Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Extract on Kleshas from Dr Ananda's exploration of Yoga Sutras

109 views

Published on

An extract on the Kleshas from Yogacharya Dr Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani's exploration of Yoga Sutras available from www.icyer.in

Published in: Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

Extract on Kleshas from Dr Ananda's exploration of Yoga Sutras

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING THE YOGA DARSHAN AN EXPLORATION OF THE YOGA SUTRA OF MAHARISHI PATAÑJALI By Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani MBBS, ADY, DSM, DPC, PGDFH, PGDY, FIAY Chairman, International Centre for Yoga Education and Research (ICYER) at Ananda Ashram, Puducherry, India. www.icyer.com
  2. 2. II:1 iÉ{É:º´ÉÉvªÉɪÉä·É®ú|ÉÊhÉvÉÉxÉÉÊxÉ ÊGòªÉɪÉÉäMÉ: * tapaÇsv¤dhy¤ye½varapraºidh¤n¤ni kriy¤yogaÇ Kriya yoga consists of intensive self-discipline, introspective self-analysis and surrender to the Universal Will after doing one's best. Maharishi Patañjali begins the next pada with kriya yoga, the yoga of action, the yoga of purification, the yoga of cleansing one's own self through the fire of right action. What are these right actions? There are three actions within the ambit of kriya yoga: tapa, swadhyaya and ishwara pranidhana. Tapa is the discipline of one's own self, developing the capability to do the most difficult things, to push beyond one's limits. We must set and reset the limits on a continuous basis. This is tapa manifested as an external discipline. On the other hand swadhyaya is internal discipline, the process of going inward and analyzing our nature. This analysis must be without commiseration. "Analytical self-introspection must be", as Ammaji says "Without justification, identification or condemnation". We must learn to look at ourself with objectivity, vairagya or dispassionate detachment towards our own personality. Ishwara pranidhana is surrender to the higher, universal Divine Will. We must do our best and this must be coupled with a dispassionate attitude of being able to leave the rest. This results in pure and responsible actions. The self-serving ego is sublimated when we offer our actions and aspirations to the Divine Will. But we must never forget that before giving up to the Divine, we must do whatever is possible within the circumstances and our own limitations. This should not be confused
  3. 3. 110 Understanding the Yoga Darshan with escapism. Escapism is tamasica, inert and devolutionary. Ishwara pranidhana is, on the contrary, of the highest, sattwica, evolutionary surrender. It is, to be concise, surrender after utmost effort and release of expectations for any desired results. The Divine is not a sadist. He/She/It will never give us a challenge that is beyond our capacities. The bigger the challenge, the greater will be our capacity to overcome it. Great challenges are actually compliments to our capacities, for life only tests us to the limits of our abilities and not beyond that.
  4. 4. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 111 II:2 ºÉ¨ÉÉÊvɦÉÉ´ÉxÉÉlÉÇ: C±Éä¶ÉiÉxÉÚEò®úhÉÉlÉǶSÉ * sam¤dhibh¤van¤rthaÇ kle½atan¶karaº¤rtha½ca [Kriya yoga enables one] to attenuate the afflictions and attain higher states of absorption. What is the purpose of kriya yoga? To reach the deep state of samadhi and to reduce the effects of the klesha, the psychological afflictions, the coloured filters through which we perceive reality. If we saw life through perfect filters, we would perceive reality as it is. These impurities or klesha distort our perceptions. The klesha need to be attenuated, minimized and reduced (tanukarana). Kriya yoga can be compared to walking on a path in the deep forest. We must constantly move forward but must first clear away the underbrush and stones hindering the journey.
  5. 5. 112 Understanding the Yoga Darshan II:3 +Ê´ÉtÉκ¨ÉiÉÉ®úÉMÉuäù¹ÉÉʦÉÊxÉ´Éä¶ÉÉ: C±Éä¶ÉÉ: * avidy¤smit¤r¤gadve¿¤bhinive½¤Ç kle½¤Ç These afflictions are ignorance, false identity, attraction, repulsion and survival instinct. These klesha are within us right from our birth and keep us from knowing who we are, from realizing our true Self. The klesha are of five types. Although the five types are listed separately, they are all interdependent. They are: avidya, asmita, raga, dwesha and abhinivesha. The first klesha is avidya, ignorance of the true reality. Avidya is the refusal to see, not wanting to know the reality. The first part of the word ignorance is "ignore", the refusal to acknowledge the existence of something. Ignorance is not only an inability but also a refusal to see which rises out of escape mechanisms. If we don't know something, we don't have to do anything about it. This mechanism allows one to be "blissfully ignorant" of the reality, of Sat! Asmita is the ego, the false sense of "Me", "Mine" and "I". I have pondered long on the question as to which is worse, ignorance or the ego. Because of ignorance of true reality ego exists. Once ego arises, it further distorts reality because the I-maker wishes to create reality according to its whims and fancies. As an example: two people have an accident. Both think they are right and that the other person is wrong. This is because they perceive the whole situation in their own way, the perspective which will make them correct and the other
  6. 6. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 113 person wrong. This is the sense of "I" and "mine-ness" which always looks out for "No.1". The ego is clever and cunning. Lord Shiva, the universal power of eternal goodness, is shown with the ego (Muyalagan) under his feet. Sometimes even Lord Shiva gets distracted during his cosmic dance (ananda tandavam). Then the ego, taking advantage of the relaxation of control, sits up, even virtually stands up. The great Lord then must squash it back down to the ground where it belongs! The lesson is that true goodness, evolutionary change and auspiciousness (all qualities associated with Shiva) can only manifest when the ego is subdued. Raga and dwesha are twin faces of the same coin, the likes and dislikes we have collected. Raga and dwesha are attraction and repulsion. Raga and dwesha are equally dangerous as they drag one from the balanced plane of physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health. Some may think that they are balanced, as they like a few things and dislike a few things. However, the likes and dislikes pull and push us off balance, creating total disharmony. Raga and dwesha coexist. When raga is in full flow, dwesha is attenuated and when dwesha is in full flow, raga is attenuated. More often than not, detachment from what we dislike is more important than that from what we like. Vairagya is dispassion towards what one likes but also from what one does not like. This includes dispassion towards oneself, too. Being able to look at one's own personality at all levels with objectivity is difficult, especially when it comes to likes and dislikes. Dispassion must exist internally as well as externally. It is equally dangerous to think or proclaim either "I am the best" or "I am the worst"! Some consider it spiritual to hate or dislike themselves, and call such an
  7. 7. 114 Understanding the Yoga Darshan attitude humility. Self-pity and self-hatred is a big trap, a bottomless pit, into which many an aspirant has fallen. Abhinivesha is the deep instinct to survive at any cost. Clinging to life is glorified in the contemporary world. Abhinivesha rises from a deep rooted fear of death, the fear of a void, the fear of nothingness. This self-preservation instinct is so integral to all beings that even the wisest of people cannot escape its hold. It is engrained over millions of years in genetic material and stored in the most ancient parts of the brain. It is amazing to see what people will do in life-threatening situations. Only the very rare person can transcend this inbuilt survival mechanism. That rare person is the real yogi. Dull tamasica people don't know what to do and hence, are stupefied in the face of death. These are not sattwica people, who are fully aware, and consciously face death with yogic equanimity. Such people have uprooted this ancient instinct and live in fearlessness and bliss.
