Intel Core i7 Processors

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Intel Core i7 Processors

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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• A Central Processing Unit (CPU), or sometimes just called processor, is a description of a class of logic machines that can execute computer programs.• Intel Core i7 is a family of three Intel desktop processors, the first processors released using the Intel Nehalem micro architecture and the successor to the Intel Core 2 family. All three models are quad-core processors. 2
  3. 3. BASICS• In computer architecture, 32-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are at most 32 bits (4 octets) wide. Hence, 32-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size.• In computer architecture, 64-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are at most 64 bits (8 octets) wide. Also, 64-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size.• In computer engineering, microarchitecture is a description of the electrical circuitry of a computer, central processing unit, or digital signal processor that is sufficient for completely describing the operation of the hardware. 3
  4. 4. FEATURES1. SOCKET : The Socket is a new LGA1366(Socket B) and is incompatible with the previous versions: LGA refers to Land Grid Array, a new type of socket for the latest range of processors. The LGA is used as a physical interface for microprocessors of the Intel Pentium 4, Intel Xeon, Intel Core 2 and AMD Opteron families. Unlike the pin grid array (PGA) interface found on most AMD and older Intel processors, there are no pins on the chip; in place of the pins are pads of bare gold-plated copper that touch pins on the motherboard. Intel supposedly decided to switch to an LGA socket because it provides a larger contact point, allowing, for example, higher clock frequencies. The LGA setup provides higher pin densities, allowing more power contacts and thus a more stable power supply to the chip. 4
  5. 5. 2. ON-DIE MEMORY CONTROLLER : The memory is directly connected to the processor. Three channel memory: each channel can support one or two DDR3 RAM’s. Motherboards for Core i7 have four or six RAM slots. Supports DDR3• DDR3 RAM (double-data-rate three random access memory ) is a random access memory technology used for high speed storage of the working data in the computer.• The benefit of DDR3 is the ability to run its I/O bus at four times the speed of the memory cells it contains, thus enabling faster bus speeds and higher peak throughput than earlier memory technologies.• The DDR3 standard allows for chip capacities of 512 megabits to 8 gigabits, effectively enabling a maximum memory module size of 16 gigabytes.• There is a significant reduction in power consumption. It needs only 1.5V compared to 1.8V for DDR2. 7
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  7. 7. 3. Quick Path Interconnect : The front side bus is replaced by Quick Path interconnect. Motherboards must use a chipset that supports Quick Path. the Front Side Bus (FSB) is the bus that carries data between the CPU and the north bridge. Front side buses serve as a connection between the CPU and the rest of the hardware via a so-called chipset. This chipset is usually divided in a north bridge and a south bridge part, and is the connection point for all other buses in the system Pros: FSB architecture is an aging technology. High flexibility , low cost and no theoretical limit to the number of CPUs that can be placed on a FSB. Cons: In recent years this has been breaking down with increasing use of individual point-to-point buses (see Hyper Transport and Quick Path). The front side bus has been criticized by AMD as being an old and slow technology that bottlenecks todays computer systems. 9
  8. 8.  The Intel QuickPath Interconnect (QPI) is a point-to-point processor interconnect developed by Intel to compete with HyperTransport. It will replace the Front Side Bus (FSB) for Desktop. The speed of data transfer is 25.6 Gbps, almost double that of FSB. 10
  9. 9. 4. Cache Memory 32 KB L1 instruction and 32 KB L1 data cache per core. 256 KB L2 cache (combined instruction and data) per core. 8 MB L3 (combined instruction and data) shared by all cores. 11
  10. 10. (a). Re-implemented Hyper-threading. Each of the four cores can process up to two threads simultaneously, so the processor appears to the OS as eight CPUs. Hyper-threading (officially termed Hyper-Threading Technology or HTT) is an Intel technology used to improve parallelization of computations performed on PC microprocessors.(b). 781M transistors for the quad core version.(c ). Sophisticated power management can place an unused core in a zero-power mode. 12
  11. 11. 5. Support for SSE4.2 & SSE4.1 instruction sets. SSE4 is an instruction set used in the Intel Core microarchitecture and AMD. Intel SSE4 consists of 54 instructions. A subset consisting of 47 instructions, referred to as SSE4.1. Additionally, SSE4.2, a second subset consisting of the 7 remaining instructions, will first be available in Core i7. Clock Speed 1.2 GHz (slowest) & 3.5 Ghz (fastest) or 3.9GHz via Turbo Boost Technology  The processor has a Thermal Design Power of 130W and will slow itself down if the power is exceeded.  The Thermal Design Power (TDP) (sometimes called Thermal Design Point) represents the maximum amount of power the cooling system in a computer is required to dissipate.  The cost per piece is Rs. 47,000 in lots of 1000 units. 13
