The basic of safety for petrochemicals industries 1
A Brief Introduction to“The Basics Of Safety”for Petrochemicals Industries
• The worker safety is dependent on workerbehaviour and human factors.1. STAY ALERT• The more awake a worker is, the less likely heor she is to get hurt.• If you are unsure how to operate equipment orperform a task, ask your supervisor.• Make sure you know in advance the correct,safe way to do the work safety.
2. WEAR THE RIGHT CLOTHES• Wear protective clothing and equipment asrequired3. USE THE RIGHT TOOLS• If you need a hammer, get a hammer.• It may be handier to use a pair of pliers,wrench, screw driver or even your fist.• But you will have only yourself to blame if youbreak your fingers.
4. USE LIFTING DEVICES & LEARN HOW TO LIFT5.DONT BE A PRANKSTER• Practical jokes and horseplay can bedangerous around machinery.• If you feel the urge to play, resist it until afterwork.6. BE TIDY• Good housekeeping reduces hazards in theworkplace or your home.• Always put away tools when they are not inuse.
7. REPORTING IS IMPORTANT• Never fail to report accidents.• Defective equipment.• Unsafe conditions.8.GET FIRST AID IMMEDIATELY• Neglect of the injury may lead to seriousinfection, even permanent injury.• Keep the floors clean, pick up scraps, wipe upspills.• A slip or trip can be fatal.
9. BACK YOUR SAFETY PROGRAM• If you have an idea you believe will reduceaccidents, tell your supervisor about it.• Set an example by obeying safety rules.• Cooperate with your safety committee.10. AVIOD SHORTCUTS & NEVER TAKE A CHANCE• Be punctual at your Work Place
Develop the safety and health programs foryour Industry• An Accident Prevention Program (APP)• A Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)Program• A Hazardous Chemicals CommunicationProgramIf your employees are exposed tohazardous chemicals in the workplace.
• A Respiratory Protection programIf your employees use respirators to dotheir work.• A Hearing Loss Prevention Program- Sampleplan for preventing hearing loss.• A Fall Protection Work Plan
Accident Prevention Program• Accident Prevention Program. Yourresponsibility:To establish, supervise and enforce anaccident prevention program that is effectivein practice.Develop a written accident preventionprogram.Develop, supervise, implement andenforce safety and healthy trainingprograms that are effective in practice.Make sure your accident preventionprogram is effective in practice
Develop Written Accident prevention program• Develop a accident prevention program that isoutlined in writing. The program must betailored to the needs of your particularworkplace or operation and to the types ofhazards involvedNote: The term accident prevention programrefers to your written plan to prevent accidents,illnesses and injuries on the job.
Following to be included in this programme• A total safety and health program• On-the-job orientation showing employeeswhat they need to know to perform theirinitial job assignments safely.• How and when to report on-the-job injuriesincluding instruction about the location offirst-aid facilities in your workplace.• How to report unsafe conditions and practices.• The use and care of required personal protectiveequipment.
• What to do in an emergency, including how toexit the workplace.• Identification of hazardous gases, chemicals ormaterials used on-the-job and instructionabout the safe use and emergency action totake after accidental exposure. A safety and health committee.
Develop, Supervise, implement and enforcesafety and health training programs• Develop, supervise, implement and enforcetraining programs to improve skill, awarenessand competency of all your employees in thefield of occupational safety and health.• Training includes on-the-job instruction toemployees prior to their job assignment abouthazards.
Such as :Safe use of powered materials-handlingequipment such as forklifts, backhoes etc.Safe use of machine tool operationsUse of toxic materialsOperation of utility systems.Helpful Tool:• Training Documentation Form can help youverify in writing that each employee whoneeds training has received and understood it.
Accident prevention program is effectivein practice• Establish, supervise and enforce your accidentprevention program in a manner that iseffective in practice.Helpful Tool:• Your employees are encouraged to use thisform to help carry out the Accident PreventionProgram in your workplace.
