PROCESS OFCOMMMUNICATION Communication is a two way process in which there is an exchange of ideas towards a mutually acceptable goal. The process of communication involves two or more persons participating through a medium that carries the information for a particular purpose which is mutually understood by both sender and receiver.
ELEMENTS OF THECOMMUNICATION PROCESS Sender / speaker/ Encoder Receiver / Listener / Decoder Message Medium Feedback
SENDER The person who initiates the communication process He from his personal data bank selects ideas, encodes it and finally transmits it to the receiver through a medium The sender must communicate in a way that is in accordance with the expectations of the receiver
RECEIVER A receiver is the targeted audience of the message. Receiver gets the message, understands it, interprets and tries to perceive the total meaning of the message as transmitted by the sender. He receives the encoded message and decodes it.
MESSAGE It is the information written or spoken, which is to be sent from one person to another. The message should be organized, structured, shaped and selective It is the most important element of communication
MEDIUM/CHANNEL It is the vehicle which facilitates the sender to convey the message to the receiver Each medium has its own rules and regulations Prior to the composition of message, the medium/channel should be decided
FEEDBACK It is a loop that connects the receiver to sender It ensures that that receiver has received the message and understood it as intended by the sender. Effective communication takes place only when there is a feedback
PROCESSSENDER FEED BACK RECEIVER ENCODIN G DECODIN MESSAGE G CHANNEL
ENCODING It is changing the message from its mental form into symbols i.e. patterns of words, gestures or signs of a specific language
DECODING It is the act of translating symbols in communication into their ordinary interpretation. It also includes understanding of words, tone of speaker and choice of words used by him
OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE OFCOMMUNICATION To inform To persuade To educate To train To motivate To integrate To relate To entertain
FUNCTIONS OFCOMMUNICATION Information sharing To provide Feedback Influence Problem solving Assists in Decision making Group Building To give Job Instructions Emotive function Ensuring effectiveness of policies
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION INMANAGEMENT PLANNING CONTROLING ORGANISING DIRECTING STAFFING
TYPES OFCOMMUNICATIONORGANISATIONAL DIRECTION OF EXPRESSION STRUCTURE COMMUNICATION VERBAL FORMAL UPWARD • ORAL • WRITTEN INFORMAL DOWNWARD NON-VERBAL LATERAL DIAGONAL INWARD OUTWARD
FORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication that is formally controlled by managers or people occupying positions in an organization It is officially recognized positions along the line in the organization The efficiency of an organization depends on regular flow of messages which need to be organized into a well ordered network to ensure that communication flows easily and executives are well informed
ORGANIZATIONALSTRUCTURE BOARD OF DIRECTORS MANAGING DIRECTOR TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT SENIOR SUPERVISORS FIRST LINE SUPERVISORS EMPLOYEES
ADVANTAGES OF FC1. Helps in maintaining the authority structure of the org.2. Better cooperation and coordination among employees3. Overlapping of communication does not occur4. It is trustworthy5. Helps in maintaining protocol and respect of organisation structure6. Follow up and compliance becomes easy
ADVANTAGES OF FC1. Free from biasness2. Minimal chance of information leakage3. Away from gossipEXAMPLESMemos, Circular, Notice, Policies, Reports, Feedback
DISADVANTAGES Time consuming Does not allow social and emotional bonds to be created Stands in between free flow of information between organizational levels
INFORMAL COMMUNICATION The communication which flows around water coolers, down hallways, through lunch rooms and wherever people get together in groups The communication which is required to fulfill the social need of human being i.e. sharing one‟s emotions, feelings..