  8. 8. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 115 II:4 +Ê´ÉtÉ IÉäjɨÉÖkÉ®úä¹ÉÉÆ |ɺÉÖ{iÉiÉxÉÖÊ´ÉÎSUôzÉÉänùÉ®úÉhÉɨÉ * avidy¤ k¿etramuttare¿¤Æ prasuptatanuvicchinnod¤r¤º¤m The afflictions exist in dormant, attenuated, manifest or overpowering states depending on the basic field of ignorance. Avidya is the foundation stone of the other klesha, the power that propels all the other four. The strongest, most deeply rooted affliction, it is called the Mother klesha as the others cannot exist without it. With avidya as the fertile field (kshetra), the klesha appear in four states. The first is prasupta, or the dormant state in which they have not manifested yet. The second is an attenuated/mild state of manifestation known as tanu. The third one is the fully manifest form known as vicchinna. The fourth is the overpowering state of udaranam. In the fourth state the klesha are so powerful that everything else crumbles beneath their power. All four states of the five klesha depend on avidya. Hence to overcome them, we must deal with the source of the problem itself. All five klesha manifest in these four states. An important part of the evolutionary journey is to first become aware of them and recognize their symptoms. The kriya yoga of Maharishi Patañjali offers the external and internal tool of kriya yoga (tapa, swadhyaya and ishwara pranidhana). This kriya yoga creates awareness of the klesha and a consciousness which can control these afflictions. When we are able to reduce avidya, we find that all the other klesha can be attenuated or placed into dormancy automatically. Dormancy
  9. 9. 116 Understanding the Yoga Darshan is a state in which the seed of the klesha is still there. If you don't water it, it doesn't grow. Yet, many people are busy watering the weeds of their klesha. Then, they are astonished when they grow so luxuriantly!
  10. 10. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 117 II:5 +ÊxÉiªÉɶÉÖÊSÉnùÖ:JÉÉxÉÉi¨ÉºÉÖ ÊxÉiªÉ¶ÉÖÊSɺÉÖJÉÉi¨ÉJªÉÉÊiÉ®úÊ´ÉtÉ* anity¤½uciduÇkh¤n¤tmasu nitya½ucisukh¤tmakhy¤tiravidy¤ Ignorance is confusing the impermanent to be permanent, the unclean to be clean, the painful to be pleasurable and the non-self to be the true Self. What is avidya? Maharishi Patañjali gives a classic definition of this "state of ignorance". He describes avidya as confusing the impermanent (anitya) with the permanent (nitya), the unclean (ashuchi) with that which is clean and pure (shuchi), the painful (duhkha) with the pleasurable (sukha), and the non-self (anatmasu) with the true Self (atma). Personally I have not come across a better definition of avidya. For example, the sense (or is it non-sense?) of wanting to survive at any cost (abhinivesha) creates much distorted aspiration. Many modern crazes have risen from this affliction, such as cloning, or even having one's cadaver frozen till medical science finds a cure for the disease that killed you! You are going to come back no matter what, so why pay for it? These attitudes are absolute avidya. Confusing the non-self for the Self, the messy for the pure, pain with pleasure! What can describe contemporary man better than this? This is a false sense of identification with our bodies, our talents, our names, position in life, credit cards, addresses, license plates and so on. Avidya is all these wrong conceptions about "who we really are", the core distractions that prevent us from truly knowing ourselves.
  11. 11. 118 Understanding the Yoga Darshan II:6 oMn¶ÉÇxɶÉCiªÉÉä®äEòÉi¨ÉiÉä´ÉÉκ¨ÉiÉÉ * dÁgdar½ana½aktyorek¤tmatev¤smit¤ The ego arises from a misidentification with the tool of perception. The false sense of identity, the ego, occurs because of identification with the tools of perception, mistaking them to be real. Drg means the perceiver and in the case of asmita, we falsely identify with the perceiver rather than absolute reality. Wrong identification with the experiencing agent gives rise to the false sense of ego. It is like watching images on a screen and mistaking the projected image as reality. Consciously we know that the projector is only a tool and that the projected image is not real. But we experience them as real. This is the essence of ego, a tool that projects images. Lacking awareness and consciousness, we mistake all projected illusions to be real, like watching a 3-D film! We say: "I see", "I hear", "I taste" but we really mean: "The senses perceive". We should not identify with the tool. While climbing a ladder, a point comes where the ladder must be discarded as one achieves the goal. The ego, the sense of individuality, is like a ladder. It is useful in its place and for its purpose. The ego plays its role in evolution, but once the higher stage is reached, ego must be left behind. One can't stand on the ladder forever and say: "This is where I am, this is what I am and I have reached my goal". This immature behaviour creates stagnancy.
