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Business communication

Avi Anand
Avi Anand

Business Communication - meaning, process and types. Detail description of Non Verbal Communication

1 of 88
BUSINESS
COMMUNICATION
PROCESS OF
COMMMUNICATION
 Communication is a two way process
  in which there is an exchange of ideas
  towards a mutually acceptable goal.
 The process of communication
  involves two or more persons
  participating through a medium that
  carries the information for a particular
  purpose which is mutually understood
  by both sender and receiver.
ELEMENTS OF THE
COMMUNICATION PROCESS
 Sender / speaker/ Encoder
 Receiver / Listener / Decoder
 Message
 Medium
 Feedback
SENDER
 The person who initiates the
  communication process
 He from his personal data bank
  selects ideas, encodes it and finally
  transmits it to the receiver through a
  medium
 The sender must communicate in a
  way that is in accordance with the
  expectations of the receiver
RECEIVER
 A receiver is the targeted audience of
  the message.
 Receiver gets the message,
  understands it, interprets and tries to
  perceive the total meaning of the
  message as transmitted by the
  sender.
 He receives the encoded message
  and decodes it.
MESSAGE
 It is the information written or spoken,
  which is to be sent from one person to
  another.
 The message should be organized,
  structured, shaped and selective
 It is the most important element of
  communication

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Business communication

  • 2. PROCESS OF COMMMUNICATION  Communication is a two way process in which there is an exchange of ideas towards a mutually acceptable goal.  The process of communication involves two or more persons participating through a medium that carries the information for a particular purpose which is mutually understood by both sender and receiver.
  • 3. ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS  Sender / speaker/ Encoder  Receiver / Listener / Decoder  Message  Medium  Feedback
  • 4. SENDER  The person who initiates the communication process  He from his personal data bank selects ideas, encodes it and finally transmits it to the receiver through a medium  The sender must communicate in a way that is in accordance with the expectations of the receiver
  • 5. RECEIVER  A receiver is the targeted audience of the message.  Receiver gets the message, understands it, interprets and tries to perceive the total meaning of the message as transmitted by the sender.  He receives the encoded message and decodes it.
  • 6. MESSAGE  It is the information written or spoken, which is to be sent from one person to another.  The message should be organized, structured, shaped and selective  It is the most important element of communication
  • 7. MEDIUM/CHANNEL  It is the vehicle which facilitates the sender to convey the message to the receiver  Each medium has its own rules and regulations  Prior to the composition of message, the medium/channel should be decided
  • 8. FEEDBACK  It is a loop that connects the receiver to sender  It ensures that that receiver has received the message and understood it as intended by the sender.  Effective communication takes place only when there is a feedback
  • 9. PROCESS SENDER FEED BACK RECEIVER ENCODIN G DECODIN MESSAGE G CHANNEL
  • 10. ENCODING  It is changing the message from its mental form into symbols i.e. patterns of words, gestures or signs of a specific language
  • 11. DECODING  It is the act of translating symbols in communication into their ordinary interpretation.  It also includes understanding of words, tone of speaker and choice of words used by him
  • 12. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION  To inform  To persuade  To educate  To train  To motivate  To integrate  To relate  To entertain
  • 13. FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION  Information sharing  To provide Feedback  Influence  Problem solving  Assists in Decision making  Group Building  To give Job Instructions  Emotive function  Ensuring effectiveness of policies
  • 14. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN MANAGEMENT PLANNING CONTROLING ORGANISING DIRECTING STAFFING
  • 15. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION ORGANISATIONAL DIRECTION OF EXPRESSION STRUCTURE COMMUNICATION VERBAL FORMAL UPWARD • ORAL • WRITTEN INFORMAL DOWNWARD NON-VERBAL LATERAL DIAGONAL INWARD OUTWARD
  • 16. FORMAL COMMUNICATION  Communication that is formally controlled by managers or people occupying positions in an organization  It is officially recognized positions along the line in the organization  The efficiency of an organization depends on regular flow of messages which need to be organized into a well ordered network to ensure that communication flows easily and executives are well informed
  • 17. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE BOARD OF DIRECTORS MANAGING DIRECTOR TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT SENIOR SUPERVISORS FIRST LINE SUPERVISORS EMPLOYEES
  • 18. ADVANTAGES OF FC 1. Helps in maintaining the authority structure of the org. 2. Better cooperation and coordination among employees 3. Overlapping of communication does not occur 4. It is trustworthy 5. Helps in maintaining protocol and respect of organisation structure 6. Follow up and compliance becomes easy
  • 19. ADVANTAGES OF FC 1. Free from biasness 2. Minimal chance of information leakage 3. Away from gossip EXAMPLES Memos, Circular, Notice, Policies, Reports, Feedback
  • 20. DISADVANTAGES  Time consuming  Does not allow social and emotional bonds to be created  Stands in between free flow of information between organizational levels
  • 21. INFORMAL COMMUNICATION  The communication which flows around water coolers, down hallways, through lunch rooms and wherever people get together in groups  The communication which is required to fulfill the social need of human being i.e. sharing one‟s emotions, feelings..
