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BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION
PROCESS OFCOMMMUNICATION Communication is a two way process  in which there is an exchange of ideas  towards a mutually a...
ELEMENTS OF THECOMMUNICATION PROCESS Sender / speaker/ Encoder Receiver / Listener / Decoder Message Medium Feedback
SENDER The person who initiates the  communication process He from his personal data bank  selects ideas, encodes it and...
RECEIVER A receiver is the targeted audience of  the message. Receiver gets the message,  understands it, interprets and...
MESSAGE It is the information written or spoken,  which is to be sent from one person to  another. The message should be...
MEDIUM/CHANNEL It is the vehicle which facilitates the  sender to convey the message to the  receiver Each medium has it...
FEEDBACK It is a loop that connects the receiver  to sender It ensures that that receiver has  received the message and ...
PROCESSSENDER                             FEED BACK                                                   RECEIVER         ENC...
ENCODING   It is changing the message from its    mental form into symbols i.e. patterns    of words, gestures or signs o...
DECODING It is the act of translating symbols in  communication into their ordinary  interpretation. It also includes un...
OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE OFCOMMUNICATION To inform To persuade To educate To train To motivate To integrate To relate To...
FUNCTIONS OFCOMMUNICATION Information sharing To provide Feedback Influence Problem solving Assists in Decision makin...
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION INMANAGEMENT                      PLANNING    CONTROLING                        ORGANISING    ...
TYPES OFCOMMUNICATIONORGANISATIONAL    DIRECTION OF                                 EXPRESSION  STRUCTURE      COMMUNICATI...
FORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication that is formally  controlled by managers or people  occupying positions in an organiza...
ORGANIZATIONALSTRUCTURE              BOARD OF              DIRECTORS              MANAGING              DIRECTOR          ...
ADVANTAGES OF FC1.   Helps in maintaining the authority     structure of the org.2.   Better cooperation and coordination ...
ADVANTAGES OF FC1.   Free from biasness2.   Minimal chance of information     leakage3.   Away from gossipEXAMPLESMemos, C...
DISADVANTAGES Time consuming Does not allow social and emotional  bonds to be created Stands in between free flow of  i...
INFORMAL COMMUNICATION The communication which flows  around water coolers, down hallways,  through lunch rooms and where...
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FORGRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION Feeling of uncertainty or lack of sense  of direction Lack of self confid...
TYPES OF GRAPEVINECHAINS Single Strand- A to B, B to C…… Gossip - A to many people together Probability – Telling rando...
ADVANTAGES Speedy transmission Immediate Feedback Support to other channels Psychological satisfaction Uniting force...
DISADVANTAGES Can not be taken seriously Do not carry complete information Distorts information Hampers production Ch...
HOW TO REDUCE GRAPEVINEIN ORGANISATION Keep the employees well informed  about policies, plans and prospects Fruitful gr...
HOW TO REDUCE GRAPEVINEIN ORGANISATION Rumours should not be encouraged Managers should listen the problem of  employees...
COMMUNICATION BASED ONDIRECTION   DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION    ◦ Communication that flows from top to      bottom    ◦ It me...
HIERARCHY                     CEO         BUSINESS           BUSINESS           HEAD               HEAD EXECUTIVE1    EXEC...
TYPES OF DOWNWARDCOMMUNICATION          •   INSTRUCTIONS          •   MEMORANDA          •   NOTICEWRITTEN   •          • ...
UPWARD COMMUNICATION Communication that flows from bottom  to top i.e. from lower hierarchical level  to higher level. I...
OMBUDPERSON/OMBUDSMAN Acts like a liaison between the top  management and employees Promotes upward communication by  di...
LATERAL/HORIZONTALCOMMUNICATION  MARKETING   MANAGER    PRODUCTION               MANAGER
LATERAL/HORIZONTALCOMMUNICATION   Communication that takes place    between 2 or more persons who are    subordinates wor...
DIAGONAL/CROSSWISE It includes flow of information among  persons at different levels who have  no direct reporting relat...
DIAGONAL/CROSSWISE MARKETING     PRODUCTION MANAGER       MANAGER  MARKETING    PRODUCTION  SUPERVISOR   SUPERVISOR
INWARD COMMUNICATION Includes all the information received by the  organisation from external agencies like  government, ...