  12. 12. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 119 II:7 ºÉÖJÉÉxÉֶɪÉÒ ®úÉMÉ: * sukh¤nu½¤y¯ r¤gaÇ Attraction is caused by the craving for pleasure. What is raga? It is the inborn affliction that creates in us (anusay) a sense of attraction. What is "that" towards which we are attracted? All living beings are attracted to the pleasurable. The pleasure-pain principle is the primal motivation of nature. Very few beings are conscious enough to know the difference between "that" which is pleasurable and "that" which is good. In fact Lord Yama (Dharmaraja, the lord of justice) advises Nachiketha in the Kathopanishad that very few choose the path of shreya (the evolutionary path of true goodness). The path of shreya may be understood only by a refined intellect endowed with viveka (discerning ability). On the contrary the path of pleasure (preya) is followed by the majority, who are ignorant and perverted. He explains that true knowledge (jnana vidya) reveals the difference between the good and the pleasant to the wise. Ignorance or avidya causes one to slide down the path of preya. Lord Yama concludes by saying "Naturally, those who seek shreya are very rare". This most important message is often given by our beloved Ammaji, Yogacharini Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani in satsangha: "Don't mistake the pleasant for the good!".
  13. 13. 120 Understanding the Yoga Darshan II:8 nùÖ:JÉÉxÉֶɪÉÒ uä¹É: * duÇkh¤nu½¤y¯ dve¿aÇ Repulsion occurs due to the fear of painful suffering. Conversely, dwesha is that klesha which induces a sense of repulsion or revulsion. It is the inherent, in-born tendency that pushes us away from what we perceive to be a potential cause of painful suffering (duhkha). This repulsion to pain is useful. It is a protective mechanism that has enabled survival of the species through millions of years of evolution. Dwesha is deeply rooted in the genetic makeup. Dwesha ensures survival. Dwesha is necessary at the lower level, but must be transcended by the evolving being. As Ammaji so beautifully puts it, "What was previously virtue for the animal becomes a vice for the human as we consciously evolve". A great irony in human existence is the confusion between pleasure and pain. We are unsure of what we truly like and what we truly dislike. Many times we think something is pleasurable or painful, and then we find out we were sadly mistaken. What was once upon a time the "best day in our life" may very easily become the worst in retrospect! Swamiji used the example of a young couple very much in love declaring their marriage day as "the best day of their life". Later, after years of conflict in an unhappy marriage, they may term that very same marriage day as the worst day of their lives! The opposite is also true. Many a time the "worst thing to ever happen to us" becomes the best thing in retrospect for it sends us upward on the evolutionary path.
  14. 14. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 121 II:9 º´É®úºÉ´ÉɽþÒ Ê´ÉnùÖ¹ÉÉä%Ê{É ºÉ¨ÉÉ°üføÉä%ʦÉÊxÉ´Éä¶É: * svarasav¤h¯ vidu¿o'pi sam¤r¶¹ho'bhinive½aÇ The universal desire to survive is found even in the most learned of humans. Abhinivesha is the deeply rooted survival instinct, clinging to life, fear of death. All want to be immortal. This impulse has been evidenced in much crazed behaviour throughout human history. This klesha has a powerful momentum and affects even the wisest and most knowledgeable (vidushoapi). This billion-year-old instinct is not in our hands, having its own powerful energy. Many spiritual seekers glibly remark, "I don't mind dying today – I have no attachment to this body". These things are easy to say when in a placid, non-stressful, safe environment. One may even feel this to be perfectly true. But the test comes only in a "life and death" situation. Only then does abhinivesha show its true colours. One can shut down sensory apparatus, because the senses depend on the mind (mana) for energy. The mind is the master energy source for all senses, and so removal of the energy source by withdrawal of the mind (pratyahara) results in control over the senses. Sensory control thus is largely possible for a cultivated mind. On the other hand, abhinivesha does not depend on the mind for its energy thrust. Abhinivesha has its own independent energy source (swarasavahi). Thus it is much more difficult to overcome. Self-preservation is the basic instinct in nature, and in the animal world it is the highest good. This is why abhinivesha is built into
  15. 15. 122 Understanding the Yoga Darshan the genetic structure, firmly established (tatharudho), to ensure the survival of the species at all cost. Once we chose the yogic path towards liberation, we realize the physical body is a mere vehicle. We realize that the body must be perfected as much as possible. But then the body must be sacrificed at the altar of kaivalya. The virtue of abhinivesha in the animal, becomes a vice in the human incarnation. Many people chant the Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra because they think it will help them prevent death of this physical incarnation! They do not realize that the mantra instead helps overcome fear of death, not the actual physical death itself. People die in the fear of death long before their actual death! The old proverb says wisely: "Cowards die a thousand times before their death, but the heroic man dies but once!" Fear of death is a wide spread affliction, making living a hell of trepidation.
  16. 16. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 123 II:10 iÉä |ÉÊiÉ|ɺɴɽþäªÉÉ: ºÉÚI¨ÉÉ: * te pratiprasavahey¤Ç s¶k¿m¤Ç One must go against the very subtle source of these afflictions [if they are to be eradicated]. These klesha are the afflictions, the coloured prisms through which we view worldly life. Good sadhana draws the afflictions (klesha) back into (pratiprasava) the subtle source from which they have emanated. They must be destroyed (heyah) for further progress. Self-awareness and self-witnessing through swadhyaya is the key skill in uprooting the klesha. The klesha can hide themselves very well, from common view, especially in the dormant state. One must be careful and remain ever vigilant. As Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister who led embattled and beleaguard England through World War II, cautioned his countrymen, "The price of freedom is eternal vigilance." Aspiration for the highest freedom carries an expensive price tag. That price is constant self-analysis.
  17. 17. 124 Understanding the Yoga Darshan II:11 vªÉÉxɽþäªÉɺiÉnÂù´ÉÞkɪÉ: * dhy¤nahey¤stadvÁttayaÇ Fluctuations of the klesha can be silenced through meditative awareness. Through deep meditation, the multifold activities and fluctuations of the klesha can be silenced. This is an internal process which must be followed in conjunction with swadhyaya. In the intense meditative state, the root cause of the klesha, avidya, ceases to exist. The fuel which empowers the klesha becomes exhausted and the afflictions have no place to play their illusionary games. Dhyana is not just sitting quietly with the eyes closed, nor is it the monotonously performed japa (repeated chanting) of some mantra. What is implied here is the actual meditative state of "All Awareness" that occurs in dhyana. Ego and ignorance cease to exist in such an exalted state. Mystic absorption occurs, and in that state of being, all afflictions are dissolved as salt in ocean water.
