti Government of India Act (1858) Direct Rule under a Viceroy Queen Victoria as ‘Empress of India’ India 1857
  3. 3. British India v. Modern India v
  4. 4. The Struggle for Independence Indian National Congress (1885) Amritsar Massacre (1919) Gandhi d Independence M G dhi and I d d Movement Independence & Partition (1945) Sectarian Violence Gandhi Assassinated (1948) Gandhi and Nehru
  5. 5. Independent India Jawaharlal Nehru (1947-64) Parliamentary Democracy and Socialist E P li D d S i li Economy Indira Gandhi (1966-77 and 1980-84) Emergency Rule (1975) Operation Blue Star and Assassination (1984) Rajiv Gandhi (1984-89) Assassinated (1991) Narasimah Rao (1991-96) Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1998 04) (1998-04) Manmohan Singh (2004 – Present) Congress-led coalition government g g Indira Gandhi
  6. 6. II. II Governance and Policy-Making Policy Making Constitution Executive Prime Minister &C bi P i Mi i &Cabinet President Legislature India’s Lok Sabha (House of the People) p Parliament Rajya Sabha (House of the States) Federalism
  7. 7. III. Representation and Participation Congress Party Bharatiya Janata Party y y (BJP) Communist P t of C i t Party f India -- Marxist (CPM) Congress PM Manmohan Singh
  8. 8. IV. IV Political Economy The ‘Permit Raj and Permit Raj’ Economic Stagnation Forced Liberalization and Growth Competing in a Global Economy Limits on Indian Growth Which is the real India?
  9. 9. V. V Political Culture Ethnic and Religious Division Caste System Brahmins, K h i B h i Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras, dalits V i S d d li (‘Untouchables’) Traditional Values T diti l V l Support for Democracy Corruption
  10. 10. VI. VI Indian Politics in Transition Poverty and Development Pakistan and Kashmir Nuclear Weapons Continued Sectarian Strife “Let’s make a nuclear deal”