OUTWARD COMMUNICATION Communication which the  organisation maintains with the  outside world. It is a difficult task as...
FORMS OF OUTWARDCOMMUNICATION ◦ ADVERTISEMENTS ◦ MEDIA INTERACTION (PRESS NOTES,   CONFERENCE) ◦ NEGOTIATIONS ◦ MAILS ◦ TE...
ORAL COMMUNICATION Anything that emanates from the  mouth is referred to as oral  communication The words used and the m...
FEAURES Instantaneous two way process One off exercise Day to day language Presence of sender and receiver Principles...
METHODS OF ORALCOMMUNICATIONA.   AMONG INDIVIDUALS •    Face to face conversation •    Interviews •    Telephonic conversa...
METHODS OF ORALCOMMUNICATIONB.   AMONG GROUPS ◦   Negotiations •   Lecture •   Speech •   Meetings •   Conference •   Work...
ORAL COMMUNICATIONSKILLSA manager should be able to converse or  discuss persuasively, effectively and  convincingly. Thus...
ADVANTAGES   Immediate feedback   Better relationship   Time saving   Effective tool of persuasion   Effective tool o...
DISADVANTAGES Lack of retention/documentation Distortion in passing the message No legal validity Possibility of misun...
TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORALCOMMUNICATION   Be confident   Use simple language and familiar words   Be brief and precise   ...
WRITTENCOMMUNICATION Communication that can be expressed  in written words of any language Most businesses rely on recor...
METHODS OF WRITTENCOMMUNICATION    Letters    Manuals     Reports  Memorandum   Handbook     Email    Notices     Agenda  ...
CHARACTERISTICS OFWRITTEN COMMUNICATION Most formal type of communication Used for documentation Used for circulation o...
ADVANTAGES OF WRITTENCOMMUNICATION Ready reference Legal defense Promotes uniformity Mass access Suitable for distanc...
DISADVANTAGES OFWRITTEN COMMUNICATION Limited to literate world Time consuming Lot of paper work Needs expertise in ex...
NON VERBALCOMMUNICATION Communication which does not  involve use of words, neither spoken  nor written It is the wordle...
CHARACTERISTICS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Instinctive – indicates the attitude,  feelings of the speaker Less conscious...
Classification of NON VERBAL   COMMUNICATION                           PROXEMICS (SPACE                                   ...
KINESICS Kinesics means body movements. Body language is a reflection of  thoughts and feelings By nodding our head, bl...
1. Facial expressions “The face is the index of heart” Whatever we feel deep within  ourselves is at once reflected in o...
DALE LEATHER‟S FacialExpressions                           HAPPINESS         BEWILDERMENT/           CONFUSION            ...
2. Eye Contact Eye contact is one of the most  powerful forms of non verbal  communication When we look at somebody‟s fa...
HOW AN EYE COMMUNICATES It shows emotions and establishes  conversational regulators Monitors feedback Serves as a remi...
3. GESTURES   Physical movement of arms, legs,    hands, torso and head that help one to    express thoughts and emphasiz...
a) EMBLEMSEMBLEM                      MEANINGPATTING THE STOMACH         HUNGRY/FULLNODDING THE HEAD            YES/NOPATT...
 C) Regulators – they control oral  communication by alerting the sender  to the need of hurry up, slow down or  repeat s...
4. Body posture The body posture and position  conveys a variety of messages “Hold your head high” – a sign of  honour, ...
5. APPEARANCE It includes clothing, hair, jewellery,  cosmetics A dress speaks about a person‟s  attitude towards life, ...
PROXEMICS OR SPACELANGUAGE It is the study of how we communicate  with the space around us Proxemics is made from “Proxe...
EDWARD T.HALL – types ofspace1.FEATURE FIXED SPACE – it refers  to buildings and other fairly  permanent structures, such ...
2. SEMI FIXED FEATURE SPACE – the  arrangement of moveable objects,  such as desk and chairsThe quality of furniture has c...
3 PERSONAL SPACE – physical  distance between us and other people  tells us about our relation and nature  of communicatio...
COLOURS Different colours are associated with  different behaviour patterns, attitudes  and cultural backgrounds People ...