  18. 18. S¤dhanap¤daÇ 125 II:12 C±Éä¶É¨ÉÚ±Éô: Eò¨ÉÉǶɪÉÉä où¹]õÉoù¹]VÉx¨É´ÉänùxÉÒªÉ: * kle½am¶laÇ karm¤½ayo dÁ¿·¤dÁ¿·ajanmavedan¯yaÇ With these afflictions as the root, karmic bondage manifests through perceived and un-perceived experiences of the present and future incarnations. Karma and its inevitable fructification surface in a clear manner in this sutra. Maharishi Patañjali describes karmic bondages resulting from the action-reaction spiral. This karmic trap is a vicious, deadly spiral, not just a simple merry-go-round. The science of yantra explains this karmic spiral as always moving forward and never backwards. The difference in layers and intensity of consciousness makes the process faster or slower, but each evolutionary cycle will always be a step higher than the preceding one. The injunction "be careful" implies that one must be full of care! Inaction also produces a reaction and the result of inaction is worse than that of action. Better to go on the wrong path than to stand on the corner, indecisively. Lord Krishna motivates Arjuna into action in the Bhagavad Gita for this very reason as the great warrior sits in dejection on the ground. Arjuna was in a state of tamasica inaction. Lord Krishna gently pushes him into a state of rajasica action, and from there, into the sattwica state. Kleshamulah refers both to the point of origin from which the klesha arise and also to that karmashaya, the accumulation of karma for which they are the root cause. The accumulated karma may manifest
  19. 19. 126 Understanding the Yoga Darshan in our present experiences or may occur at some other time in the future. Both the manifest (drishta) and un-manifest (adrishta) "fruits of past actions" are due to the klesha. Sabija karma manifests through genetics, through the parents we choose, the family we choose, the place and time of birth we choose. We are drawn, as if by a magnetic pull towards the context (family, country or region) that gives the best opportunity to manifest our karma and thus burn it up. We are drawn to the life experiences that are most conducive for us to experience our karma. Having a human birth is an occasion to burn up karma and this is why the earth is called karma bhumi. We can burn up our karma only by incarnating on this plane of existence. Even the gods and demigods had to incarnate on this human plane in order to work out their karma. This is vividly narrated in so many stories of the mythological-history and historical-mythology of Hinduism. There is no other place where you can work your karma out except here on earth and there is no other time but the now! Generally, people avoid the burning of karma feeling it to be too hot, and thus accumulate more and more karma. Why does this happen? This is because of avidya, the state of ignorance of who we really are and what we are really here for. The mistaken idea is that one is here only to enjoy, to seek pleasure and avoid pain is the trap most get caught in. Pujya Swamiji said, "If you do not learn your lessons in this lifetime you will have to learn them again by coming back once more". He gave a glimmer of hope by saying, "One day, we are all going to get out of this cycle; we will all achieve kaivalya someday". The speed with which we escape this vicious cycle is dependent upon consciousness, and how we live our lives. From another viewpoint we can say that every second is like a lifetime and that through consciousness we can burn up the karma of a lifetime every second!
  20. 20. A Abhinivesha(-h) 13, 112, 114, 117, 121, 122, 131, 167, 206, 273, 322, 326 Abhyasa 6, 9, 11, 28, 31, 32, 48, 50, 82, 135, 187, 205, 317, 333, 356, 357, 365 Acharam 156, 174 Acharya 157, 291 Adhibauthika 72, 128, 319 Adhidaivika 72, 128, 319 Adhikarin 181, 182, 208, 349 Adhimatra 65 Adhishthatritvam 294 Adhyatma 102 Adi 50, 276, 350, 370 Adi Shankara 276, 350, 370 Adimatra 7 Adrishta 126 Adyatmika 72, 319 Agama 41 Agasthya, sage 33, 284 Ahamkara 38, 79, 88, 350 Ahara 210 Ahimsa 15, 16, 154, 155, 168, 193 Ajapa gayatri 199 Ajapa japa 88, 199 Ajna bindu 266, 267 Ajna chakra 91, 266, 267 Ajnana 146, 367 Akasha 280, 281, 283, 284 Akashagamanam 281 Aklishta 38 Alabdhabhumikatwa 78 Alambana 328 Alasya 9, 76 Alinga(-ni) 100, 138, 188 Ammaji (Yogacharini Smt. Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani) 48, 51, 109, 119, 120, 156, 173, 194, 207, 313, 318, 320, 332, 338 Ananda tandavam 113 Anandam 13, 28, 139, 364, 374 Anandamaya kosha 56, 185, 263 Ananta 18, 151, 195, 259 Anantasamapattibhyam 358 Anatmasu 117 Anavasthitatwani 78 Anda chakra 285 Andaja 311 Angamejayatwa 9, 81 Anima 22, 286 Anitya 117 Annamaya kosha 262, 263 Antah karana 138, 139 Antara 18, 202, 266 Antara hrudaya 266 Antaranga(-m) 5, 19, 20, 21, 226 Antaraya 5, 9, 73, 74, 75, 78, 80, 82 Anumana 41 Anumodita 16, 165 Anushasanam 31, 32, 173 Anushthana 32, 152 Anvaya 283, 290 Apa 283 Apana 202 Apara 52, 354, 356 Apara vairagya 52, 354 Aparigraha 15, 17, 154, 157, 176 Apavarga 27, 137, 290, 353, 371 Apunya 85, 129, 250 Arjuna 61, 77, 80, 125, 128, 133, 161, 166, 186, 196, 274, 284, 297, 303, 320, 325, 327, 367 Artha 97, 137, 239, 353, 373 Arthavattva 283, 290 Arunagiri 61, 277 Arupa 188 Asamprayoge 245 Asana 14, 18, 50, 75, 81, 152, 153, 158, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 201, 212, 226, 258, 312, 358 Asanga 278 Asat 53, 332 Ashrama 276, 354 Ashraya 328 Ashta siddhi 286, 287 Ashtanga yoga 5, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 66, 211, 328 Ashuddhikshaye 152 Asmita 7, 13, 24, 56, 112, 118, 228, 290, 313, 314 Asteya 15, 16, 154, 156, 173 Ashuchi 117 Asura 33, 43, 168, 261, 311 Asvada 273 Atha 29, 31, 32, 107, 215, 305 Atharva Shirsha, Ganesha 204 Atharva Veda 204 Atma 13, 75, 102, 117, 141, 181, 324, 356 Atma bhava 356 Atma jnana 13, 75, 324, 325
  21. 21. ccclxxxiv Understanding the Yoga Darshan Atmadarshana 181, 182 Atmamaya kosha 56 Atman prasadanam 15, 102, 162 Aum 8, 27, 71, 72, 73, 238, 362 Aum japa 27, 73, 362 Aushadi 24, 307 Avasta 204 Avidya 12, 13, 14, 31, 37, 47, 112, 115, 117, 119, 124, 126, 147, 233, 313, 314, 328, 366 Avirati 9, 76, 77 Ayu 127, 328 B Bahiranga(-m) 5, 11, 20, 226, 227 Bahya 18, 88, 202 Bala 288 Bandha(-h) 13, 20, 217, 276, 302, 324, 366 Bhagavad 15, 18, 61, 80, 90, 125, 128, 134, 135, 143, 161, 166, 185, 186, 194, 196, 202, 265, 275, 276, 303, 320, 321, 327, 331, 333, 342, 349, 356, 358, 369 Bhagavad Gita 15, 18, 61, 80, 90, 125, 128, 134, 135, 143, 161, 166, 185, 186, 194, 196, 202, 265, 275, 303, 320, 321, 327, 331, 333, 342, 349, 356, 358, 369 Bhakti 15, 17, 162, 190, 191, 287, 311 Bhakti yoga 15, 17, 162, 190, 191, 287, 311 Bhavana(-m) 16, 163, 338 Bhavapratyayo 60, 61 Bhaya(-m) 53, 287, 350 Bhoga 27, 127, 137, 271, 290, 328, 353, 371 Bhrantidarshana 9, 77 Bhuloka 291 Bhutajaya 239, 283, 284, 285, 286 Bija(-m) 8, 23, 56, 101, 227, 370 Bija jagrat 370 Bindu 100, 266, 267, 288 Brahmacharya 15, 16, 154, 156, 157, 174, 175, 193, 276, 354 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 234 Brumadhya 266 Buddha 102, 155 Buddhi 11, 13, 23, 44, 56, 166, 302, 349, 350 Buddhi yoga 349 Buddhibuddhe 347 C Chakra 28, 77, 91, 259, 260, 263, 266, 267, 270, 279, 284, 285, 291 Chandra(-ma) 257, 345 Chanuraaga 166 Chatur ashrama 354 Chaturvidha 353, 373 Chela 41, 75, 199, 268 Chit(-ta(-m)) 3, 20, 24, 25, 26, 28, 78, 92, 139, 347, 364, 374 Chitta vikshepa 9, 74, 78 Chittabhumi 218, 230 Chittaprasadanam (Chitta prasadanam) 84, 250 Chittavritti 6, 33, 34, 37, 47, 205 D Daivika 320 Darshana 141, 355 Dasa Shloki 350, 370 Dasendriya 89 Daurmanasya 80 Deha vasana 322 Desha 18, 20, 25, 203, 217, 300 Deva 33, 43, 261 Dharana 11, 14, 19, 20, 27, 87, 152, 153, 208, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 243, 293, 357, 362 Dharma 27, 79, 133, 137, 138, 140, 141, 147, 156, 232, 233, 235, 241, 244, 250, 251, 284, 287, 334, 353, 354, 364, 366, 368 Dharma marga 241 Dharma megha 27, 57, 364, 366, 368 Dharmaraja 119 Dhyana 11, 14, 20, 124, 152, 153, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 293, 316, 317, 357 Dirgakala 51 Doshabhija kshaye 296 Drashta 139 Draupadi 358 Dravidian 60, 61, 67, 184, 221, 277, 309, 311 Drishta 126 Drishyam 290 Duhkha(-m) 9, 13, 80, 85, 117, 120, 135, 250, 291 Dwaitam 96 Dwandwa 18, 81, 196, 198, 350
  22. 22. Index ccclxxxv Dwandwateetha 197, 198, 350 Dwesha 13, 112, 113, 120 E Ekagrah 181 Ekagrata 44, 218, 230, 231 Ekagrata parinama 231 Ekasamaye 346 Ekendriya 19, 210, 293 G Gana 43 Ganesha, Lord 43, 76, 204, 232, 235 Garima 286 Garuda Purana 311 Gati 200 Gita 15, 18, 61, 80, 90, 125, 128, 134, 135, 143, 161, 166, 185, 186, 194, 196, 202, 265, 275, 303, 320, 321, 327, 331, 333, 342, 349, 356, 358, 367, 369 Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj, Dr. Swami 4, 15, 31, 33, 89, 178, 213, 349 Grahana 96, 290 Grahasta 276, 354 Grahyeshu 96 Guna 5, 14, 25, 27, 54, 55, 136, 138, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 350, 369, 370, 371, 373, 374 Gunateetha 54, 204, 