• Occupational Safety and Health is to protectthe safety and health of employees at workplace.• According to the “Contractors/Employees"provisions, shall provide employees with a safeand health working environment andnecessary safety, training and supervision.• The main pathways for chemical substances toenter a worker’s body are swallowing, skincontact and inhalationKey Learning Points
• Studying the label content outside acontainer is the proper way for identifyingthe name, classification, risks andprecautions of the chemical in thecontainer. The compulsory information of achemical label includes the chemical name,classification, particular risks and safetyprecautions.
• The following terms are used to classify theproperties of chemicals: explosive, oxidizing,flammable, toxic, harmful, corrosive andirritant. In handling chemicals, an employeeshould properly use the protective clothingand equipment provided by the employer.
• Safety practices on construction sites: Store loose substances and constructionmaterials properly at designated and securelocations. Place materials far from a floor opening. Don’t throw materials from height. Don’t work near a floor edge or a flooropening withoutguardrails.
Don’t place materials on passageways. Timber with projecting nails should be flattenedor extractedimmediately. Wear approved eye protectors when conductingwelding work. Never work under goods in suspension.
• A construction site with 5 workers or moreemployed shall be provided with a first aid box.The number of first aid facilities required dependson the number of workers employed. Wording of“first aid” shall be clearly marked on the first aidbox. The booklet “Hints on First Aid” published bythe Labour Department and the substancesrequired statutorily shall be placed in the first aidbox.• A construction site with 30-99 workersemployed shall have a person trained in firstaid.
• The principal contractor of a construction sitewith 100 or more workers employed shall employa full-time registered safety officer.• An employer shall report a dangerous occurrencehappened in a workplace to the LabourDepartment with 24 hours.
• “Mandatory Safety Training” properties to beorganised.• An employer shall provide his employees withpotable water.
Key Learning Points• Adopting working platforms should be of thefirst priority while working at height.• Scaffolds (including working platforms)should be erected by trained scaffoldingworkmen. A competent person shouldinspect a scaffold and issue a Form 5 to statethe scaffold is in safe condition within 14days before the scaffold is used and at leastevery 2 weeks.
• The main function of toe boards is to preventfall of persons, objects and tools.• The main function of guardrails at aworking platform is to prevent fall ofworkers.
• The minimum width of a working platform is400mm. The height of the top guardrail on theworking platform shall be 900-1150mm. Theheight of toe boards on the working platformshall not be less than 200mm. The boardsforming working platform should not be lessthan 200mm in width and not less than 25mmin thickness or not be less than 150mm inwidth and not less than 50mm in thickness
• Before using a safety harness, whether anysuitable anchorage, independent lifeline andfall arresting device is available should beconsidered. When it is required to use a safetyharness as a fall preventive measure, theharness should be attached to a secureanchorage or an independent lifeline.• The most appropriate safety harness anchoringmethod is to anchor it at a level higher than theuser’s waist.
• When a ladder is used for access or egress, itshould be ensured that the ladder is stable andresting on an even and solid ground. Neverjoint short ladders to form a long one for use.The top of a ladder should protrude thelanding platform at least 1.0 metre as ahandrail.• Workers working at a gondola shall wearsafety belts anchored to independent lifelines.
• When somebody has fallen from height, informthe first aider immediately and look after theinjured person. Do not move the injuredperson.• A scaffold with suitable working platform andsafe means of access and egress should beprovided to workers to ensure the cleaningwork at height can be conducted safely.• The minimum depth of a cage or receptacleused for carrying persons is 900mm.
• Ladders should be regularly inspected andmaintained.• A suitable working platform with guardrailsand toe-boards should be used while installingelectrical conduits on ceiling at height
Key Learning Points• Employees should understand thematters of “selection, use,maintenance and fit for the work”related to personal protectiveequipment. Replace unfit ordamaged personal protectiveequipment immediately.• A safety helmet is used for protectinga workers head from direct hit byfalling objects. A worker working in aconstruction site shall wear a safetyhelmet at all times .
• The following are the safety practices regardingsafety helmets:A sufficient clearance should be maintainedbetween the head and the shell of a safetyhelmet.Regularly check if there is any damage.Regularly clean a safety helmet but not with anorganic solvent.Don’t remove the helmet harness.Don’t pierce holes on a safety helmet to enhanceventilation.• Steel toe caps, steel soles and slip-proof characteristicsare the basic requirements for safety shoes.