LAYOUT AND DESIGN Much attention is paid to layout of  conference room, reception and  working area in an office The spa...
TIME LANGUAGE Type of communication wherein we  communicate with others in terms of  time by showing them in our own  cul...
CHROMATICS   The way we use and structure time    can send intentional and unintentional    messages about what we value ...
PARA LANGUAGE It is defined as the type of non verbal  communication that includes  articulation, rate, pitch, volume,  p...
1. VOICE Voice tells us about the background,  education and temperament of a  person. It is very important for every in...
PITCH VARIATION The property of sound that varies with  variation in the frequency of vibration A high pitch indicates n...
SPEAKING SPEED As a general rule, we should present  the easy parts of a message in a brisk  pace, and difficult, complic...
PAUSE   The pace or speed of speaking is also    accompanied by a pause   We cannot and we should not go on    speaking ...
NONFLUENCIES Speech is not always a continuous  string of meaningful words. It is  normally scattered with intervals whic...
VOLUME VARIATION Volume is quality of voice that  frequently conveys meaning of our  conversation The loudness of our vo...
LOUDNESS       SOFTNESSANGER          AFFECTIONCHEERFULNESS   BOREDOMJOY            SADNESSHIGH STATUS    LOW STATUSFEARLE...
PRONUNCIATION   The manner in which someone utters    a word
2. WORD STRESS   By placing stress or emphasis on a    word or part of sentence, the entire    meaning is changed
SIGN LANGUAGE Communication is a process involving  the use of mutually understood signs  and symbols between the sender ...
1. VISUAL SIGNS “A picture is worth a thousand words” Visual signs are a universal language  understood by anybody anywh...
2. AUDIO/SOUND SIGNALS BUZZER HORN ALARM BELL FIRE ALARMS
3. TOUCH Intimate Touch – between a child and  mother to show love and affection Friendly Touch – between friends to  sh...
Business communication
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Business communication

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Business Communication - meaning, process and types. Detail description of Non Verbal Communication

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Business communication

  1. 1. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION
  2. 2. PROCESS OFCOMMMUNICATION Communication is a two way process in which there is an exchange of ideas towards a mutually acceptable goal. The process of communication involves two or more persons participating through a medium that carries the information for a particular purpose which is mutually understood by both sender and receiver.
  3. 3. ELEMENTS OF THECOMMUNICATION PROCESS Sender / speaker/ Encoder Receiver / Listener / Decoder Message Medium Feedback
  4. 4. SENDER The person who initiates the communication process He from his personal data bank selects ideas, encodes it and finally transmits it to the receiver through a medium The sender must communicate in a way that is in accordance with the expectations of the receiver
  5. 5. RECEIVER A receiver is the targeted audience of the message. Receiver gets the message, understands it, interprets and tries to perceive the total meaning of the message as transmitted by the sender. He receives the encoded message and decodes it.
  6. 6. MESSAGE It is the information written or spoken, which is to be sent from one person to another. The message should be organized, structured, shaped and selective It is the most important element of communication
  7. 7. MEDIUM/CHANNEL It is the vehicle which facilitates the sender to convey the message to the receiver Each medium has its own rules and regulations Prior to the composition of message, the medium/channel should be decided
  8. 8. FEEDBACK It is a loop that connects the receiver to sender It ensures that that receiver has received the message and understood it as intended by the sender. Effective communication takes place only when there is a feedback
  9. 9. PROCESSSENDER FEED BACK RECEIVER ENCODIN G DECODIN MESSAGE G CHANNEL
  10. 10. ENCODING It is changing the message from its mental form into symbols i.e. patterns of words, gestures or signs of a specific language
  11. 11. DECODING It is the act of translating symbols in communication into their ordinary interpretation. It also includes understanding of words, tone of speaker and choice of words used by him