333, 350, 369 Guna vritti 131, 136 Guru 6, 12, 31, 33, 41, 61, 64, 70, 75, 89, 137, 143, 144, 146, 150, 156, 178, 199, 213, 221, 268, 274, 308, 324, 325, 338, 342, 351, 367 Guru Stotra 150, 324, 325, 367 H Hamsa-soham 88, 199, 200 Hanuman, Lord 253, 254, 284, 286, 287 Hatha yoga 18, 50, 75, 81, 175, 192, 196, 200, 264, 288 Hatha Yoga Pradipika 288 Hetu 328 Heyah 123 Himsa 155, 165 I Ida 260, 263, 264 Indriya 138, 291, 292, 293 Indriya jaya 181, 290, 292, 293 Ishitwa 286 Ishtadevata 188, 189 Ishwara 8, 12, 15, 17, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 109, 110, 115, 160, 161, 162, 190, 191, 205, 220, 227, 287, 294, 366 Ishwara pranidhana 12, 15, 17, 66, 109, 110, 115, 160, 161, 162, 190, 191, 205, 220, 287 J Jagrat(-i) 204, 274, 370 Janaka 137 Janma 24, 125, 176, 307, 324 Japa 8, 27, 73, 88, 124, 199, 362 Jarayuja 311 Jati 25, 127, 300, 328 Jnana(-m) 13, 14, 21, 42, 75, 81, 91, 97, 119, 146, 239, 260, 271, 299, 300, 301, 322, 324, 327, 351, 367 Jnana vasana 322 Jnanabhumi 355 Jnanendriya 89, 136, 210, 212, 232, 284, 292 Jyothi 91, 266, 267 K Kaivalya 3, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 52, 61, 62, 64, 122, 126, 147, 191, 211, 222, 234, 251, 294, 295, 301, 302, 308, 321, 330, 333, 340, 342, 357, 358, 360, 365, 373, 374 Kaivalya Pada 5, 6, 23, 25, 27, 294, 373 Kala 18, 25, 100, 203 Kama 19, 137, 166, 353, 373 Kambaliswamigal, Sri 308 Kambaliswami Madam 12, 178, 332 Karana 71, 138, 139, 276, 341 Karita 16, 165 Karma 5, 8, 13, 24, 27, 52, 65, 68, 72, 84, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 165, 227, 235, 241, 247, 248, 251, 284, 302, 307, 316, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322,
  23. 23. ccclxxxvi Understanding the Yoga Darshan Karma (contd.) 324, 327, 338, 364, 366, 369, 373 Karma bandha 13, 302, 324, 366 Karma bhumi 126 Karmashaya 125 Karmavipaka 68 Karmendriya 89, 136, 210, 212, 232, 284, 292 Karuna 10, 84, 85, 250, 350 Kathopanishad 119 Kaya 186, 281, 286, 288 Kaya sampat 286, 288 Kayarupa 245 Kayavyuha jnanam 260 Kevala kumbhaka 18, 200, 205 Khyati 149, 150, 152, 365, 370 Klesha 5, 8, 12, 13, 27, 47, 68, 87, 111, 112, 115, 116, 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130, 131, 147, 148, 186, 206, 227, 302, 314, 320, 328, 362, 364, 366, 373 Kleshamulah 125 Klishta 38 Koham 37, 358 Kosha 56, 185, 262, 263, 279, 284, 361 Krama(-m) 247, 299, 301, 369, 371 Krishna 15, 25, 61, 77, 125, 128, 133, 134, 135, 143, 161, 166, 172, 185, 186, 194, 196, 265, 274, 303, 319, 320, 321, 325, 327, 329, 331, 333, 356, 357, 358, 359, 367, 369 Krita 16, 165 Kriya yoga 11, 12, 17, 66, 109, 111, 115, 149, 161, 186, 191, 328, 362 Kriyamana 72, 319 Kriyamana karma 72, 319 Krodha(-h) 16, 165, 166, 167, 350 Krtartham 142 Kshana 299 Kshetra 115, 134 Kshetrajna 134 Kshipta 44, 218, 230 Kuladevata 188 Kumbhaka 18, 88, 200, 202, 205 Kundalini 77 Kurma nadi 263, 264 L Laghima 286 Lakshana(-m) 232, 288, 300 Lavanya 288 Laya kriya 259 Leela 100, 311 Linga 100, 138 Lingamatra 138, 188 Lobha 16, 165, 166, 167 Loka 255, 256, 284, 285, 322 Loka vasana 322 Lokeshana 323 M Mada 166 Madathipathi 178 Madhya 7, 65, 266 Maha jagrat 370 Mahabharata 77, 286, 297, 320, 358 Mahabhuta 89, 136, 232, 281, 283, 284, 286 Mahatma Gandhi 79, 157 Mahavratam 14, 158 Mahima 286 Maitri 10, 84, 85, 250 Mala 368 Mana 44, 56, 121, 292, 293, 309 Manana 63 Mandala 284 Manipura chakra 259, 260, 279 Manolaya 293 Mantra 8, 24, 72, 122, 124, 157, 199, 200, 239, 252, 301, 307, 309 Matsarya 166 Maya 100, 314, 330, 332, 335, 370 Mithyajnanam 42 Moha 16, 166, 167, 370 Mohamaya 316 Moksha 137, 144, 252, 290, 295, 325, 353, 358, 362, 373 Mridu 7, 65 Mridungam 180 Mudha 44, 75, 218, 350 Mudita 10, 84, 85, 250 Mudra 212, 225, 359 Mukti 310 Muladhara (chakra) 291 Mumukshu 365 Mumukshutva 64, 295, 323 Muni 143, 311 Murdha jyothi 266 Murdini jyothi 91 Muyalagan 113, 228 N Nachiketha 119 Nada 8, 71, 100, 238, 240, 284