• In comparison with a general purpose of safetybelt, the use of a full body harness caneffectively reduce the extent of injury to thewaist of the user during falling .• Appropriate aprons, safety shoes, gloves andface shields should be worn while handlingchemicals. Gloves specific for handling thechemical should be used.
• Only ear protectors including ear muffs withtheir brands and models approved by theLabour Department can be used. Piling workwould generate high levels of noise. Workersworking in the noise affected area shall wearapproved ear protectors appropriately.• After using a respirator, the user should cleanand wipe the respirator thoroughly.
• Wet drilling method and dust removalequipment should be adopted as safetymeasures for drilling holes in a tunnel.• When operating a machine with revolving parts,workers should not wear cotton gloves so as toavoid causing injury to hands due to entanglingof cotton gloves with the revolving parts of themachine.• It is inappropriate to wear working uniformsstained with inflammable liquid, sandals andslippers at work.
Key Learning Points• Most fatal cases in fire are caused by inhalationof smoke.• The essential conditions for burning are fuel,heat and oxygen. Therefore, isolating the fuel,cooling and cutting off the oxygen supply are firefighting methods.• Rubber floor tiles laying work with the use ofadhesive is a high fire risk construction process.
• Fire is likely caused by spraying of flammableliquid (e.g. paint spraying).• Burning of paper, cloth, timber, plastic, rubbishand miscellaneous articles is classified as thefirst category of fire.• The following are fire prevention measures: Check the fire fighting equipment regularly. Keep the exit doorway free from obstruction. Keep the workplace clean and tidy.
Keep the smoke doors closed. Carefully use the machines and tools thatwould generate sparks and heat. Confirm the location for assembly after fireevacuation. Flammable substances should be stored inmetal cabinets. Don’t store large quantities of flammablesubstance in the workshop.
Don’t stack miscellaneous articles to blockthe fire fighting equipment. Used rags soaked with flammable liquidshould be placed in covered metalcontainers. Workers should not smoke within a “NoSmoking Area” so as to prevent ignition ofthe inflammable substances nearby.
• A water type fire extinguisher is suitable forputting out a timber fire but not for a firecaused by a flammable liquid, e.g. petrol.• A foam type fire extinguisher is not suitable fora fire caused by failure of electrical appliances.• When using a dry powder type fireextinguisher, one should note that thedischarged dry powder may causedisorientation.• Carbon dioxide type fire extinguisher is mostappropriate for putting out an electrical fire.
Key Learning Points• A contractor should mark the platform orcage of a material hoist with the safeworking load. Carriage of persons by amaterial hoist is prohibited. The operationof a material hoist is forbidden when anyhoistway gate is not closed. A competentexaminer is responsible for carrying out thetesting and thorough examination for amaterial hoist.
• A gondola should be operated by a workerwho holds a valid gondola operationcertificate. A gondola should be checked bya competent person every week and issuedwith an approved form stating that it is insafe condition.
• Factors contributing to accidents of liftingappliances (such as jib crane or tower crane): Overload causing the crane to overturn or the jibto break. Insufficient training of the crane operator. Workers working within the lifting operation area. Misunderstanding between the crane operatorand the signaler.• A lifting appliance (such as jib crane or towercrane) should undergo a thorough examination bya registered professional engineer once every 12months. A competent person should beresponsible for the weekly inspection of a liftingappliance.
• A crane operator shall attain 18 years oldand hold a valid relevant certificate. Also, anexcavator operator shall attain 18 years oldand hold a valid relevant certificate.• If a crane is equipped with outriggers, theyshould be fully extended and supported onrigid timber blocks. When operating atelescopic jib crane near an overhead cable,one should use “goal posts” to restrict theworking zone of the jib.• Every piece of lifting gear (e.g. wire sling)shall be marked with its safe working load.
• Lifting gear (e.g. a sling) should undergo atest and thorough examination by aregistered professional engineer.• Accidents in operating machinery arecommonly caused by failure of the machineguarding.