  12. 12. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE OFCOMMUNICATION To inform To persuade To educate To train To motivate To integrate To relate To entertain
  13. 13. FUNCTIONS OFCOMMUNICATION Information sharing To provide Feedback Influence Problem solving Assists in Decision making Group Building To give Job Instructions Emotive function Ensuring effectiveness of policies
  14. 14. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION INMANAGEMENT PLANNING CONTROLING ORGANISING DIRECTING STAFFING
  15. 15. TYPES OFCOMMUNICATIONORGANISATIONAL DIRECTION OF EXPRESSION STRUCTURE COMMUNICATION VERBAL FORMAL UPWARD • ORAL • WRITTEN INFORMAL DOWNWARD NON-VERBAL LATERAL DIAGONAL INWARD OUTWARD
  16. 16. FORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication that is formally controlled by managers or people occupying positions in an organization It is officially recognized positions along the line in the organization The efficiency of an organization depends on regular flow of messages which need to be organized into a well ordered network to ensure that communication flows easily and executives are well informed
  17. 17. ORGANIZATIONALSTRUCTURE BOARD OF DIRECTORS MANAGING DIRECTOR TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT SENIOR SUPERVISORS FIRST LINE SUPERVISORS EMPLOYEES
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES OF FC1. Helps in maintaining the authority structure of the org.2. Better cooperation and coordination among employees3. Overlapping of communication does not occur4. It is trustworthy5. Helps in maintaining protocol and respect of organisation structure6. Follow up and compliance becomes easy
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES OF FC1. Free from biasness2. Minimal chance of information leakage3. Away from gossipEXAMPLESMemos, Circular, Notice, Policies, Reports, Feedback
  20. 20. DISADVANTAGES Time consuming Does not allow social and emotional bonds to be created Stands in between free flow of information between organizational levels
  21. 21. INFORMAL COMMUNICATION The communication which flows around water coolers, down hallways, through lunch rooms and wherever people get together in groups The communication which is required to fulfill the social need of human being i.e. sharing one‟s emotions, feelings..
  22. 22. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FORGRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION Feeling of uncertainty or lack of sense of direction Lack of self confidence Feeling of insecurity or isolation when your group is changed Some unusual happening in the organization Personal problems of the employees
  23. 23. TYPES OF GRAPEVINECHAINS Single Strand- A to B, B to C…… Gossip - A to many people together Probability – Telling randomly to anyone Cluster – A to many, many to many
  24. 24. ADVANTAGES Speedy transmission Immediate Feedback Support to other channels Psychological satisfaction Uniting force Creation of ideas Good personal relations
  25. 25. DISADVANTAGES Can not be taken seriously Do not carry complete information Distorts information Hampers production Chances of misinterpretation Lack of accountability
  26. 26. HOW TO REDUCE GRAPEVINEIN ORGANISATION Keep the employees well informed about policies, plans and prospects Fruitful group activities that enhance self worth and update knowledge should be held frequently Managers should have open door policy Create healthy environment where there is a room for personal talk Involve employees in decision making
  27. 27. HOW TO REDUCE GRAPEVINEIN ORGANISATION Rumours should not be encouraged Managers should listen the problem of employees empathetically
  28. 28. COMMUNICATION BASED ONDIRECTION DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION ◦ Communication that flows from top to bottom ◦ It means flowing through the hierarchical system ◦ This type of communication exists in organization where there is authority structure
  29. 29. HIERARCHY CEO BUSINESS BUSINESS HEAD HEAD EXECUTIVE1 EXECUTIVE2 EXECUTIVE3
  30. 30. TYPES OF DOWNWARDCOMMUNICATION • INSTRUCTIONS • MEMORANDA • NOTICEWRITTEN • • POLICY STATEMENTS MANUALS/HANDBOOKS • INSTRUCTIONS • SPEECHES • MEETINGS ORAL • TELEPHONE CALL
  31. 31. UPWARD COMMUNICATION Communication that flows from bottom to top i.e. from lower hierarchical level to higher level. It is mainly used to tell superiors what is happening at the lower levels It can flourish only in democratic organisations Example feedback, suggestions, complaints, reports