  • 22. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION  Feeling of uncertainty or lack of sense of direction  Lack of self confidence  Feeling of insecurity or isolation when your group is changed  Some unusual happening in the organization  Personal problems of the employees
  • 23. TYPES OF GRAPEVINE CHAINS  Single Strand- A to B, B to C……  Gossip - A to many people together  Probability – Telling randomly to anyone  Cluster – A to many, many to many
  • 24. ADVANTAGES  Speedy transmission  Immediate Feedback  Support to other channels  Psychological satisfaction  Uniting force  Creation of ideas  Good personal relations
  • 25. DISADVANTAGES  Can not be taken seriously  Do not carry complete information  Distorts information  Hampers production  Chances of misinterpretation  Lack of accountability
  • 26. HOW TO REDUCE GRAPEVINE IN ORGANISATION  Keep the employees well informed about policies, plans and prospects  Fruitful group activities that enhance self worth and update knowledge should be held frequently  Managers should have open door policy  Create healthy environment where there is a room for personal talk  Involve employees in decision making
  • 27. HOW TO REDUCE GRAPEVINE IN ORGANISATION  Rumours should not be encouraged  Managers should listen the problem of employees empathetically
  • 28. COMMUNICATION BASED ON DIRECTION  DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION ◦ Communication that flows from top to bottom ◦ It means flowing through the hierarchical system ◦ This type of communication exists in organization where there is authority structure
  • 29. HIERARCHY CEO BUSINESS BUSINESS HEAD HEAD EXECUTIVE1 EXECUTIVE2 EXECUTIVE3
  • 30. TYPES OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION • INSTRUCTIONS • MEMORANDA • NOTICE WRITTEN • • POLICY STATEMENTS MANUALS/HANDBOOKS • INSTRUCTIONS • SPEECHES • MEETINGS ORAL • TELEPHONE CALL
  • 31. UPWARD COMMUNICATION  Communication that flows from bottom to top i.e. from lower hierarchical level to higher level.  It is mainly used to tell superiors what is happening at the lower levels  It can flourish only in democratic organisations  Example feedback, suggestions, complaints, reports
  • 32. OMBUDPERSON/OMBUDSMA N  Acts like a liaison between the top management and employees  Promotes upward communication by discussing the concerns of employees with the management  It promotes valuable upward communication link and prevents scandals and legal costs by timely action on part of appropriate person
  • 33. LATERAL/HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION MARKETING MANAGER PRODUCTION MANAGER
  • 34. LATERAL/HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION  Communication that takes place between 2 or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person i.e. working at same level
  • 35. DIAGONAL/CROSSWISE  It includes flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships  It is used to speed up information flow, improve understanding and co- ordinate efforts for achievement of organizational objectives
  • 36. DIAGONAL/CROSSWISE MARKETING PRODUCTION MANAGER MANAGER MARKETING PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR SUPERVISOR
  • 37. INWARD COMMUNICATION  Includes all the information received by the organisation from external agencies like government, other organisations, suppliers, customers, competitors, media or shareholders  It can be ◦ Letters ◦ Emails ◦ Offers ◦ Orders ◦ Complaints ◦ Notice ◦ Suggestions ◦ Requests
  • 38. OUTWARD COMMUNICATION  Communication which the organisation maintains with the outside world.  It is a difficult task as interaction takes place between a large number of people belonging to various disciplines, with different personalities and expectations.  This communication creates the image of a company in eyes of outside world
  • 39. FORMS OF OUTWARD COMMUNICATION ◦ ADVERTISEMENTS ◦ MEDIA INTERACTION (PRESS NOTES, CONFERENCE) ◦ NEGOTIATIONS ◦ MAILS ◦ TENDERS ◦ TELEPHONE CALLS ◦ LETTERS
  • 40. ORAL COMMUNICATION  Anything that emanates from the mouth is referred to as oral communication  The words used and the manner in which these words are pronounced forms the major component of oral Supervisors – 25% communication Executives – 65- 75% Top Management – 90%
  • 41. FEAURES  Instantaneous two way process  One off exercise  Day to day language  Presence of sender and receiver  Principles – Accuracy, Clarity, Brevity  Effect of body language and speech modulation  It cannot be erased or mended
