Ppt Ch05


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Ppt Ch05

  1. 1. Chapter Five Building Competitive Advantage Through Business-Level Strategy
  2. 2. Business-Level Strategy <ul><li>They must decide on: </li></ul><ul><li>Customer needs – </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT is to be satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Customer groups – </li></ul><ul><li>WHO is to be satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive competencies – </li></ul><ul><li>HOW customers are to be satisfied </li></ul>A successful business model results from business level strategies that create a competitive advantage over its rivals. These decisions determine which strategies are formulated & implemented to put a business model into action.
  3. 3. Customer Needs: Product Differentiation <ul><li>Customer needs </li></ul><ul><li>The desires, wants, or cravings that can be satisfied through product attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Customers choose a product based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The way the product is differentiated from other products of its type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The price of the product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Product differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Designing products to satisfy customers’ needs in ways that competing products cannot: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different ways to achieve distinctiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing differentiation with costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to charge a higher or premium price </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Customer Needs: Market Segmentation <ul><li>Market Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>The way customers can be grouped based on important differences in their needs or preferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to gain a competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Approaches to Segmenting Markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore differences in customer segments – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a product for the typical or average customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize differences between customer groups – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make products that meet the needs of all or most customer groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target specific segments – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose to focus on and serve just one or two selected segment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Identifying Customer Groups and Market Segments Figure 5.1
  6. 6. Three Approaches to Market Segmentation Figure 5.2
  7. 7. Implementing the Business Model <ul><li>To develop a successful business model, strategic managers must devise a set of strategies that determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to DIFFERENTIATE their product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to PRICE their product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to SEGMENT their markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How WIDE A RANGE of products to develop </li></ul></ul>A profitable business model depends on providing the customer with the most value while keeping cost structures viable.
  8. 8. Wal-Mart’s Business Model Figure 5.3
  9. 9. Competitive Positioning at the Business Level Source: Copyright © C. W. L. Hill & G. R. Jones, “The Dynamics of Business-Level Strategy,” (unpublished manuscript, 2002). Maximizing the profitability of the company’s business model is about making the right choices with regard to value creation through differentiation, costs, and pricing. Figure 5.4
  10. 10. Generic Business-Level Strategies <ul><li>Characteristics of Generic Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be pursued by all businesses regardless of whether they are manufacturing, service, or nonprofit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be pursued in different kinds of industry environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from a company’s consistent choices on product, market, and distinctive competencies </li></ul></ul>Specific business-level strategies that give a company a specific competitive position and advantage vis-à-vis its rivals
  11. 11. The Four Principal Generic Business-Level Strategies <ul><li>Cost Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest cost structure vis-à-vis competitors allowing price flexibility & higher profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Cost Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Cost leadership in selected market niches where it has a local or unique cost advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Features important to customers & distinct from competitors that allow premium pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness in selected market niches where it better meets the needs of customers than the broad differentiators </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cost Leadership Generic Business-Level Strategies Cost leaders establish a cost structure that allows them to provide goods and services at lower unit costs than competitors . <ul><li>Strategic Choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost leader does not try to be the industry innovator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost leader positions its products to appeal to the “average” or typical customer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The overriding goal of the cost leader is to increase efficiency and lower its costs relative to industry rivals. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Advantages of Cost Leadership Strategies <ul><li>Protected from industry competitors by cost advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Less affected by increased prices of inputs if there are powerful suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Less affected by a fall in price of inputs if there are powerful buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Purchases in large quantities increase bargaining power over suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to reduce price to compete with substitute products </li></ul><ul><li>Low costs and prices are a barrier to entry </li></ul>Cost leader is able to charge a lower price or is able to achieve superior profitability than its competitors at the same price.
