Synthetic fuel cells


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Synthetic fuel cells

  1. 1. SYNTHETIC CHEMICAL FUEL Anamika Banerjee MSc – IInd Semester CHM- 805 115217
  2. 2. SYNTHETIC FUEL DEFINITONS Synthetic Feed stocks Any feedstock NOT produced from conventional crude petroleum. Resource can be any burnable material: Coal Biomass Natural gas Synthetic Fuels A generic name given to hydrocarbon fuels produced from natural gas, coal or biomass
  3. 3. A number of synthetic fuel's definitions include fuels produced from biomass, industrial and municipal waste. The definition of synthetic fuel may also consist of oil sands and oil shale as synthetic fuel's sources and in addition to liquid fuels also gaseous fuels are covered. James G. Speight included liquid and gaseous fuels as well as clean solid fuels produced by conversion of coal, oil shale or tar sands, and various forms of biomass.
  4. 4. WHY ARE SYNTHETIC FUELS NEEDED? 5 Reasons for continued production and improvement of synthetic fuels • World has a finite supply of conventional crude oil. • India’s demand for crude oil is steadily increasing • The world jet fuel market is decreasing • National Security and energy independence • Synthetic Fuels help India to reduce dependency on foreign oil.
  5. 5. CRUDE OIL CONSUMPTION Source: EIA (2005)
  6. 6. SYNTHETIC FEEDSTOCK PROCESSES Synthetic Feedstock sources include:  Natural Gas to Liquids  Coal Gasification: Producing synthetic natural gas from Coal  Coal Liquefaction: Conversion of coal to liquid for use as a synthetic fuel.
  7. 7. Alternate crude sources include Shale Oil: Extracted hydrocarbon known as Kerogen from shale (large shale formations Exist in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming) Tar Sands: Extraction of very heavy, asphalt “like” crude oil called Bitumen from grains of sand, or, in some cases, porous carbonate rocks. The U.S. has some tar sands mainly in Utah. The largest deposits are in Canada.
  8. 8. PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC FUELS Synthetic fuels are produced by the chemical process of CONVERSION. Conversion methods could be Direct Conversion into liquid transportation fuels, or Indirect Conversion, in which the source substance is converted initially into syngas which then goes through additional conversion process to become liquid fuels. Basic conversion methods include carbonization & pyrolysis along with hydrogenation & thermal dissolution.
  9. 9. DIRECT CONVERSION Direct conversion refers to processes in which coal or biomass feedstocks are converted directly into intermediate or final products, without going through the intermediate step of conversion to syngas via gasification. Direct conversion processes can be broadly broken up into two different methods: Pyrolysis or Carbonization Hydrogenation
  10. 10. HYDROGENATION PROCESSES One of the main methods of direct conversion of coal to liquids is by hydrogenation process or the Bergius process. In this process, coal is liquefied by mixing it with hydrogen gas and heating the system (hydrogenation). Dry coal is mixed with heavy oil recycled from the process. The reaction can be summarized as follows 2222 HHCHC nnnn 
  11. 11. PYROLYSIS OR CARBONIZATION PROCESSES The carbonization conversion occurs through pyrolysis or destructive distillation, and it produces condensable coal tar, oil and water vapour, non-condensable synthetic gas, and a solid residue-charcoal. The condensed coal tar and oil are then further processed by hydrogenation to remove sulphur and nitrogen species, after which they are processed into fuels. The process was invented by Lewis Cass Karrick in the 1920s. Its a low temperature carbonization where coal is heated at 680 °F (360 °C) to 1,380 °F (750 °C) in the absence of air.
  12. 12. INDIRECT CONVERSION Indirect conversion broadly refers to a process in which biomass, coal, or natural gas is converted to a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide also known as syngas either, through gasification or steam methane reforming, and that syngas is processed into a liquid transportation fuel using one of a number of different conversion techniques depending on the desired end product
  13. 13. 1) FISHER-TROPSCH PROCESS • Fisher-Tropsch (FT) is an emerging technology for Converting synthetic crude to synthetic fuels. Brief History  Developed by Germany during World War II to make gasoline from coal.  Developed out of necessity from a lack of available crude oil.  Modernized in South Africa by SASOL Corporation.
  14. 14. • Converts coal, natural gas, and low-value refinery products into high value, clean burning fuel. • FT offers important emissions benefits compared to conventional fuel. Natural Gas Coal Pet Coke Biomass Wastes Synthesis Gas Production Oxygen Plant Air O2 FT Liquid Synthesis Product Recovery Liquid Fuels Transportation Fuels Tail Gas Power Generation H2 Hydrogen Recovery Wax Hydrocracking Wax Hydrogen Separation Hydrogen Liquid Fuels An Option CO H2 Reference: Review of Responses to RFI on Synthetic Fuel, 31 August 2006 (DESC internal presentation)
  15. 15. 2) SYNTHETIC FUEL FROM BIOMASS Biomass can be any plant derived organic matter, available on a renewable basis including: • Dedicated energy crops and trees • Agricultural food and feed crops • Agricultural crop wastes • Wood wastes and residues • Aquatic Plants • Animal wastes • Municipal wastes and other waste materials.
  16. 16. BIOMASS USAGE  Leading source of renewable energy in U.S. since 1999 .  Provides fuel, heat, electricity, chemicals and other products.  Agricultural and forestry residues most common resource for generating electricity and process steam.  Increases use of crops for biodiesel and ethanol . Source:
  17. 17. BIOMASS PLATFORMS FOR PRODUCING FUELS Source: Office of the Biomass Program-Multiyear Plan 2004 and Beyond, Nov. 2003 Biomass Feed Pretreatment Sugar platform Hydrolysis/ Separation Thermochemical Platform Gasification/ Pyrolysis Sugar Feedstocks Syngas/ Pyrolysis Oils CONVERSION Catalytic Chemical Biological Thermal Biobased Fuels Ethanol, alcohol blends, Fischer-Tropsch Liquids, bio-oils, Biodiesel, fuel additives Oxygenates, hydrogen Biobased Products Replacements for existing commodity chemicals, new commodity chemicals with improved performance and functionality, building blocks for secondary chemicals Electricity and Heat For utilities, from distributed systems using biomass or as a part of a grid-connected biorefinary Residues
  18. 18. SUSTAINABILITY One concern commonly raised about the development of synthetic fuels plants is sustainability. Fundamentally, transitioning from oil to coal or natural gas for transportation fuels production is a transition from one inherently depleteable geologically limited resource to another. One of the positive defining characteristics of synthetic fuels production is the ability to use multiple feedstocks (coal, gas, or biomass) to produce the same product from the same plant.
  19. 19. This provides a path forwards to a renewable fuel source and possibly more sustainable, even if the plant originally produced fuels solely from coal, making the infrastructure forwards-compatible even if the original fossil feedstock runs out.