  • 42. METHODS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION A. AMONG INDIVIDUALS • Face to face conversation • Interviews • Telephonic conversation • Grapevine
  • 43. METHODS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION B. AMONG GROUPS ◦ Negotiations • Lecture • Speech • Meetings • Conference • Workshops
  • 44. ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS A manager should be able to converse or discuss persuasively, effectively and convincingly. Thus he must have following oral communication skills  Help in problem solving  Resolve conflict  Influence people to work together  Be assertive without being aggressive  Develop listening skills  Be an effective negotiator
  • 45. ADVANTAGES  Immediate feedback  Better relationship  Time saving  Effective tool of persuasion  Effective tool of group communication  Economical  Allows to measure effectiveness immediately  It is the only way out during an emergency
  • 46. DISADVANTAGES  Lack of retention/documentation  Distortion in passing the message  No legal validity  Possibility of misunderstanding  Unsuitable for long messages  Difficulty in assigning responsibility  It is constrained by physical barriers  Not effective when target group is spread out
  • 47. TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION  Be confident  Use simple language and familiar words  Be brief and precise  Avoid use of slang words  Be sensitive and courteous to the listener  Don‟t be repetitive  Hear the other person too  Maintain eye contact  Exhibit positive gestures and body language
  • 48. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION  Communication that can be expressed in written words of any language  Most businesses rely on records and written documents, rather than on verbal contracts and oral commitments  It reaches out across vast geographical areas and target readers around the world
  • 49. METHODS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Letters Manuals Reports Memorandum Handbook Email Notices Agenda Complaints Circulars Minutes Forms
  • 50. CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION  Most formal type of communication  Used for documentation  Used for circulation of information  Conventional by nature  Presence of sender and receiver is not necessary at the same time  A creative activity  It has few cycles  Time factor
  • 51. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION  Ready reference  Legal defense  Promotes uniformity  Mass access  Suitable for distance communication  Image building  Accurate and unambiguous  Permanent in nature  Permits substitution and revision
  • 52. DISADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION  Limited to literate world  Time consuming  Lot of paper work  Needs expertise in expression  Lack of immediate feedback  Costly  More man hours needed  No immediate feedback or clarification
  • 53. NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION  Communication which does not involve use of words, neither spoken nor written  It is the wordless message received through the medium of gestures, signs, body movements, facial expressions, tone of voice, colour, time, space…
  • 54. CHARACTERISTICS OF NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION  Instinctive – indicates the attitude, feelings of the speaker  Less conscious – less deliberate  Subtle – difficult to understand  Complimentary to verbal communication  Forms the larger part of the overall communication activity
  • 55. Classification of NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION PROXEMICS (SPACE TIME LANGUAGE PARA LANGUAGE SIGN LANGUAGE LANGUAGE) KINESICS (BODY LANGUAGE) VOICE FEATURE FIXED • PITCH VARIATION • SPEAKING SPEED VISUAL SIGNS SPACE FACIAL • PAUSE EXPRESSIONS • NONFLUENCIES • VOLUME VARIATION • PRONUNCIATION SEMI FIXED AUDIO/SOUND SPACE SIGNALS EYE CONTACT PERSONAL SPACE TOUCH GESTURES SURROUNDINGS • COLOUR • LAYOUT AND DESIGN BODY POSTURES WORD STRESS APPEARANCE
  • 56. KINESICS  Kinesics means body movements.  Body language is a reflection of thoughts and feelings  By nodding our head, blinking eyes, waving hands; we send out signals and messages which are louder than words.  Our body consciously and unconsciously carries messages, attitudes and moods indicating warmth, indifference positive and
  • 57. 1. Facial expressions  “The face is the index of heart”  Whatever we feel deep within ourselves is at once reflected in our face making facial expressions an integral part of communication.  The face and eyes are the most expressive means of body communication.