  32. 32. OMBUDPERSON/OMBUDSMAN Acts like a liaison between the top management and employees Promotes upward communication by discussing the concerns of employees with the management It promotes valuable upward communication link and prevents scandals and legal costs by timely action on part of appropriate person
  33. 33. LATERAL/HORIZONTALCOMMUNICATION MARKETING MANAGER PRODUCTION MANAGER
  34. 34. LATERAL/HORIZONTALCOMMUNICATION Communication that takes place between 2 or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person i.e. working at same level
  35. 35. DIAGONAL/CROSSWISE It includes flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships It is used to speed up information flow, improve understanding and co- ordinate efforts for achievement of organizational objectives
  36. 36. DIAGONAL/CROSSWISE MARKETING PRODUCTION MANAGER MANAGER MARKETING PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR SUPERVISOR
  37. 37. INWARD COMMUNICATION Includes all the information received by the organisation from external agencies like government, other organisations, suppliers, customers, competitors, media or shareholders It can be ◦ Letters ◦ Emails ◦ Offers ◦ Orders ◦ Complaints ◦ Notice ◦ Suggestions ◦ Requests
  38. 38. OUTWARD COMMUNICATION Communication which the organisation maintains with the outside world. It is a difficult task as interaction takes place between a large number of people belonging to various disciplines, with different personalities and expectations. This communication creates the image of a company in eyes of outside world
  39. 39. FORMS OF OUTWARDCOMMUNICATION ◦ ADVERTISEMENTS ◦ MEDIA INTERACTION (PRESS NOTES, CONFERENCE) ◦ NEGOTIATIONS ◦ MAILS ◦ TENDERS ◦ TELEPHONE CALLS ◦ LETTERS
  40. 40. ORAL COMMUNICATION Anything that emanates from the mouth is referred to as oral communication The words used and the manner in which these words are pronounced forms the major component of oral Supervisors – 25% communication Executives – 65- 75% Top Management – 90%
  41. 41. FEAURES Instantaneous two way process One off exercise Day to day language Presence of sender and receiver Principles – Accuracy, Clarity, Brevity Effect of body language and speech modulation It cannot be erased or mended
  42. 42. METHODS OF ORALCOMMUNICATIONA. AMONG INDIVIDUALS • Face to face conversation • Interviews • Telephonic conversation • Grapevine
  43. 43. METHODS OF ORALCOMMUNICATIONB. AMONG GROUPS ◦ Negotiations • Lecture • Speech • Meetings • Conference • Workshops
  44. 44. ORAL COMMUNICATIONSKILLSA manager should be able to converse or discuss persuasively, effectively and convincingly. Thus he must have following oral communication skills Help in problem solving Resolve conflict Influence people to work together Be assertive without being aggressive Develop listening skills Be an effective negotiator
  45. 45. ADVANTAGES Immediate feedback Better relationship Time saving Effective tool of persuasion Effective tool of group communication Economical Allows to measure effectiveness immediately It is the only way out during an emergency
  46. 46. DISADVANTAGES Lack of retention/documentation Distortion in passing the message No legal validity Possibility of misunderstanding Unsuitable for long messages Difficulty in assigning responsibility It is constrained by physical barriers Not effective when target group is spread out
  47. 47. TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORALCOMMUNICATION Be confident Use simple language and familiar words Be brief and precise Avoid use of slang words Be sensitive and courteous to the listener Don‟t be repetitive Hear the other person too Maintain eye contact Exhibit positive gestures and body language
  48. 48. WRITTENCOMMUNICATION Communication that can be expressed in written words of any language Most businesses rely on records and written documents, rather than on verbal contracts and oral commitments It reaches out across vast geographical areas and target readers around the world
  49. 49. METHODS OF WRITTENCOMMUNICATION Letters Manuals Reports Memorandum Handbook Email Notices Agenda Complaints Circulars Minutes Forms
  50. 50. CHARACTERISTICS OFWRITTEN COMMUNICATION Most formal type of communication Used for documentation Used for circulation of information Conventional by nature Presence of sender and receiver is not necessary at the same time A creative activity It has few cycles Time factor
  51. 51. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTENCOMMUNICATION Ready reference Legal defense Promotes uniformity Mass access Suitable for distance communication Image building Accurate and unambiguous Permanent in nature Permits substitution and revision
