Present perpect simple vs

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Present perpect simple vs

  1. 1. Present PerfectPresent Perfect SimpleSimple vsvs Past SimplePast Simple
  2. 2. What’s the difference between……? Mary lived in Switzerland for a year. Mary has lived in Switzerland for a year.
  3. 3. The Simple Past is used to refer to a situation that started and finished in the past. It is finished. According to that, in the first example, Mary isn’t living in Switzerland at present.
  4. 4. On the other hand, theOn the other hand, the Present perfectPresent perfect tense is used to refer to a situation thattense is used to refer to a situation that started in the past but continues in thestarted in the past but continues in the present. It isn’t finishedpresent. It isn’t finished So, as far as the second sentence isSo, as far as the second sentence is concerned,concerned, at presentat present MaryMary is still livingis still living inin Switzerland.Switzerland.
  5. 5. What’s the difference between….? Mary went to the USA when she was a child. Mary has been to the USA.
  6. 6. The simple past tense is used to refer to aThe simple past tense is used to refer to a completed action that took place at acompleted action that took place at a particular time in the past and completedparticular time in the past and completed situations which were true over a definitesituations which were true over a definite period of time in the past. The use ofperiod of time in the past. The use of specific past-time adverbials (e.g.,specific past-time adverbials (e.g., yesterdayyesterday,, last yearlast year,, 19901990) makes the past) makes the past tensetense obligatoryobligatory..
  7. 7. Present perfect is used to refer to events which have taken place in our life up to now but the time when they exactly happened is not mentioned. Adverbials such as ever, already (before now/earlier than expected), yet/still (not up to now but expected to happen) and just (a short time ago) usually go with perfect tense.
  8. 8. Look at the following time phrases and decide if they are used with simple past, present perfect or both
  9. 9. Up to now In the last century During Kennedy’s lifetime Over the last hundred years or so For three months Three months ago Lately Recently This is the first time I Today Throughout the 17th century Since the Vietnam War Within the last three months
  10. 10. SIMPLE PAST In the last century during Kennedy’s lifetime Three months ago Throughout the 17th century
  11. 11. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Up to now Over the last hundred years or so This is the first time I Lately Since the Vietnam War Within the last three months
  12. 12. Either Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple • For three months • Recently • Today
  13. 13. What’s the difference between….?  Paula broke her finger yesterday.  Look at Peter, he’s broken his finger!
  14. 14. The simple past is used when giving older information. The present perfect is often used when giving recent news.
  15. 15. To summarise  Past simple is used by speakers to talk about past events which are, or which they regard as, finished and which took place at a particular time in the past.  Present perfect is used by speakers to talk about events which are still current, or which they want to highlight as being incomplete or still relevant as well as to refer to experiences without mentioning when they happened. It can also refer to an event which has recently finished.
  16. 16. Present perfect or simple past? 1. Joji ______ (live) in Tokyo for five years, but he left in 1993. lived 2. The Titanic ________(sink) in 1912. sank 3. Gerry ________ (fall) off his bike three times this month. has fallen 4. Chika ________ (graduate) from university last July. graduated 5. I ________ (see) the movie Titanic three times. I'm going to see it again tonight. have seen 6. Somebody ________(steal) my bicycle! Now I'll have to walk home. has stolen
  17. 17. How do you pronounce the following verbs? Played /d/ Worked /t/ Wanted /Ιd/
  18. 18. What are the rules? There are three rules we should take into account to know how to pronounce the –ed ending: Rule 1: If a present tense verb ends with the sound of a voiced consonant or a vowel sound, the pronunciation in past tense is /d/ Rule 2: If the present tense verb ends with the sound of a voiceless consonant sound (f, k, s, x, sh, ch, or p), the pronunciation in past tense is /t/ Rule 3: If the present tense verb ends with the sound of /t/ or /d/ consonant sound, the pronunciation in past tense is always /id/ Note: it’s the ending sound, not spelling that determines pronunciation.
  19. 19. Which sounds are voiced and which ones voiceless?
  20. 20. Exceptions The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/: • aged /’e .d d/ (old)ɪ ʒɪ • blessed /’bles. d/ (literary: bringing you happiness, luck, or something you need)ɪ • crooked /’kr k. d/ (not forming a straight line; having many sharp bends)ʊ ɪ • dogged /’d g. d/ (very determined to do something, even if it is very difficult)ɒ ɪ • learned /’l .n d/ (formal: describes someone who has studied for a long time and has aɜː ɪ lot of knowledge) • naked /’ne .k d/ (not covered by clothes)ɪ ɪ • ragged /’ræg. d/ ((of clothes) not in good condition; torn, (of a person) untidy, dirty andɪ wearing old torn clothes • wicked /’w k. d/ (old-fashioned: morally wrong and bad ,slightly immoral or bad for you,ɪ ɪ but in an attractive way) • wretched /’ret . d/ (unhappy, unpleasant or of low quality ;used to express anger;very illʃ ɪ or very unhappy
  21. 21. Classify the following verbs according to the pronunciation of the -ed Loved,wished,locked opened,ended,walked, laughed, breathed, failed, handed /d/ /t/ /id/ Loved Opened Breathed Failed Wished Locked Walked Laughed Ended handed
  22. 22. Read the following sentences  She mailed the letter.  They finished early.  He deposited it.  John listened.  The boss talked.  The team rested.  The plumber repaired it.  She stopped working.  He waited.  It tasted great!  I finished late, so I called and ordered food for home.
  23. 23. What’s the difference between….?  They have been reading a book about witches  They have read a book about witches
  24. 24. When we use present perfect continuous, we areWhen we use present perfect continuous, we are interested in the action and,usually, this is notinterested in the action and,usually, this is not finished.finished. On the contrary, if we use present perfectOn the contrary, if we use present perfect simple we are more interested in the result andsimple we are more interested in the result and the action is usually finished.the action is usually finished.
  25. 25. What’s the difference between….? • I have done three exercises so far this evening. • I have been doing exercises since this morning. • We have visited six countries since we left three months ago. • We have been travelling for three months.
  26. 26. To express how much of an activityTo express how much of an activity has been done, not how long, wehas been done, not how long, we use present perfect.use present perfect. On the other hand, when we onlyOn the other hand, when we only mention how long the tense is themention how long the tense is the continuous one.continuous one.

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