  12. 12. 6. Overclocking : Overclocking is the process of forcing a computer component to run at a higher clock rate (more clock cycles per second) than it was designed for or was designated by the manufacturer, usually practiced by personal computer enthusiasts in order to increase the performance of their computers. The idea is simple by varying the electrical and physical characteristics of computing systems. The first consideration is to ensure that the component is supplied with adequate power to operate at the new speed. However, supplying the power with improper settings or applying excessive voltage can permanently damage a component. 15
  13. 13.  A chipset is a group of integrated circuits, or chips, that are designed to work together, and are usually marketed as a single product. In personal computers based on Intel Pentium-class microprocessors, the term often refers to a specific pair of chips on the motherboard: the northbridge and the southbridge. The northbridge links the CPU to very high-speed devices, especially main memory and graphics controller The southbridge connects to lower-speed peripheral buses (such as PCI or ISA). In many modern chipsets, the southbridge actually contains some on- chip integrated peripherals, such as Ethernet, USB, and audio devices. A chipset is usually designed to work with a specific family of microprocessors. Because it controls communications between the processor and external devices, the chipset plays a crucial role in determining system performance. 16
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  15. 15.  The northbridge typically handles communications among the CPU, RAM, AGP or PCI Express, and the southbridge. Some northbridges also contain integrated video controllers, also known as a Graphics and Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) in Intel systems. The southbridge is a chip that implements the "slower" capabilities of the motherboard. Because the southbridge is further removed from the CPU, it is given responsibility for the slower devices on a typical microcomputer. 18
  16. 16.  The Intel X58 (codenamed Tylersburg) is an Intel chip designed to connect Intel processors with Intel QuickPath Interconnect (QPI) interface to peripheral devices. Supported processors implement the Nehalem micro architecture and therefore have an integrated memory controller (IMC), so the X58 does not have a memory interface. Except for the lack of a memory interface, the X58 is similar to the traditional Northbridge. Communicates with the processor via the high speed QPI, it communicates with the Southbridge via DMI, and it communicates with high speed peripherals via PCI-E. The X58 is not a memory controller hub (MCH). X58 QuickPath Interconnect port has 20 lanes. 19
  17. 17.  Unlike the FSB, QPI is a point-to-point interface and supports not only processor-chipset interface, but also processor-to-processor connection and chip-to-chip connection. The X58 has two QPIs and can directly connect to two processors on a multi-socket motherboard or form a ring-like connection : (1st processor - x58 - x58 - 2nd processor - 1st processor) I/O Controller Hub (ICH), also known as Intel 82801, is an Intel microchip used as southbridge on motherboards with Intel chipsets (Intel Hub Architecture). As with any other southbridge, the ICH is used to connect and control peripheral devices. 20
  18. 18.  High end motherboard intended mainly for the gamers with the best features of graphics and overclocking. Provides ultra-realistic graphics and high-impact, professional gaming performance. 21
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  20. 20. Desktop LaptopBrand Cores Process Date Cores Process Date Code Name Code name Bloomfield 4 45 nm November 2008 September Lynnfield 4 45 nm September 2009 4 45 nm 2009 Clarksfield Gulftown 6 32 nm July 2010 Arrandale 2 32 nm January 2010 Sandy BridgeCore i7 4 32 nm January 2011 Sandy Bridge 4 32 nm January 2011 Sandy Bridge- E 4/6 32 nm November 2011 Sandy Bridge 2 32 nm February Ivy Bridge (3rd)Ivy Bridge 4 22 nm April 2012 2 22 nm 2011 Haswell 4 22 nm June 2013 May 2012 23
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  22. 22.  Core i7 (Business and HighEnd) Core i5 (Mainstream Consumers) Core i3 (Entry- Level) Celeron Pentium DMI and Integrated GPU 25
  23. 23.  In a test performed on a leaked hardware, the core i7 outperformed the currently fastest core2 extreme processor. It has got the advantages of High Performance, Big Cache Size, Very Fast, Highly Overclockable, Quite Cooling and Power Efficient. Some of the disadvantages include the requirement of newer motherboards, sensitive to higher voltage and cost. The technology keeps on improving as the need for faster and high end applications increases. The 8 core version is about to be released soon. 26
  24. 24.  Threads : 4, 2-4, 8 Simultaneous Threads resp. Cache : 3-4 MB, 3-8 MB, 4-8 MB resp. Hyper-Threading Technology TurboBoost Technology Heat and Energy Efficient MicroAcrcitecture 27
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