  52. 52. DISADVANTAGES OFWRITTEN COMMUNICATION Limited to literate world Time consuming Lot of paper work Needs expertise in expression Lack of immediate feedback Costly More man hours needed No immediate feedback or clarification
  53. 53. NON VERBALCOMMUNICATION Communication which does not involve use of words, neither spoken nor written It is the wordless message received through the medium of gestures, signs, body movements, facial expressions, tone of voice, colour, time, space…
  54. 54. CHARACTERISTICS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Instinctive – indicates the attitude, feelings of the speaker Less conscious – less deliberate Subtle – difficult to understand Complimentary to verbal communication Forms the larger part of the overall communication activity
  55. 55. Classification of NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION PROXEMICS (SPACE TIME LANGUAGE PARA LANGUAGE SIGN LANGUAGE LANGUAGE)KINESICS (BODY LANGUAGE) VOICE FEATURE FIXED • PITCH VARIATION • SPEAKING SPEED VISUAL SIGNS SPACE FACIAL • PAUSE EXPRESSIONS • NONFLUENCIES • VOLUME VARIATION • PRONUNCIATION SEMI FIXED AUDIO/SOUND SPACE SIGNALS EYE CONTACT PERSONAL SPACE TOUCH GESTURES SURROUNDINGS • COLOUR • LAYOUT AND DESIGN BODY POSTURES WORD STRESS APPEARANCE
  56. 56. KINESICS Kinesics means body movements. Body language is a reflection of thoughts and feelings By nodding our head, blinking eyes, waving hands; we send out signals and messages which are louder than words. Our body consciously and unconsciously carries messages, attitudes and moods indicating warmth, indifference positive and
  57. 57. 1. Facial expressions “The face is the index of heart” Whatever we feel deep within ourselves is at once reflected in our face making facial expressions an integral part of communication. The face and eyes are the most expressive means of body communication.
  58. 58. DALE LEATHER‟S FacialExpressions HAPPINESS BEWILDERMENT/ CONFUSION SADNESS CONTEMPT FEAR DISGUST ANGER INTEREST SURPRISE DETERMINATION
  59. 59. 2. Eye Contact Eye contact is one of the most powerful forms of non verbal communication When we look at somebody‟s face, we primarily focus on his eyes and try to understand what he means. The eyes along with eyebrows, eyelids and size of pupils convey our innermost feelings
  60. 60. HOW AN EYE COMMUNICATES It shows emotions and establishes conversational regulators Monitors feedback Serves as a reminder It creates discomfort or anxiety Depicts confidence level
  61. 61. 3. GESTURES Physical movement of arms, legs, hands, torso and head that help one to express thoughts and emphasize one‟s speech is called GESTURES
  62. 62. a) EMBLEMSEMBLEM MEANINGPATTING THE STOMACH HUNGRY/FULLNODDING THE HEAD YES/NOPATTING THE ADJACENT SEAT SIT BESIDE MEYAWNING BORED/SLEEPYPLACING FINGER ON LIPS BE SILENTSCRATCHING HEAD FRUSTRATION/CONFUSEDWAVING HELLO/BYEB) Illustrators – it illustrates thewords which a speaker is saying
  63. 63.  C) Regulators – they control oral communication by alerting the sender to the need of hurry up, slow down or repeat something D) Displays – indicate emotional states such as anger and fear. People have less control over them. Eg. Face turning red E) Adaptors – gestures of which people are not aware while performing. Eg yawning, crying
  64. 64. 4. Body posture The body posture and position conveys a variety of messages “Hold your head high” – a sign of honour, self respect, confidence Posture depicts the interest in another person
  65. 65. 5. APPEARANCE It includes clothing, hair, jewellery, cosmetics A dress speaks about a person‟s attitude towards life, work, colleagues and his own feelings Choice of shoes, hair style also convey meaning in a non verbal form.
  66. 66. PROXEMICS OR SPACELANGUAGE It is the study of how we communicate with the space around us Proxemics is made from “Proxemity” which means nearness How close or far people stand in relation to each other, or sit in a room, or how the office furniture is arranged conveys a lot of things.
  67. 67. EDWARD T.HALL – types ofspace1.FEATURE FIXED SPACE – it refers to buildings and other fairly permanent structures, such as walls.The manner in which buildings are laid out and the sequence of rooms and offices have a considerable influence on communication.Evidence reveals that bigger the fixed place, higher will be the status of individuals in organization.
