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Enhancing Awareness of Yoga in Health Professions Education Students through a Single Interactive Session: A Pretest-Posttest Study

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Yogachemmal G Dayanidy's presentation during the Fourth National Conference – Authentic Learning Innovations for 21st Century Medicos – organised by medical education unit of the Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, a constituent college of Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, in Puducherry on 30 June 2018.

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Enhancing Awareness of Yoga in Health Professions Education Students through a Single Interactive Session: A Pretest-Posttest Study

  1. 1. Enhancing Awareness of Yoga in Health Professions Education Students through a Single Interactive Session : A Pretest-Posttest Study Dayanidy G1 ,Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani2 , Meena Ramanathan3 1 Lecturer, CYTER, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Pondicherry-607403, India. 2 Director, CYTER, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Pondicherry-607403, India. 3 Deputy Director, CYTER, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Pondicherry-607403, India.
  2. 2.  All HPE students of SBV receive introductory yoga sessions during the orientation programs conducted by the respective colleges at the beginning of the first year of training in respective streams.
  3. 3. Aim  To determine changes in awareness about yoga in HPE students after a single theoretical and practical session at CYTER.
  4. 4. Material and Methods  367 students (196 F, 171 M) were divided into seven batches and then they participated in yoga sessions at CYTER.
  5. 5.  Yoga Awareness Questionnaire (YAQ) that was pre-validated by ten experts with vast experience in fields of yoga, yogatherapy, medicine, psychology and HPE.  A pre-test and post-test of YAQ was given to them to evaluate the changes in understanding / knowledge about yoga and yoga therapy.
  6. 6. The objectives of the YAQ were: To help students understand the holistic meaning of yoga and to dispel common misconceptions prevalent about it. To introduce technical concepts and terminology used in Yoga. To enhance understanding about Ashtanga Yoga of Maharishi Patanjali. To enhance understanding of yoga as a therapy and to clear common misconceptions including that yoga is a "cure all". To introduce commonly used simple techniques of yoga.
  7. 7.  90 minute session that included theoretical & practice session by the same lecturer.  The theoretical session covered topics including foundations of yoga history, philosophy, as well as important benefits, strengths and limitations of yoga and yoga therapy.
  8. 8.  The practices included basic warming-up practices, asanas such as arthakatichakra, tala, danda, paschimottana, purvottana and pranayams such as the pranava and bhramari. The session ended with relaxation in shavasana with savitri pranayama.
  9. 9.  Corrected pre-test scores calculated:  Responders often choose correct responses to questions that they didn't really know, and to avoid the possibility of such false positives (correct answers by chance in the pre-test), corrected pre- test values were calculated.  Pre-test and post-test answers scrutinized for each responder and If they had answered correctly in pre-test and wrongly in post-test, it was considered false positive.
  10. 10.  Pre-test score of students was revised using this method and corrected pre-test score calculated.  Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad InStat Software. As the data didn't pass normality testing by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used for pre-post comparisons.
  11. 11. Results Students (n) Pre-test Corrected pre-test Post-test Medical 243 4 (1,8) 4 (1,8) 7 (3,10)*** ### Nursing 99 4 (0,7) 3 (0,7) 6 (1,10)*** ### Dental 25 5 (1,8) 4 (1,7) 7 (4,10) *** ### Overall HPE 367 4 (0,8) 4 (0,8) 7 (1,10)*** ### Table 1: Comparison of pre-test, corrected pre-test and post-test scores of a yoga awareness questionnaire answered by students of Health Professions Education (HPE) before and after a single session of yoga theory and practice. Values are given as median (range). ***p<0.001 by Wilcoxon Matched pairs‑ Signed ranks Test for comparisons between pre-test and post-test scores. ###p<‑ 0.001 by Wilcoxon Matched pairs Signed ranks Test for comparisons between‑ ‑ corrected pre-test and post-test.
  12. 12. Fig 1: Comparison of pre-test, corrected pre-test and post-test scores of a yoga awareness questionnaire answered by overall HPE (n=367), first year medical (n=243), nursing (n=99), dental (n=25) students before and after a single session of yoga theory and practice. Values are given as median (range). ***p<0.001 by Wilcoxon Matched pairs Signed ranks Test for comparisons between pre-test and‑ ‑ post-test scores. ###p< 0.001 by Wilcoxon Matched pairs Signed ranks‑ ‑ Test for comparisons between corrected pre-test and post-test.
  13. 13. Discussion  Level of awareness about yoga was initially on the lower side (a median of 4 with range of 0 to 8).  This was consistent in all streams though dental students had a slightly higher score of 5 (1, 8) - may be d/t lesser number in the batch resulting in skewed representation.  Evident in all batches and streams that even a single session resulted in changes to nearly double the pre-test level (a median of 7 with range of 1 to 10).
  14. 14.  Consistent in all batches and streams implying the efficacy of the single session in improving the levels of awareness in HPE students irrespective of their streams of medicine, nursing and dentistry.  Differences between pre-test and post-test were comparable to those between corrected pre-test and post test hence implying that the gain of knowledge during the session was significant.
  15. 15.  Government of India is attempting to bridge traditional systems of AYUSH with modern medicine.  Evidence is imperative towards understanding "best practices" for integration of yoga in HPE.  This study is one of the first to look at this angle and hopefully it will stimulate more such studies in near future.
  16. 16. Personalized feedback from students to the yoga sessions  Really helpful and felt relieved from tension.  Gave a refreshing feel.  Was a good stress relieving session.  Good experience though a bit challenging initially.  Very useful sessions involving various relaxation techniques required by us in our day to day activities.
  17. 17.  Useful to reduce my stress and anxiety.  Looking forward to more classes in the future.  Practice was very easy and comfortable to do.  I learnt many new things about yoga which I didn’t know before.  It makes us feel free and energetic.  After the yoga class I felt good.
  18. 18.  Since, we are hostlers we had no physical exercise but this gave us some. I hope this continues every week.  Shavasana is really good. I liked it very much.  I felt some silence inside my body.  I felt very fresh and enthusiastic.  A nice kind of relaxation.  I felt really good.
  19. 19. Conclusion  It is concluded that even a single session of yoga theory and practice can result in significant improvements of the awareness and knowledge about yoga.  This sets the stage for future short and long term studies on benefits for such students
  20. 20. Thank You

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