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FORGRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION Feeling of uncertainty or lack of sense of direction Lack of self confidence Feeling of insecurity or isolation when your group is changed Some unusual happening in the organization Personal problems of the employees
TYPES OF GRAPEVINECHAINS Single Strand- A to B, B to C…… Gossip - A to many people together Probability – Telling randomly to anyone Cluster – A to many, many to many
ADVANTAGES Speedy transmission Immediate Feedback Support to other channels Psychological satisfaction Uniting force Creation of ideas Good personal relations
DISADVANTAGES Can not be taken seriously Do not carry complete information Distorts information Hampers production Chances of misinterpretation Lack of accountability
HOW TO REDUCE GRAPEVINEIN ORGANISATION Keep the employees well informed about policies, plans and prospects Fruitful group activities that enhance self worth and update knowledge should be held frequently Managers should have open door policy Create healthy environment where there is a room for personal talk Involve employees in decision making
HOW TO REDUCE GRAPEVINEIN ORGANISATION Rumours should not be encouraged Managers should listen the problem of employees empathetically
COMMUNICATION BASED ONDIRECTION DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION ◦ Communication that flows from top to bottom ◦ It means flowing through the hierarchical system ◦ This type of communication exists in organization where there is authority structure
HIERARCHY CEO BUSINESS BUSINESS HEAD HEAD EXECUTIVE1 EXECUTIVE2 EXECUTIVE3
UPWARD COMMUNICATION Communication that flows from bottom to top i.e. from lower hierarchical level to higher level. It is mainly used to tell superiors what is happening at the lower levels It can flourish only in democratic organisations Example feedback, suggestions, complaints, reports
OMBUDPERSON/OMBUDSMAN Acts like a liaison between the top management and employees Promotes upward communication by discussing the concerns of employees with the management It promotes valuable upward communication link and prevents scandals and legal costs by timely action on part of appropriate person
LATERAL/HORIZONTALCOMMUNICATION MARKETING MANAGER PRODUCTION MANAGER
LATERAL/HORIZONTALCOMMUNICATION Communication that takes place between 2 or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person i.e. working at same level
DIAGONAL/CROSSWISE It includes flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships It is used to speed up information flow, improve understanding and co- ordinate efforts for achievement of organizational objectives
DIAGONAL/CROSSWISE MARKETING PRODUCTION MANAGER MANAGER MARKETING PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR SUPERVISOR
INWARD COMMUNICATION Includes all the information received by the organisation from external agencies like government, other organisations, suppliers, customers, competitors, media or shareholders It can be ◦ Letters ◦ Emails ◦ Offers ◦ Orders ◦ Complaints ◦ Notice ◦ Suggestions ◦ Requests
OUTWARD COMMUNICATION Communication which the organisation maintains with the outside world. It is a difficult task as interaction takes place between a large number of people belonging to various disciplines, with different personalities and expectations. This communication creates the image of a company in eyes of outside world
FORMS OF OUTWARDCOMMUNICATION ◦ ADVERTISEMENTS ◦ MEDIA INTERACTION (PRESS NOTES, CONFERENCE) ◦ NEGOTIATIONS ◦ MAILS ◦ TENDERS ◦ TELEPHONE CALLS ◦ LETTERS
ORAL COMMUNICATION Anything that emanates from the mouth is referred to as oral communication The words used and the manner in which these words are pronounced forms the major component of oral Supervisors – 25% communication Executives – 65- 75% Top Management – 90%
FEAURES Instantaneous two way process One off exercise Day to day language Presence of sender and receiver Principles – Accuracy, Clarity, Brevity Effect of body language and speech modulation It cannot be erased or mended
METHODS OF ORALCOMMUNICATIONA. AMONG INDIVIDUALS • Face to face conversation • Interviews • Telephonic conversation • Grapevine
METHODS OF ORALCOMMUNICATIONB. AMONG GROUPS ◦ Negotiations • Lecture • Speech • Meetings • Conference • Workshops
ORAL COMMUNICATIONSKILLSA manager should be able to converse or discuss persuasively, effectively and convincingly. Thus he must have following oral communication skills Help in problem solving Resolve conflict Influence people to work together Be assertive without being aggressive Develop listening skills Be an effective negotiator
ADVANTAGES Immediate feedback Better relationship Time saving Effective tool of persuasion Effective tool of group communication Economical Allows to measure effectiveness immediately It is the only way out during an emergency