  24. 24. Index ccclxxxvii Nadi 260, 263, 264, 265 Nairantarya 51 Narayana arpana bhava 190 Narayana bhava 190 Natha 61, 277, 308 Navaratna 239 Nidi 35 Nididhyasana 63 Nidra 6, 40, 46, 93 Nilakantha 261 Nimita bhava 190 Nirbija 10, 57, 106, 227, 364 Nirbija samadhi 10, 57, 106, 227, 364 Nirguna 55, 204, 332, 333 Nirodha parinama 228 Niruddha 44, 218 Nirvichara 10, 57, 99, 101, 102 Nirvitarka 10, 56, 98, 101 Nishkama 185 Nishpanda 194, 358 Nitya 25, 117, 326 Nivritti 27, 356 Niyama 14, 15, 16, 17, 152, 153, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163, 165, 168, 180, 188, 226, 332 P Pancha 12, 14, 15, 89, 136, 186, 200, 212, 232, 264, 278, 279, 281, 283, 284, 291, 314, 361 Para 6, 23, 52, 55, 295, 296, 332, 354, 356, 364, 365 Para brahman 55, 332 Para vairagya 7, 23, 52, 295, 296, 354, 356, 364, 365 Paramamahattwanta 95 Paramanu 95 Parampara 70 Parinama 31, 228, 230, 231, 232, 343 Pathigam 309 Phala 170, 328 Pinda chakra 285 Pingala 260, 263, 264 Pracchardana 87, 88 Prajna 7, 62, 63, 103, 151, 175, 196, 224, 265, 330, 349 Prajnaloka 224 Prakamya 286 Prakasha 14, 19, 136, 206, 245 Prakriti 55, 60, 138, 142, 144, 147, 271, 283, 285, 293, 295, 310, 343, 355, 369 Prakriti laya 61, 62, 295 Pramada 9, 76 Pramana 6, 39, 41, 43 Prana 10, 27, 43, 44, 87, 88, 199, 201, 202, 205, 213, 259, 264, 278, 279, 284, 291, 360, 362 Prana vayu 264, 278, 279, 284 Pranamaya kosha 262, 263, 279 Pranava 8, 71, 72, 73, 238 Pranavritti 205 Pranayama 14, 18, 19, 20, 81, 87, 152, 153, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 211, 218, 219, 226, 282, 312, 317 Prapti 286 Prarabdha karma 72, 319 Prasupta 13, 115 Pratibha 273 Pratibhadva 351 Pratipaksha bhavanam 16, 163 Pratiprasava 123, 373 Pratishtha 168, 173 Pratyahara 14, 19, 20, 77, 90, 121, 152, 153, 210, 211, 212, 213, 226, 292, 293 Pratyaksha 41 Prayatna shaithilya 18, 194, 358 Preya 119 Prithvi 283 Puja 12, 138, 168, 180, 191 Punya 85, 129, 250, 284, 319 Puraka 202 Purusha 8, 19, 23, 27, 70, 138, 139, 142, 144, 147, 151, 233, 257, 271, 273, 285, 294, 302, 311, 320, 333, 343, 344, 345, 346, 349, 351, 352, 355, 366, 373 Purusha Suktam 257, 345 Purushartha 27, 137, 173, 353, 373 Putreshana 323 R Raga 13, 112, 113, 119, 239, 350 Rajasica 14, 55, 125, 136, 183, 204, 331, 332 Rama, Lord 52, 77, 80, 161, 253, 284, 287, 301, 363 Ramayana 77, 284, 286, 287 Rechaka 202
  25. 25. ccclxxxviii Understanding the Yoga Darshan Riddhi 173 Rishi 61, 141, 156, 168, 169, 170, 189, 193, 198, 239, 258, 277, 284, 289, 294, 297, 298, 308, 311, 323, 330, 334, 363 Rishipatni 156 Rupa 288, 331 S Sabija 56, 72, 101, 126, 227, 241, 319, 324 Sabija karma 72, 126, 241, 324 Sabija samadhi 56 Sadhaka 4, 5, 9, 11, 14, 16, 19, 22, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 73, 74, 78, 80, 93, 132, 175, 180, 183, 274, 297, 317, 318, 355, 365 Sadhana 5, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 48, 53, 60, 73, 76, 78, 81, 123, 132, 135, 149, 152, 168, 173, 175, 176, 187, 194, 200, 203, 209, 211, 212, 213, 218, 220, 225, 228, 236, 275, 282, 291, 294, 295, 297, 314, 317, 318, 332, 333, 339, 343, 353, 362, 365, 372 Sadhana chatushtaya 295 Sadhana Pada 5, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20, 211, 282, 314, 353, 362 Sadharanatvat 142 Sadhu 11, 362 Sadhu sangamah 362 Sakshi 35 Sama bhava 349 Samadhi 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 20, 23, 24, 27, 31, 54, 56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 66, 96, 97, 106, 111, 152, 153, 175, 186, 190, 191, 222, 223, 227, 230, 238, 274, 287, 293, 295, 307, 309, 357, 358, 364, 365, 366 Samadhi Pada 5, 10, 11, 23, 31, 175, 190, 238, 295, 366 Samana 259, 279 Samapatti(-h) 10, 96, 97, 358 Samatvam 18, 194, 198, 265, 358 Sambandar 309 Samhananatvani 288 Samkirna 97, 271 Samkya 18, 203 Samprajnata samadhi 7, 56 Samsakttinamika 355 Samshaya 9, 76 Samskara 7, 21, 25, 26, 58, 65, 79, 105, 106, 131, 143, 166, 228, 229, 241, 242, 273, 275, 301, 316, 321, 324, 326, 328, 341, 361, 362, 363 Samvedanam 349 Samyami 143, 274 Samyogah 134, 145 Sananda 57 Sanatana dharma 138, 141 Sanchita 72, 319, 324 Sanchita karma 319 Sanga 166, 278, 362 Sankalpa 342 Sannyasa 276, 354 Santosha(-m) 15, 17, 53, 160, 183, 184, 185, 350, 362 Sapta 151, 355 Saptadha bhumi 151 Sara adija vyadhi 75 Saranagathi 190 Sarvabhava 294 Sarvabhuta rutajnanam 21, 239 Sarvajnatrtvam 294 Sarvam 13, 268, 351 Sarvatha vishayam 301, 352 Sarvartham 351 Sarva vishayam 301, 352 Sasmita 57 Sat 11, 28, 112, 139, 269, 332, 364, 374 Sat-chit-anandam 28, 139, 364, 374 Satguru 150, 218, 324 Satkara 51 Satsangha 119, 362 Sattwa (Sattva ) 19, 23, 55, 181, 271, 294, 302, 332, 351, 355 Sattwica 14, 55, 110, 114, 125, 136, 160, 170, 181, 183, 194, 204, 206, 207, 331, 332 Satya 15, 16, 154, 155, 156, 170, 255 Saumanasya 181 Savichara 10, 56, 99, 101 Savitarka 10, 56, 97, 101 Shabda 71, 97, 213, 238, 239, 240, 291 Shaiva Siddhantha 248, 277, 309 Shaivite 273 Shakti(-h) 27, 291 Shama 362 Shankara Giri 178