Post notices regarding the repairing atthe switches of the machine and also lockup the switches. Keep the machine guarding in place fortesting and cleaning the machine.• Safety precautions for repairing the revolvingparts of a machine: Prevent personnel not responsible for therepairing work from coming near. Shut off (isolate) the power supply beforestarting the repairing work.
Install back the removed protective guardsbefore re-starting the machine.• Safety precautions for using an abrasive wheel: The safety guard shall be provided and kept inposition while the abrasive wheel is in motion. Affix a notice which specifies the highestpermissible speed and the safety rules of usingthe abrasive wheel. Replacement of the abrasive wheel can beconducted only by a person authorized by theproprietor in writing. Select an appropriate abrasive wheel for use.
Key Learning Points• Electrocution is mainly due to serious injury of theheart.• Before using an electrical appliance, one shouldcheck if the tool is functioning properly. Anportable electrical tool should be earthed unless itis of double-insulated construction. Earthing of anelectrical tool can reduce the risk of electric shock.The marking of “回” on a portable electrical toolmeans it is of double-insulated construction.Double-insulation of electrical tools can avoidcurrent leakage.
• An electrical appliance should be repaired afterthe power supply has been completely isolated. Afailed electrical appliance should be repaired by acompetent electrician. Improper repairing of anelectrical appliance may cause explosion, burnt orelectric shock.• Directly connect wires to power supply without using anPractices/situations leading to electrical accidents: Repair electrical tools by an unqualifiedperson. Unauthorized modification of electrical tools. Allow live parts of electric wires to expose. electric plug. Conduct arc welding in a humid environment.
• Practices/situations to avoid electrical accidents: Repair electrical tools by a competent electrician. Regularly inspect electrical tools. Adopt “permit-to-work” for repairing electricalappliances. Use an appropriate plug to connect powersupply. Stand on an insulated mat. Adopt water-proof facilities for outdoor electricwires connection. Use water-proof electrical appliances in a humidenvironment.
Key Learning Points• A “confined space” is defined to mean any place inwhich, by virtue of its enclosed nature, therearises a reasonably foreseeable specified risk, andincludes any chamber, tank, vat, pit, well, sewer,tunnel, pipe, flue, boiler, pressure receiver, hatch,caisson, shaft or silo in which such risk arises. Thespecified risks include a fire or explosion, anincrease in body temperature, lack of oxygen, anincrease in the level of liquid and entrapment by afree flowing solid.
• All workers entering a confined space (e.g. watertank of a building) shall be certified workersdefined by Factories and Industrial Undertakings(Confined Spaces) Regulation. A certified workershall attain the age of 18. Before certified workersenter a confined space, a work permit (certificate)should be obtained first. Certified workers shouldleave the confined space at once when the safeperiod of the work permit expires.
• The duty of the person stationed outside aconfined space is to communicate with workersinside the confined space.• Prior to commencement of work in a confinedspace, the proprietor shall appoint a competentperson specified by the Factories and IndustrialUndertakings (Confined Spaces) Regulation toconduct a risk assessment to the confined space.Before entering the confined space, therecommendations of the risk assessment shouldhave been completed.
• Using a portable generator at the bottom of a liftshaft may cause carbon monoxide poisoning.• Providing an effective forced ventilation is amandatory precaution before workers enter aconfined space.• A worker should wear a self-contained respiratorwhen entering a confined space for rescue.• Nobody is allowed to enter a confined space whena detection of the gas inside the confined spacehas not been performed.
Key Learning Points• The proper method of manual handling operationsis holding the object close to the body, lifting withthe legs by slowly straightening them and keepingthe lower back straight. The most common injurysuffered by workers engaged in lifting heavy goodsis strain and sprain. Lifting of heavy objects bybending the waist will likely cause injury to thewaist. Doing warm-up exercises beforetransporting goods can render the muscles andcardiopulmonary system more adaptable to thechange so as to reduce chance of getting injured.
• When using a trolley to transport goods, oneshould note whether the structure of the trolley isgood or not, any potential hazards in the pathwayand whether the floor is even or not.• Before transporting curtain wall glass panels, theresponsible person is required to makeassessment of the risks.• Proper practices of manual handling operations: Adopt a proper posture (i.e. keep the backstraight).