  68. 68. 2. SEMI FIXED FEATURE SPACE – the arrangement of moveable objects, such as desk and chairsThe quality of furniture has considerable influence on the status of the individuals
  69. 69. 3 PERSONAL SPACE – physical distance between us and other people tells us about our relation and nature of communication with them. It can be divided into 4 circles:a) Intimate Zone – up to 18 inchesb) Personal Zone – 18 inches to 4 feetc) Social Zone – 4 to 12 feetd) Public Zone – 12 feet to as far as we can see and hear
  70. 70. COLOURS Different colours are associated with different behaviour patterns, attitudes and cultural backgrounds People make serious efforts to choose the right colour for any significant moment. An indifference to choice of colour is regarded as lack of sophistication
  71. 71. LAYOUT AND DESIGN Much attention is paid to layout of conference room, reception and working area in an office The space arrangement, architecture, carpeting, design convey a meaning
  72. 72. TIME LANGUAGE Type of communication wherein we communicate with others in terms of time by showing them in our own cultural way, what time means to us. “Time is Money” While people in the West are time conscious, attaching the highest importance to punctuality, people in the East have a more relaxed attitude towards time .
  73. 73. CHROMATICS The way we use and structure time can send intentional and unintentional messages about what we value and whom we consider to be important.
  74. 74. PARA LANGUAGE It is defined as the type of non verbal communication that includes articulation, rate, pitch, volume, pauses and other vocal qualities. Verbal communication consists of “what” or the contents whereas para language involves “how” of a speaker‟s voice or the way in which he speaks.
  75. 75. 1. VOICE Voice tells us about the background, education and temperament of a person. It is very important for every individual to have a clear and pleasant voice for communication. SPEAKING PITCH VARIATION PAUSE SPEED VOLUME NONFLUENCIES PRONUNCIATION VARIATION
  76. 76. PITCH VARIATION The property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration A high pitch indicates nervousness, anxiety, tension, fear, anger or joy A low pitch shows affection, sadness, boredom or empathy
  77. 77. SPEAKING SPEED As a general rule, we should present the easy parts of a message in a brisk pace, and difficult, complicated information at a slower pace At the time of emergency, anxiety and impatience; one tends to increase the speaking speed Decrease in speaking rate can indicate shyness or thoughtfulness
  78. 78. PAUSE The pace or speed of speaking is also accompanied by a pause We cannot and we should not go on speaking without pausing voluntarily and involuntarily A pause can be highly effective in emphasizing the upcoming subjects and in gaining listener‟s attention Too much pauses can distract the listener A speaker must ensure right use of
  79. 79. NONFLUENCIES Speech is not always a continuous string of meaningful words. It is normally scattered with intervals which may be inserted with sounds like „ah‟, „oh‟ ,‟um‟, „you know‟, „like‟ etc It may also include laughing and chuckling They are mainly used to break the monotonous part of the speech
  80. 80. VOLUME VARIATION Volume is quality of voice that frequently conveys meaning of our conversation The loudness of our voice should be adjusted according to the size of audience Voice volume tends to vary with emotional and personality characteristics of speaker
  81. 81. LOUDNESS SOFTNESSANGER AFFECTIONCHEERFULNESS BOREDOMJOY SADNESSHIGH STATUS LOW STATUSFEARLESSNESS FEARSTRENGTH EMPATHY
  82. 82. PRONUNCIATION The manner in which someone utters a word
  83. 83. 2. WORD STRESS By placing stress or emphasis on a word or part of sentence, the entire meaning is changed
  84. 84. SIGN LANGUAGE Communication is a process involving the use of mutually understood signs and symbols between the sender and receiver of a message The signs are of two types; visual and audio signs Smell, touch and taste also communicate because sensory perception and impressions are a necessary part of human existence
  85. 85. 1. VISUAL SIGNS “A picture is worth a thousand words” Visual signs are a universal language understood by anybody anywhere MAPS AND PAINTINGS POSTERS DIAGRAMS LIGHTS FLAGS
  86. 86. 2. AUDIO/SOUND SIGNALS BUZZER HORN ALARM BELL FIRE ALARMS
  87. 87. 3. TOUCH Intimate Touch – between a child and mother to show love and affection Friendly Touch – between friends to show warmth and friendly attitude Professional Touch – doctor and patient Social Touch – handshaking, blessing the youngers, patting one‟s back

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