EU:s migration policy harmonization securitization


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EU:s migration policy harmonization securitization

  1. 1. European Union’s Migration Policy : Harmonization & Securitization Anamaria Dutceac Segesten CUHK, November 18, 2011
  2. 2. Major questions <ul><li>How does the EU policy ón migration and asylum works? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the process of harmonization? </li></ul><ul><li>Does securitization of migration take place in the EU in the post 9/11 context? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The paradox of integration <ul><li>As the internal borders between member states became continuously weakened, the external borders of the EU became proportionally reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>EU citizens enjoy numerous rights and freedoms, non-EU citizens have very restrictive access </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fortress Europe” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Internal Borders <ul><li>Single market (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of movement, of residence (simplified since 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in mobility of students, but not so much mobility of the work force </li></ul><ul><li>Schengen agreement (most recently Switzerland) Common Visa Policy, Visa Information System (2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions: new members after enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on the freedom of movement in order to protect national labor markets </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral agreements establish deadlines and quotas </li></ul>
  5. 5. External Borders <ul><li>Reinforced via stricter border controls at the entry points into the EU ( Frontex agency) </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to protect and isolate </li></ul><ul><li>Need for import of labor force to compensate for demographic and specialization factors </li></ul><ul><li>Security concerns high on the agenda; also economic and cultural issues </li></ul><ul><li>“ fortress Europe” – a fortress of the rich? </li></ul><ul><li>External Borders Fund- 1.82 billion Euro (2007-2013), helps Schengen Member States to secure Europe’s external borders </li></ul>
  6. 6. Migration <ul><li>Historically, Europe has been both a destination and a departure point </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, Europe increased its force of attraction </li></ul><ul><li>After WWII – 3 phases (Geddes 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Primary labor migration (1950s – 70s): worker migration </li></ul><ul><li>2. Secondary/ family migration (mid 70s – present): unification of families </li></ul><ul><li>3. Third Wave (post Cold War): workers; refugees; asylum seekers </li></ul>
  7. 7. National & Foreign EU populations 2010 Source: Eurostat report
  8. 8. Main countries of birth of persons born outside their country of residence, 2009
  9. 9. Legal Migration <ul><li>Attempt to create a common European policy on migration and asylum </li></ul><ul><li>Tampere I and II programs </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonization of procedures, requirements and standards; common residence policy (long-term residence after 5 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic focus: trained professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Integration policy, anti-discrimination policy </li></ul>
  10. 10. Policy Harmonization <ul><li>Aim: Bring together national regulations and laws </li></ul><ul><li>Explained by the neofunctionalist spillover effect: economic integration and trade -> elimination of internal borders -> freedom of movement for labor -> harmonization of intraeuropean cross-border regulations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Illegal Migration <ul><li>Common European policy on illegal migration </li></ul><ul><li>Information exchange +integrated border mgmt and visa requirement systems </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of nat’l policies </li></ul><ul><li>Larger problem for EU border states, incl. higher costs for border patrolling and control measures -> internal divisions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Asylum seekers and refugees <ul><li>Number of asylum seekers and refugees oscillates proportionally to the number of major intern’l crises </li></ul><ul><li>Point-of-entry regulations apply ( Dublin regulation ) -> diversity of nat’l policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common European Asylum System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a reality, but a goal: deadline 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common definitions, standards and treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. More harmonization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Effective practical cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Increased solidarity and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most recent document: The Stockholm Programme (2009) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Asylum applicants, EU-27, January 2010 – March 2011 Top 5 countries of citizenship of applicants 1 st quarter 2011 Afghanistan - 5 765 Russia - 4 140 Iraq - 3 790 Serbia - 3 775 Kosovo - 3 090 Top 5 countries of destination 1 st quarter 2011 France - 14 335 Germany - 12 035 Belgium - 7 450 UK - 6 360 Sweden - 6 230
  14. 14. First instance decisions by outcome, top Member States, 1st quarter 2011
  15. 15. FRONTEX and Securitization At the same time with the focus on solidarity and responsibility (normative discourse) we observe the practice of securitization The creation of a joint European border control agency, FRONTEX, in 2005. It operationalizes the principle of EU Integrated Border Management. It assists national governments with their own border policies – careful not to infringe too much on state sovereignty. Over time, the budget of FRONTEX grew significantly 2005 - 6.2 million EUR 2006 - 19.2 million EUR 2007 - 22.2 million EUR plus additional 13 million EUR in reserve … 2011 – 86.4 million EUR
  16. 16. Why FRONTEX? <ul><li>Increased pressure at the borders </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a common migration and asylum policy at supranational level </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect harmonization </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven border practices (implementation) </li></ul><ul><li>Migration is an issue sensitive to international context (wars, terrorism) and to domestic politics (rise of xenophobia) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Critical voices
  18. 18. Related issues <ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Labor markets </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural diversity and integration </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement </li></ul>