  26. 26. Index ccclxxxix Sharira 341, 361 Shat ripu 166, 234 Shatsampat 295 Shaucha 17, 160, 178, 179, 180 Shiva, Lord 19, 57, 100, 113, 228, 261, 262, 273, 350 Shiva Puranam 43, 67, 221, 311 Shodasha samskara 58 Shotra 280 Shraddha 7, 53, 62, 175 Shravana 63, 273 Shreya 119 Shukla 25, 319 Shunyaka 88 Shunyanam 374 Shvetaasvatara Upanishad 288 Siddha 22, 266, 267, 274, 287, 307, 308 Siddhi 5, 16, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 33, 61, 89, 168, 170, 171, 173, 179, 186, 187, 190, 223, 224, 253, 268, 274, 275, 276, 277, 282, 286, 287, 288, 291, 292, 307, 308, 309, 351 Siddhya 186 Smriti 6, 7, 40, 62, 166, 175, 324 So-ham 358 Spanda 194, 358 Stambhavritti 48, 202 Sthirasukhamasanam 192 Sthula 71, 227, 283, 341 Stitha prajna 196, 349 Styana 9, 75 Subheechakhya 355 Shuchi 117 Sukha(-m) 18, 84, 85, 117, 183, 192, 193, 195, 196, 250, 291, 346, 350 Sukha stanam 196 Sukshma 18, 25, 71, 100, 227, 283, 341 Sukshmavishayatvam 100 Sura 33 Surya namaskar 339 Sushumna 260, 263, 264 Sushupti 204, 370 Swabuddhi 349 Swadharma 149, 182, 373 Swadhyaya 12, 15, 17, 66, 79, 93, 109, 115, 123, 124, 160, 161, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 242, 332, 333 Swamiji (Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri) 12, 15, 31, 33, 34, 35, 43, 44, 50, 52, 57, 66, 77, 89, 91, 98, 102, 120, 126, 133, 137, 158, 162, 173, 178, 180, 184, 191, 194, 197, 198, 210, 221, 237, 238, 243, 247, 253, 259, 263, 268, 278, 291, 308, 313, 318, 320, 322, 332, 342, 344, 352 Swanga 180 Swapna 93, 204, 370 Swapna nidra 93 Swarupa 20, 27, 283, 290, 331 Swarupashunyeva 98 Swarupe avasthanam 35 Swasa-praswasa 9, 81 Swaswami 144 Swatmarama 288 Swedaja 311 T Tada 26, 342 Tadgati 258 Tamasica 14, 40, 55, 110, 114, 125, 136, 160, 183, 204, 207, 317, 330, 331, 332 Tamizh Moovayiram 60 Tamovritti 46 Tandava(-m) 113, 228 Tanmatra 89, 138, 232, 284 Tansen 239, 240, 284 Tantra(-m) 25, 175, 324, 339 Tanu 13, 115 Tanukarana 111 Tanumanasa 355 Tapa(-h) 12, 15, 17, 24, 66, 109, 115, 131, 132, 160, 161, 168, 170, 186, 191, 251, 258, 297, 307, 309, 327 Tapatraya 72, 129, 319 Taraka 301 Tasmad yogi bhavarjuna 303 Tattva(-m) 284, 285, 291, 334 Teja 102, 175, 279, 283 Thuriya 204 Thuriyateetha 204 Tirukkural 325 Tirumandiram 60, 277 Tirumoolar 60, 75, 277 Tiruppugazh 277 Tiruvalluvar 325 Tivra samvegin 64 Tri sharira 361 Triguna 54, 130, 131, 136, 204, 331, 332, 334, 343, 349, 369, 370, 373
  27. 27. cccxc Understanding the Yoga Darshan Trikala jnani 25, 177, 299, 330 Trishanku 61 Trivasana 322 Turyaga 355 U Udana 278 Udaranam 13, 115 Udbija 311 Uktam 362 Upaprana 264 Upekshanam 10, 84, 85, 250 V Vachaka(-h) 8, 71, 238 Vairagya 6, 7, 23, 28, 48, 52, 53, 54, 92, 109, 113, 135, 205, 276, 295, 296, 322, 332, 333, 354, 356, 357, 358, 364, 365 Vaishnavite 273 Vajra 288 Vanaprasta 354 Varta 273 Vasana 24, 79, 145, 166, 322, 323, 326, 328, 341, 353 Vashishta (sage) 13, 52, 61, 161, 284, 363 Vashitwa 286 Vasishtha (Yoga) 13, 52, 75, 80, 161, 337, 341, 350, 353, 354, 355, 362, 368, 369, 370, 372 Vastu 43, 53, 334, 336, 339, 341 Vasudaiva kudumbhakam 234 Vayu 259, 264, 278, 279, 281, 283, 284 Veda 3, 204, 268, 345 Vedana 273, 349 Veerya 7, 62, 175 Vibhuti 5, 19, 20, 23, 178, 302, 303 Vibhuti Pada 5, 19, 20, 23, 302 Vicchinna 13, 115 Vichara 7, 56, 99, 362 Vicharana 355 Videha 60, 61, 62, 282, 295 Vikalpa 6, 39, 43, 54, 97 Vikshepa sahabhuvah 80 Vikshipta 44, 218, 230 Viniyoga 225 Viparyaya 6, 39, 42 Vishaya(-m) 47, 92, 100, 301, 352 Vishayati 89 Vishesha 8, 138, 188, 355 Vishnu, Lord 151, 259, 273 Vishoka 91 Vishuddha (chakra) 291 Vishwamitra 61, 284, 297 Vitaraga 92 Vitarka(-h) 7, 56, 99, 163, 165 Viteshana 323 Viveka 13, 14, 119, 149, 150, 152, 276, 295, 332, 349, 364, 365, 370 Viveka khyati 14, 149, 150, 152, 364, 365, 370 Vivekajam 299, 300, 301, 351 Vivekajam jnanam 299, 300, 301, 351 Vivekanimnam 26, 357, 359 Viyoga(-m) 135, 272, 355 Vritti 6, 38, 40, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 54, 96, 106, 136 Vyadhi 9, 50, 75 Y Yama 14, 15, 16, 17, 119, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 163, 165, 168, 176, 226 Yantra 74, 84, 125, 186, 234, 241, 319, 329 Yoga marga 267, 365 Yoga sadhana 5, 14, 15, 17, 23, 73, 187, 200, 275, 295, 339, 343 Yoga yukta 320 Yogabhyasa 365 Yoganga 14, 20, 149, 152, 213, 218 Yoganushasanam 31 Yogarudda 342 Yogi(-c) 8, 9, 25, 54, 60, 61, 81, 88, 106, 114, 122, 130, 133, 135, 136, 143, 152, 158, 181, 186, 187, 193, 194, 201, 203, 213, 234, 240, 246, 248, 262, 264, 265, 274, 277, 280, 287, 288, 289, 292, 294, 303, 312, 318, 319, 320, 327, 356, 358, 365, 374 Yogini 61 Yogyata 19, 87, 181 Yudhisthira 358

×