Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Listening

15,520 views

Published on

Summary of article written by Pat Wilcox Peterson.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • thank you...
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Thank you. It was very helpful
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Thank you so much. And I got helped from your Power Point information. Thank you.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Listening

  1. 1. Skills and Strategies for Proficient Listening <ul><li>Pat Wilcox Peterson </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning to speak a language is very largely a task of learning to hear it” </li></ul><ul><li>(Nida, 1957) </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Only after internalizing some part of the language students should try to speak. </li></ul><ul><li>Reception should precede production because reception enables production. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PREMATURE PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>L1 transfer errors </li></ul><ul><li>the need to produce may interfere with the ability to comprehend </li></ul><ul><li>the overload of task demands produces anxiety </li></ul>
  4. 4. UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES <ul><li>TOP-DOWN processes : context, topic, nature of text and nature of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM-UP processes : sounds, words and phrases in order to decode speech and assign meaning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. PHASES in comprehension <ul><li>Perceptual processing - recognizing sounds, syllables and words. </li></ul><ul><li>Parsing phase - forms meaningful units with words and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization phase – relates old information to new one. </li></ul><ul><li>Then comprehension occurs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Proficiency in comprehension is the ability to fill in the gaps and to create an understanding that meets one’s purpose for listening. </li></ul><ul><li>Even in native language we do not need to hear all the information in a message. </li></ul>
  7. 7. PRINCIPLES FOR LISTENING COMPREHENSION IN THE CLASSROOM <ul><li>Increase the amount of listening time in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Use listening before other activities </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. Include both global (main idea, topic) and selective (form, accuracy) listening </li></ul><ul><li>4. Activate top-level skills (call up background knowledge) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>5. Practise bottom-up processing (overlearning through focus on selected formal features) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Develop conscious listening strategies </li></ul><ul><li>(comprehension processes) </li></ul>
  10. 10. SKILLS AND STRATEGIES <ul><li>SKILLS: subprocesses such as chunking input into syllables, recognizing words, recalling schemata and matching key words to a semantic structure. </li></ul>
  11. 11. SKILLS AND STRATEGIES <ul><li>STRATEGIES: are operations which the learner chooses to use to direct or check his or her own comprehension; so they are under the learner’s conscious control. </li></ul>
  12. 12. STRATEGIES <ul><li>Attending to longer chunks of language and relating new information to what students already know are productive strategies. These help to avoid translation </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>True beginners lack adequate bottom-up processing skills. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to internalize important sound distinctions and categories first. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you understand English? instead of Do you speak English? must be valued. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Global listening selections should be short (1-3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Speak in a simplified code </li></ul><ul><li>Add new material gradually by recombining familiar material </li></ul><ul><li>Give students a task to perform while listening </li></ul><ul><li>Listening exercises can focus on structures or sounds in contrast </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Present theme and situation of the story visually </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate new vocabulary, specially in a personal way </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t slow your speech but make pauses between sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Selective listening activities must bring contrasts and patterns into conscious awareness </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>discriminate between intonation contours in sentences </li></ul><ul><li>discriminate between phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>listen for morphological endings </li></ul><ul><li>recognise syllable patterns, number of syllables, and word stress </li></ul><ul><li>be aware of sentence fillers in informal speech </li></ul><ul><li>select details from the text. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>discriminate between emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>get the gist or main idea of a passage </li></ul><ul><li>recognise the topic </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>use speech features to decide if a statement is formal or informal </li></ul><ul><li>recognize a familiar word and relate it to a category </li></ul><ul><li>compare information in memory with incoming information </li></ul><ul><li>compare information that you hear with your own experience </li></ul>
  19. 19. THE INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENT <ul><li>They have internalized the phonemic system </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on: word recognition, fine differences in word order, grammatical form, registers of speaking and emotional overtones </li></ul><ul><li>They can make predictions and explain relations between events and ideas </li></ul>
  20. 20. SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS <ul><li>Provide authentic texts with: reduced forms, fast speech features, false starts, hesitations, errors, some nonstandard dialects and a variety of different voices </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on: unstressed endings, articles, inflections and function words </li></ul><ul><li>Teach interactive listening strategies </li></ul>
  21. 21. BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – INTERMEDIATE LEVEL <ul><li>Differenciate between content and function words by stress pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Find the stressed syllable </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise words with reduced vowels or dropped syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise words as they are linked in the speech stream </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise pertinent details in the speech stream </li></ul>
  22. 22. TOP-DOWN PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – INTERMEDIATE LEVEL <ul><li>Discriminate between registers of speech and tones of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to identify the speaker or the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Find main ideas and supporting details </li></ul><ul><li>make inferences </li></ul>
  23. 23. INTERACTIVE PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – INTERMEDIATE LEVEL <ul><li>use word stress to understand the speaker’s intention </li></ul><ul><li>recognize missing grammar markers in colloquial speech and reconstruct the message </li></ul><ul><li>use context and knowledge of the world to build listening expectations; listen to confirm expectations </li></ul>
  24. 24. THE ADVANCED LEARNER <ul><li>able to use their second language skills to acquire knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>begins to fill in the gaps and can make inferences </li></ul><ul><li>may miss jokes, slang, and cultural references </li></ul><ul><li>reductions in normal speech are a major comprehension problem </li></ul>
  25. 25. SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS <ul><li>expose learners to reduced speech </li></ul><ul><li>revise stress, pause, pitch, and intonation patterns </li></ul>
  26. 26. BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – ADVANCED LEVEL <ul><li>sentences stress and intonation to identify important information for note taking </li></ul><ul><li>contractions, reduced forms, and other characteristics of spoken English that differ from the written form </li></ul><ul><li>common performance slips must be reinterpreted or ignored </li></ul><ul><li>organizational cues in lecture text </li></ul><ul><li>lexical and suprasegmental markers for definitions </li></ul><ul><li>identify specific points of information </li></ul>
  27. 27. TOP-DOWN PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – ADVANCED LEVEL <ul><li>use knowledge of the topic to predict the content of the text </li></ul><ul><li>use the introduction to the lecture to predict its focus and direction </li></ul><ul><li>use the lecture transcript to predict the content of the next section </li></ul><ul><li>find the main idea of a lecture segment </li></ul><ul><li>recognise point of view </li></ul>
  28. 28. INTERACTIVE PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – ADVANCED LEVEL <ul><li>1. Use knowledge of phrases and discourse markers to predict the content in the next segment of the lecture </li></ul><ul><li>2. Make inferences about the text </li></ul>

×