  • 59. DALE LEATHER‟S Facial Expressions HAPPINESS BEWILDERMENT/ CONFUSION SADNESS CONTEMPT FEAR DISGUST ANGER INTEREST SURPRISE DETERMINATION
  • 60. 2. Eye Contact  Eye contact is one of the most powerful forms of non verbal communication  When we look at somebody‟s face, we primarily focus on his eyes and try to understand what he means.  The eyes along with eyebrows, eyelids and size of pupils convey our innermost feelings
  • 61. HOW AN EYE COMMUNICATES  It shows emotions and establishes conversational regulators  Monitors feedback  Serves as a reminder  It creates discomfort or anxiety  Depicts confidence level
  • 62. 3. GESTURES  Physical movement of arms, legs, hands, torso and head that help one to express thoughts and emphasize one‟s speech is called GESTURES
  • 63. a) EMBLEMS EMBLEM MEANING PATTING THE STOMACH HUNGRY/FULL NODDING THE HEAD YES/NO PATTING THE ADJACENT SEAT SIT BESIDE ME YAWNING BORED/SLEEPY PLACING FINGER ON LIPS BE SILENT SCRATCHING HEAD FRUSTRATION/CONFUSED WAVING HELLO/BYE B) Illustrators – it illustrates the words which a speaker is saying
  • 64.  C) Regulators – they control oral communication by alerting the sender to the need of hurry up, slow down or repeat something  D) Displays – indicate emotional states such as anger and fear. People have less control over them. Eg. Face turning red  E) Adaptors – gestures of which people are not aware while performing. Eg yawning, crying
  • 65. 4. Body posture  The body posture and position conveys a variety of messages  “Hold your head high” – a sign of honour, self respect, confidence  Posture depicts the interest in another person
  • 66. 5. APPEARANCE  It includes clothing, hair, jewellery, cosmetics  A dress speaks about a person‟s attitude towards life, work, colleagues and his own feelings  Choice of shoes, hair style also convey meaning in a non verbal form.
  • 67. PROXEMICS OR SPACE LANGUAGE  It is the study of how we communicate with the space around us  Proxemics is made from “Proxemity” which means nearness  How close or far people stand in relation to each other, or sit in a room, or how the office furniture is arranged conveys a lot of things.
  • 68. EDWARD T.HALL – types of space 1.FEATURE FIXED SPACE – it refers to buildings and other fairly permanent structures, such as walls. The manner in which buildings are laid out and the sequence of rooms and offices have a considerable influence on communication. Evidence reveals that bigger the fixed place, higher will be the status of individuals in organization.
