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Computer Structure Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi


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Structure of Computer

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Computer Structure Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi

  1. 1. 7/6/2013 1Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  2. 2. Structure of Computer 7/6/2013 2Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  3. 3. Part-1 Hardware and Software : The Computer equipment is called Hardware whereas all the programs and all the data fed into the computer are called Software. Hardware can be felt by hand touching while software can’t. Software can be seen only. • Example of hard ware: Memory, CPU, Printer, Keyboard, Monitor, UPS 7/6/2013 3Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  4. 4. software and firm ware : The term software refers to computer programs in binary representation (0’s and 1’s). the term firm ware refer to electronic circuits, typically in the form of a card which can be added or deleted from computer’s electronics, to perform a function which is usually implemented through a software. 7/6/2013 4Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  5. 5. LIVEWARE : The discussion on computers remains incomplete without a reference to most important aspect of live ware also called Human ware. No doubt, a computer is a very powerful and sophisticated device but it is of no use without live ware. Contd…. 7/6/2013 5Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  6. 6. • The term Live ware means all the personnel's dealing with the computer systems and their management. These personnel's associated with a computer system and the duties performed by them in order to make a computer really a worth while device are listed below---7/6/2013 6Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  7. 7. 1. Maintenance Engineers. Look after the maintenance of the hardware components of a computer. 2. Software Engineers. Their job is to design and develop, software such as operating systems and language processors etc. 3. System Analysts. Analyses the given problem and provides an efficient method of solving it with the help of a computer. 7/6/2013 7Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  8. 8. 4. Programmers. Prepare the source programs to solve the given problems according to the solution suggested by the system analysts. 5. Computer Operators. Operate the computer systems and possess the knowledge of the internal working of the computers. 7/6/2013 8Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  9. 9. Part-II (a) Software Packages A CPU by itself can’t do anything. It executes whatever instructions are given to it. A set of instructions written to perform an activity ins known as program. A set of programs, meant for a particular assignment, is called a software package. 7/6/2013 9Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  10. 10. • Software packages may be of three types: 1) System Software – It is essential for the computer to become functional. 7/6/2013 10Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  11. 11. (ii) Applications Software – These constitute sets of programs written for performing specified functions. For each type of application, different application software is required. Some of application software categories are: wood processors, spread sheets, drafting package, communication packages, and data base management system (DBMS), expert system, etc.7/6/2013 11Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  12. 12. (iii) Customized Application software- The application software available commercially is ideally suited because they have been tested and less costly. But for some application, exact readymade package may not be available. For such situations, customized application software has to be developed. Cont… 7/6/2013 12Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  13. 13. • to write a program, several high level languages are available, each language is suited for a particular type of application, so one has to select the language appropriately. Some of the languages are : BASIC, FORTRAMN, COBOL, C, Algol, PL/1, etc. 7/6/2013 13Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  14. 14. b) System Software These programs are essential for computer to function. Without these programs, no interaction is possible with computers. These programs facilitate in accepting instructions and executing them. • These include following programs: 7/6/2013 14Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  15. 15. • 1) Operating System (O/S) – • These act as interface between the processor and the application program and enable the user to exploit the abilities of computer hardware device. • Commonly used OS programs are DOS (Disk Operating System), UNIX, XENIX, VMS, etc. 7/6/2013 15Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  16. 16. 2) Operating Environments and Shells – These provide more facilities for input/output peripherals than OS. These programs run on top of the OS and act as a homogeneous interface between the applications and the operating system. Some examples are Microsoft Windows on DOS, X- Windows for UNIX, etc. 7/6/2013 16Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  17. 17. 3) Utility Programs – These enable easing the process of maintaining file, directories, etc. 4) There are other soft wares related to system development, like Networking software, Communication interface software, etc. 7/6/2013 17Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  18. 18. Application Software : These programs are prepared for a particular type of application. Some of the commercially available application software are: 7/6/2013 18Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  19. 19. 1) Word Processors- These are used for processing and printing of text material. These have facilities for typing text, setting up margins, spacing between the lines, style of text (bold, underline , etc). Software for desk top publishing, laser printings are also available. • For DOS system, the word processors are also available. 7/6/2013 19Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  20. 20. 2) Spread Sheets – These permit preparation of calculations sheets. These are useful in accounting, for repetitive calculations in experiment and research work, Numeric figures are entered in different cells, to perform standardized calculation without entering the equation or the formulae every time the data is change. These include Lotus 1-2-3, Symphony, etc. 7/6/2013 20Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  21. 21. 3) Database management System – These are used for maintaining different kinds of databases in tabular from. Data can be viewed and queried in several formats. A variety of reports can be generated. These usually act very useful management support tool. Some commonly used packages, are Dbase II, DbaseII DBaseIII+, IV Foxbase, etc. 7/6/2013 21Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  22. 22. 4)Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) – These make the design and development of database application an easy task. Oracle, Ingres, Informix, etc. are some of the examples. 7/6/2013 22Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  23. 23. 5) Drafting Packages – These are used for making drawing and creation of 3D models. Auto CAD is the most popular drafting package which works in DOS platform. 6) Communication Packages – These are used to permit communication from one machine to other. 7/6/2013 23Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi
  24. 24. •THANK YOU… 7/6/2013 24Prof.(Dr.) Anand K. Tripathi