DISADVANTAGES Lack of retention/documentation Distortion in passing the message No legal validity Possibility of misunderstanding Unsuitable for long messages Difficulty in assigning responsibility It is constrained by physical barriers Not effective when target group is spread out
TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORALCOMMUNICATION Be confident Use simple language and familiar words Be brief and precise Avoid use of slang words Be sensitive and courteous to the listener Don‟t be repetitive Hear the other person too Maintain eye contact Exhibit positive gestures and body language
WRITTENCOMMUNICATION Communication that can be expressed in written words of any language Most businesses rely on records and written documents, rather than on verbal contracts and oral commitments It reaches out across vast geographical areas and target readers around the world
METHODS OF WRITTENCOMMUNICATION Letters Manuals Reports Memorandum Handbook Email Notices Agenda Complaints Circulars Minutes Forms
CHARACTERISTICS OFWRITTEN COMMUNICATION Most formal type of communication Used for documentation Used for circulation of information Conventional by nature Presence of sender and receiver is not necessary at the same time A creative activity It has few cycles Time factor
ADVANTAGES OF WRITTENCOMMUNICATION Ready reference Legal defense Promotes uniformity Mass access Suitable for distance communication Image building Accurate and unambiguous Permanent in nature Permits substitution and revision
DISADVANTAGES OFWRITTEN COMMUNICATION Limited to literate world Time consuming Lot of paper work Needs expertise in expression Lack of immediate feedback Costly More man hours needed No immediate feedback or clarification
NON VERBALCOMMUNICATION Communication which does not involve use of words, neither spoken nor written It is the wordless message received through the medium of gestures, signs, body movements, facial expressions, tone of voice, colour, time, space…
CHARACTERISTICS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Instinctive – indicates the attitude, feelings of the speaker Less conscious – less deliberate Subtle – difficult to understand Complimentary to verbal communication Forms the larger part of the overall communication activity
Classification of NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION PROXEMICS (SPACE TIME LANGUAGE PARA LANGUAGE SIGN LANGUAGE LANGUAGE)KINESICS (BODY LANGUAGE) VOICE FEATURE FIXED • PITCH VARIATION • SPEAKING SPEED VISUAL SIGNS SPACE FACIAL • PAUSE EXPRESSIONS • NONFLUENCIES • VOLUME VARIATION • PRONUNCIATION SEMI FIXED AUDIO/SOUND SPACE SIGNALS EYE CONTACT PERSONAL SPACE TOUCH GESTURES SURROUNDINGS • COLOUR • LAYOUT AND DESIGN BODY POSTURES WORD STRESS APPEARANCE
KINESICS Kinesics means body movements. Body language is a reflection of thoughts and feelings By nodding our head, blinking eyes, waving hands; we send out signals and messages which are louder than words. Our body consciously and unconsciously carries messages, attitudes and moods indicating warmth, indifference positive and
1. Facial expressions “The face is the index of heart” Whatever we feel deep within ourselves is at once reflected in our face making facial expressions an integral part of communication. The face and eyes are the most expressive means of body communication.
2. Eye Contact Eye contact is one of the most powerful forms of non verbal communication When we look at somebody‟s face, we primarily focus on his eyes and try to understand what he means. The eyes along with eyebrows, eyelids and size of pupils convey our innermost feelings
HOW AN EYE COMMUNICATES It shows emotions and establishes conversational regulators Monitors feedback Serves as a reminder It creates discomfort or anxiety Depicts confidence level
3. GESTURES Physical movement of arms, legs, hands, torso and head that help one to express thoughts and emphasize one‟s speech is called GESTURES
a) EMBLEMSEMBLEM MEANINGPATTING THE STOMACH HUNGRY/FULLNODDING THE HEAD YES/NOPATTING THE ADJACENT SEAT SIT BESIDE MEYAWNING BORED/SLEEPYPLACING FINGER ON LIPS BE SILENTSCRATCHING HEAD FRUSTRATION/CONFUSEDWAVING HELLO/BYEB) Illustrators – it illustrates thewords which a speaker is saying
C) Regulators – they control oral communication by alerting the sender to the need of hurry up, slow down or repeat something D) Displays – indicate emotional states such as anger and fear. People have less control over them. Eg. Face turning red E) Adaptors – gestures of which people are not aware while performing. Eg yawning, crying
4. Body posture The body posture and position conveys a variety of messages “Hold your head high” – a sign of honour, self respect, confidence Posture depicts the interest in another person
5. APPEARANCE It includes clothing, hair, jewellery, cosmetics A dress speaks about a person‟s attitude towards life, work, colleagues and his own feelings Choice of shoes, hair style also convey meaning in a non verbal form.