• Improper practices of manual handling operations: Suddenly increase the movement speed. Make jerky motions. Frequent and prolonged repetitive movements. Only twist the upper body trunk. Slippery floor.- Proper practices of manual handling operations Use the power of thigh muscles to lift goods. Provide sufficient manpower to conduct amanual handling operation. Use mechanical tools (e.g. trolleys) to transportgoods. Reduce the weight of the goods to be carried.
Key Learning Points• Workers performing gas welding or flamecutting shall attain 18 years old and hold validrelevant certificates.• Safe practices of gas welding:• The gas cylinders should be equipped withflashback arresters.• Use screen to avoid the sparks from injuringothers.• Keep the gas cylinders upright.• Before performing flame cutting of an old pipe, oneshould purge the residue inside the pipe.
• An acetylene cylinder should not be laid flat onground so as to avoid leakage of flammableliquid from the cylinder.• Common hazards of arc welding include electricshock, arc radiation and inhalation of harmfulgases. Prolonged inhalation of excessive metaldust can cause damage to welder’s lung tissue.The ultraviolet radiation generated in arc weldingwould cause damage to the eyes of a welder.• The common colour of oxygen cylinders used in gaswelding is black and that of acetylene cylinders ismaroon.
• Workplaces for welding work should be: Provided with adequate lighting. Equipped with appropriate fire extinguishers. Well-ventilated.• In a poorly ventilated environment, performingwelding work may cause oxygen deficiency.• Personal protective equipment for arc weldingincludes eye shield, gloves and insulated shoes.
Key Learning Points• The most important excavation safety measure isto obtain the actual locations of the undergroundpipes, cables and other public facilities.• During the excavation work, the excavationincluding the related pit and slope should bethoroughly examined by a competent person atleast once every 7 days. A competent personshould fill in Form 4 after a weekly examination ofthe excavation.
• The most dangerous outcome of excavation workis collapse of soil. Therefore, debris and heavymachines should be stacked far away from a pit toprevent the occurrence of vibration and overloadwhich cause the pit collapse. The purpose ofproviding suitable support and shoring at theedge of an excavation is to avoid collapse of thepit.• During excavation, if the floor of the pit cracks andthe support is broken or loosened, stop the workimmediately, leave the pit and report to thesuperiors.
• When a worker discovers unidentifiedunderground pipes and electric cables duringpiling works, he should stop the workimmediately and inform the supervisor.• Measures for maintaining a good ventilationsystem for a tunnel work: Regularly test and inspect the air quality. Avoid accumulating the exhaust gases insidethe tunnel. Ensure the fresh air ducts extend to alllocations of the workplace.
Key Learning Points• The Government, employers and workers areresponsible for preventing industrial accidents.Workers should be responsible for their ownunsafe acts. The consequences of industrialaccidents are death, injury and occupationaldisease.• Good housekeeping at a workplace can provide asafe and effective working environment. Stackingmaterials arbitrarily on a passageway can causeaccidents. Segregating the pedestrians from themoving vehicles is an effective measure to preventtraffic incidents in a construction site.
• Contingency plans should be devised and drilledregularly so as to allow workers to familiarize withthe procedures of the contingency plans. Anemergency contingency plan for fire accidents canminimize the loss caused by fire.• In a hot and humid environment, workers are morelikely to sustain heat stroke. Thirst and nausea arecommon symptoms of heat stroke. Measures forpreventing heat stroke: Avoid working under direct sunlight. Setting up temporary sunshade.
• The main purpose of implementing themandatory basic safety training is to enhanceworkers’ safety awareness.• When asbestos is discovered during buildingdemolition work, workers should stop thedemolition work and report to themanagement. Rescheduling work to cooler periods in thedaytime and cooler places. Providing cool potable water. Wearing light-coloured and loose-fittingclothing. Taking regular rest.
• An employer should report a fatal accident tothe Labour Department within 24 hours afterthe time when the accident occurred.• The purpose of a permit-to-work system is toensure that all safety measures have beenimplemented before the work starts.• To ensure work safety, workers should not drinkalcohol