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Summary of article written by Pat Wilcox Peterson.

Published in: Education, Technology
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  1. 1. Skills and Strategies for Proficient Listening <ul><li>Pat Wilcox Peterson </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning to speak a language is very largely a task of learning to hear it” </li></ul><ul><li>(Nida, 1957) </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Only after internalizing some part of the language students should try to speak. </li></ul><ul><li>Reception should precede production because reception enables production. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PREMATURE PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>L1 transfer errors </li></ul><ul><li>the need to produce may interfere with the ability to comprehend </li></ul><ul><li>the overload of task demands produces anxiety </li></ul>
  4. 4. UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES <ul><li>TOP-DOWN processes : context, topic, nature of text and nature of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>BOTTOM-UP processes : sounds, words and phrases in order to decode speech and assign meaning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. PHASES in comprehension <ul><li>Perceptual processing - recognizing sounds, syllables and words. </li></ul><ul><li>Parsing phase - forms meaningful units with words and sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization phase – relates old information to new one. </li></ul><ul><li>Then comprehension occurs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Proficiency in comprehension is the ability to fill in the gaps and to create an understanding that meets one’s purpose for listening. </li></ul><ul><li>Even in native language we do not need to hear all the information in a message. </li></ul>
  7. 7. PRINCIPLES FOR LISTENING COMPREHENSION IN THE CLASSROOM <ul><li>Increase the amount of listening time in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Use listening before other activities </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. Include both global (main idea, topic) and selective (form, accuracy) listening </li></ul><ul><li>4. Activate top-level skills (call up background knowledge) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>5. Practise bottom-up processing (overlearning through focus on selected formal features) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Develop conscious listening strategies </li></ul><ul><li>(comprehension processes) </li></ul>
  10. 10. SKILLS AND STRATEGIES <ul><li>SKILLS: subprocesses such as chunking input into syllables, recognizing words, recalling schemata and matching key words to a semantic structure. </li></ul>
  11. 11. SKILLS AND STRATEGIES <ul><li>STRATEGIES: are operations which the learner chooses to use to direct or check his or her own comprehension; so they are under the learner’s conscious control. </li></ul>
  12. 12. STRATEGIES <ul><li>Attending to longer chunks of language and relating new information to what students already know are productive strategies. These help to avoid translation </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>True beginners lack adequate bottom-up processing skills. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to internalize important sound distinctions and categories first. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you understand English? instead of Do you speak English? must be valued. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Global listening selections should be short (1-3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Speak in a simplified code </li></ul><ul><li>Add new material gradually by recombining familiar material </li></ul><ul><li>Give students a task to perform while listening </li></ul><ul><li>Listening exercises can focus on structures or sounds in contrast </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Present theme and situation of the story visually </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate new vocabulary, specially in a personal way </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t slow your speech but make pauses between sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Selective listening activities must bring contrasts and patterns into conscious awareness </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>discriminate between intonation contours in sentences </li></ul><ul><li>discriminate between phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>listen for morphological endings </li></ul><ul><li>recognise syllable patterns, number of syllables, and word stress </li></ul><ul><li>be aware of sentence fillers in informal speech </li></ul><ul><li>select details from the text. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>discriminate between emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>get the gist or main idea of a passage </li></ul><ul><li>recognise the topic </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>use speech features to decide if a statement is formal or informal </li></ul><ul><li>recognize a familiar word and relate it to a category </li></ul><ul><li>compare information in memory with incoming information </li></ul><ul><li>compare information that you hear with your own experience </li></ul>
  19. 19. THE INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENT <ul><li>They have internalized the phonemic system </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on: word recognition, fine differences in word order, grammatical form, registers of speaking and emotional overtones </li></ul><ul><li>They can make predictions and explain relations between events and ideas </li></ul>
  20. 20. SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS <ul><li>Provide authentic texts with: reduced forms, fast speech features, false starts, hesitations, errors, some nonstandard dialects and a variety of different voices </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on: unstressed endings, articles, inflections and function words </li></ul><ul><li>Teach interactive listening strategies </li></ul>
  21. 21. BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – INTERMEDIATE LEVEL <ul><li>Differenciate between content and function words by stress pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Find the stressed syllable </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise words with reduced vowels or dropped syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise words as they are linked in the speech stream </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise pertinent details in the speech stream </li></ul>
  22. 22. TOP-DOWN PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – INTERMEDIATE LEVEL <ul><li>Discriminate between registers of speech and tones of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to identify the speaker or the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Find main ideas and supporting details </li></ul><ul><li>make inferences </li></ul>
  23. 23. INTERACTIVE PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – INTERMEDIATE LEVEL <ul><li>use word stress to understand the speaker’s intention </li></ul><ul><li>recognize missing grammar markers in colloquial speech and reconstruct the message </li></ul><ul><li>use context and knowledge of the world to build listening expectations; listen to confirm expectations </li></ul>
  24. 24. THE ADVANCED LEARNER <ul><li>able to use their second language skills to acquire knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>begins to fill in the gaps and can make inferences </li></ul><ul><li>may miss jokes, slang, and cultural references </li></ul><ul><li>reductions in normal speech are a major comprehension problem </li></ul>
  25. 25. SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS <ul><li>expose learners to reduced speech </li></ul><ul><li>revise stress, pause, pitch, and intonation patterns </li></ul>
  26. 26. BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – ADVANCED LEVEL <ul><li>sentences stress and intonation to identify important information for note taking </li></ul><ul><li>contractions, reduced forms, and other characteristics of spoken English that differ from the written form </li></ul><ul><li>common performance slips must be reinterpreted or ignored </li></ul><ul><li>organizational cues in lecture text </li></ul><ul><li>lexical and suprasegmental markers for definitions </li></ul><ul><li>identify specific points of information </li></ul>
  27. 27. TOP-DOWN PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – ADVANCED LEVEL <ul><li>use knowledge of the topic to predict the content of the text </li></ul><ul><li>use the introduction to the lecture to predict its focus and direction </li></ul><ul><li>use the lecture transcript to predict the content of the next section </li></ul><ul><li>find the main idea of a lecture segment </li></ul><ul><li>recognise point of view </li></ul>
  28. 28. INTERACTIVE PROCESSING GOALS – EXERCISE TYPES – ADVANCED LEVEL <ul><li>1. Use knowledge of phrases and discourse markers to predict the content in the next segment of the lecture </li></ul><ul><li>2. Make inferences about the text </li></ul>