PROXEMICS OR SPACELANGUAGE It is the study of how we communicate with the space around us Proxemics is made from “Proxemity” which means nearness How close or far people stand in relation to each other, or sit in a room, or how the office furniture is arranged conveys a lot of things.
EDWARD T.HALL – types ofspace1.FEATURE FIXED SPACE – it refers to buildings and other fairly permanent structures, such as walls.The manner in which buildings are laid out and the sequence of rooms and offices have a considerable influence on communication.Evidence reveals that bigger the fixed place, higher will be the status of individuals in organization.
2. SEMI FIXED FEATURE SPACE – the arrangement of moveable objects, such as desk and chairsThe quality of furniture has considerable influence on the status of the individuals
3 PERSONAL SPACE – physical distance between us and other people tells us about our relation and nature of communication with them. It can be divided into 4 circles:a) Intimate Zone – up to 18 inchesb) Personal Zone – 18 inches to 4 feetc) Social Zone – 4 to 12 feetd) Public Zone – 12 feet to as far as we can see and hear
COLOURS Different colours are associated with different behaviour patterns, attitudes and cultural backgrounds People make serious efforts to choose the right colour for any significant moment. An indifference to choice of colour is regarded as lack of sophistication
LAYOUT AND DESIGN Much attention is paid to layout of conference room, reception and working area in an office The space arrangement, architecture, carpeting, design convey a meaning
TIME LANGUAGE Type of communication wherein we communicate with others in terms of time by showing them in our own cultural way, what time means to us. “Time is Money” While people in the West are time conscious, attaching the highest importance to punctuality, people in the East have a more relaxed attitude towards time .
CHROMATICS The way we use and structure time can send intentional and unintentional messages about what we value and whom we consider to be important.
PARA LANGUAGE It is defined as the type of non verbal communication that includes articulation, rate, pitch, volume, pauses and other vocal qualities. Verbal communication consists of “what” or the contents whereas para language involves “how” of a speaker‟s voice or the way in which he speaks.
1. VOICE Voice tells us about the background, education and temperament of a person. It is very important for every individual to have a clear and pleasant voice for communication. SPEAKING PITCH VARIATION PAUSE SPEED VOLUME NONFLUENCIES PRONUNCIATION VARIATION
PITCH VARIATION The property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration A high pitch indicates nervousness, anxiety, tension, fear, anger or joy A low pitch shows affection, sadness, boredom or empathy
SPEAKING SPEED As a general rule, we should present the easy parts of a message in a brisk pace, and difficult, complicated information at a slower pace At the time of emergency, anxiety and impatience; one tends to increase the speaking speed Decrease in speaking rate can indicate shyness or thoughtfulness
PAUSE The pace or speed of speaking is also accompanied by a pause We cannot and we should not go on speaking without pausing voluntarily and involuntarily A pause can be highly effective in emphasizing the upcoming subjects and in gaining listener‟s attention Too much pauses can distract the listener A speaker must ensure right use of
NONFLUENCIES Speech is not always a continuous string of meaningful words. It is normally scattered with intervals which may be inserted with sounds like „ah‟, „oh‟ ,‟um‟, „you know‟, „like‟ etc It may also include laughing and chuckling They are mainly used to break the monotonous part of the speech
VOLUME VARIATION Volume is quality of voice that frequently conveys meaning of our conversation The loudness of our voice should be adjusted according to the size of audience Voice volume tends to vary with emotional and personality characteristics of speaker
PRONUNCIATION The manner in which someone utters a word
2. WORD STRESS By placing stress or emphasis on a word or part of sentence, the entire meaning is changed
SIGN LANGUAGE Communication is a process involving the use of mutually understood signs and symbols between the sender and receiver of a message The signs are of two types; visual and audio signs Smell, touch and taste also communicate because sensory perception and impressions are a necessary part of human existence
1. VISUAL SIGNS “A picture is worth a thousand words” Visual signs are a universal language understood by anybody anywhere MAPS AND PAINTINGS POSTERS DIAGRAMS LIGHTS FLAGS
2. AUDIO/SOUND SIGNALS BUZZER HORN ALARM BELL FIRE ALARMS
3. TOUCH Intimate Touch – between a child and mother to show love and affection Friendly Touch – between friends to show warmth and friendly attitude Professional Touch – doctor and patient Social Touch – handshaking, blessing the youngers, patting one‟s back