  14. 14. Disadvantages Cost Leadership Strategies <ul><li> Competitors may lower their cost structures. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Competitors may imitate the cost leader’s methods. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Cost reductions may affect demand. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Why Focus Strategies Are Different     Figure 5.7
  16. 16. Focus Generic Business-Level Strategies The focuser strives to serve the need of a targeted niche market segment where it has either a low-cost or differentiated competitive advantage. <ul><li>Strategic Choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The focuser selects a specific market niche that may be based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of customer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segment of product line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused company positions itself as either: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-Cost or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiator </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Advantages: Focus Strategies <ul><li>The focuser is protected from rivals to the extent it can provide a product or service they cannot. </li></ul><ul><li>The focuser has power over buyers because they cannot get the same thing from anyone else. </li></ul><ul><li>The threat of new entrants is limited by customer loyalty to the focuser. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer loyalty lessens the threat from substitutes. </li></ul><ul><li>The focuser stays close to its customers and their changing needs. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Disadvantages: Focus Strategies <ul><li>The focuser is at a disadvantage with regard to powerful suppliers because it buys in small volume but it may be able to pass costs along to loyal customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of low volume, a focuser may have higher costs than a low-cost company. </li></ul><ul><li>The focuser’s niche may disappear because of technological change or changes in customers’ tastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiators will compete for a focuser’s niche. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Companies with a differentiation strategy create a product that is different or distinct from its competitors in an important way. <ul><li>Strategic Choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A differentiator strives to differentiate itself on as many dimensions as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiator focuses on quality, innovation, and responsiveness to customer needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May segment the market in many niches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A differentiated company concentrates on the organizational functions that provide a source of distinct advantages. </li></ul></ul>Differentiation: Generic Business-Level Strategies
  20. 20. Advantages of Differentiation Strategies <ul><li>Customers develop brand loyalty. </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful suppliers are not a problem because the company is geared more toward the price it can charge than its costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiators can pass price increases on to customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful buyers are not a problem because the product is distinct. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation and brand loyalty are barriers to entry. </li></ul><ul><li>The threat of substitute products depends on competitors’ ability to meet customer needs. </li></ul>Differentiators can create demand for their distinct products and charge a premium price, resulting in greater revenue and higher profitability.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Difficulty maintaining long-term distinctiveness in customers’ eyes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agile competitors can quickly imitate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents and first-mover advantage are limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficulty maintaining premium price. </li></ul>Disadvantages of Differentiation Strategies
  22. 22. Broad Differentiation: Cost Leadership and Differentiation <ul><li>A broad differentiation business model may result when a successful differentiator has pursued its strategy in a way that has also allowed it to lower its cost structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Using robots and flexible manufacturing cells reduces costs while producing different products. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardizing component parts used in different end products can achieve economies of scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting customer options reduces production and marketing costs. </li></ul><ul><li>JIT inventory can reduce costs and improve quality and reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Internet and e-commerce can provide information to customers and reduce costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Low-cost and differentiated products are often both produced in countries with low labor costs. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Implications of Strategic Groups for Competitive Positioning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic managers must map their competitors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Map according to their choice of business model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use this knowledge to position themselves closer to customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate themselves from their competitors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the map to better understand changes in the industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting its relative position vis-à-vis differentiation & cost structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To identify opportunities and threats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify emerging threats from companies outside the strategic group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine which strategies are successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why certain business models are working or not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine tune or radically alter business models and strategies to improve competitive position </li></ul></ul>Competitive Positioning: Strategic Groups Strategic Groups are groups of companies that follow a business model similar to other companies within their strategic group, but are different from that of other companies in other strategic groups.
  24. 24. Failures in Competitive Positioning <ul><li>Successful competitive positioning requires that a company achieve a fit between its strategies and its business model. </li></ul><ul><li>Many companies, through neglect, ignorance or error: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not work continually to improve their business model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not perform strategic group analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often fail to identify and respond to changing opportunities and threats in the industry environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Companies lose their position on the value frontier – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have lost their source of competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their rivals have found ways to push out the value-creation frontier and leave them behind </li></ul></ul>There is no more important task than ensuring that the company is optimally positioned against its rivals to compete for customers.