  • 69. 2. SEMI FIXED FEATURE SPACE – the arrangement of moveable objects, such as desk and chairs The quality of furniture has considerable influence on the status of the individuals
  • 70. 3 PERSONAL SPACE – physical distance between us and other people tells us about our relation and nature of communication with them. It can be divided into 4 circles: a) Intimate Zone – up to 18 inches b) Personal Zone – 18 inches to 4 feet c) Social Zone – 4 to 12 feet d) Public Zone – 12 feet to as far as we can see and hear
  • 71. COLOURS  Different colours are associated with different behaviour patterns, attitudes and cultural backgrounds  People make serious efforts to choose the right colour for any significant moment.  An indifference to choice of colour is regarded as lack of sophistication
  • 72. LAYOUT AND DESIGN  Much attention is paid to layout of conference room, reception and working area in an office  The space arrangement, architecture, carpeting, design convey a meaning
  • 73. TIME LANGUAGE  Type of communication wherein we communicate with others in terms of time by showing them in our own cultural way, what time means to us.  “Time is Money”  While people in the West are time conscious, attaching the highest importance to punctuality, people in the East have a more relaxed attitude towards time .
  • 74. CHROMATICS  The way we use and structure time can send intentional and unintentional messages about what we value and whom we consider to be important.
  • 75. PARA LANGUAGE  It is defined as the type of non verbal communication that includes articulation, rate, pitch, volume, pauses and other vocal qualities.  Verbal communication consists of “what” or the contents whereas para language involves “how” of a speaker‟s voice or the way in which he speaks.
  • 76. 1. VOICE  Voice tells us about the background, education and temperament of a person.  It is very important for every individual to have a clear and pleasant voice for communication. SPEAKING PITCH VARIATION PAUSE SPEED VOLUME NONFLUENCIES PRONUNCIATION VARIATION
  • 77. PITCH VARIATION  The property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration  A high pitch indicates nervousness, anxiety, tension, fear, anger or joy  A low pitch shows affection, sadness, boredom or empathy
  • 78. SPEAKING SPEED  As a general rule, we should present the easy parts of a message in a brisk pace, and difficult, complicated information at a slower pace  At the time of emergency, anxiety and impatience; one tends to increase the speaking speed  Decrease in speaking rate can indicate shyness or thoughtfulness
  • 79. PAUSE  The pace or speed of speaking is also accompanied by a pause  We cannot and we should not go on speaking without pausing voluntarily and involuntarily  A pause can be highly effective in emphasizing the upcoming subjects and in gaining listener‟s attention  Too much pauses can distract the listener  A speaker must ensure right use of
  • 80. NONFLUENCIES  Speech is not always a continuous string of meaningful words. It is normally scattered with intervals which may be inserted with sounds like „ah‟, „oh‟ ,‟um‟, „you know‟, „like‟ etc  It may also include laughing and chuckling  They are mainly used to break the monotonous part of the speech
  • 81. VOLUME VARIATION  Volume is quality of voice that frequently conveys meaning of our conversation  The loudness of our voice should be adjusted according to the size of audience  Voice volume tends to vary with emotional and personality characteristics of speaker
  • 82. LOUDNESS SOFTNESS ANGER AFFECTION CHEERFULNESS BOREDOM JOY SADNESS HIGH STATUS LOW STATUS FEARLESSNESS FEAR STRENGTH EMPATHY
  • 83. PRONUNCIATION  The manner in which someone utters a word
  • 84. 2. WORD STRESS  By placing stress or emphasis on a word or part of sentence, the entire meaning is changed
  • 85. SIGN LANGUAGE  Communication is a process involving the use of mutually understood signs and symbols between the sender and receiver of a message  The signs are of two types; visual and audio signs  Smell, touch and taste also communicate because sensory perception and impressions are a necessary part of human existence
  • 86. 1. VISUAL SIGNS  “A picture is worth a thousand words”  Visual signs are a universal language understood by anybody anywhere MAPS AND PAINTINGS POSTERS DIAGRAMS LIGHTS FLAGS
  • 87. 2. AUDIO/SOUND SIGNALS  BUZZER  HORN  ALARM  BELL  FIRE ALARMS
  • 88. 3. TOUCH  Intimate Touch – between a child and mother to show love and affection  Friendly Touch – between friends to show warmth and friendly attitude  Professional Touch – doctor and patient  Social Touch – handshaking, blessing the younger's, patting one‟s back